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Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2009-06-10 17:21:19 UTC
Update Date2014-12-24 20:22:53 UTC
Accession NumberT3D0859
Identification
Common NameLinamarin
ClassSmall Molecule
DescriptionLinamarin is found in coffee and coffee products. Linamarin occurs in manioc (Manihot utilissimus), flax (Linum usitatissimum), Phaseolus lunatus (butter bean), Trifolium repens (white clover) and other plants. First isloated in 1830.
Compound Type
  • Cyanide Compound
  • Cyanogenic Glycoside
  • Food Toxin
  • Metabolite
  • Natural Compound
  • Nitrile
  • Organic Compound
  • Plant Toxin
Chemical Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Synonym
1-Cyano-1-methylethyl beta-D-glucoside
2-(b-D-Glucopyranosyloxy)-2-methylpropanenitrile, 9CI
2-(beta-D-Glucopyranosyloxy)-2-methyl-Propanenitrile
2-(beta-D-Glucopyranosyloxy)-2-methylpropanenitrile
alpha-Hydroxyisobutyronitrile-beta-D-glucose
Manihotoxin
Phaseolunatin
Chemical FormulaC10H17NO6
Average Molecular Mass247.245 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass247.106 g/mol
CAS Registry Number554-35-8
IUPAC Name2-methyl-2-{[(2S,3R,4S,5S,6R)-3,4,5-trihydroxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)oxan-2-yl]oxy}propanenitrile
Traditional Namelinamarin
SMILES[H][C@]1(O)[C@]([H])(O)[C@@]([H])(CO)O[C@@]([H])(OC(C)(C)C#N)[C@]1([H])O
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/C10H17NO6/c1-10(2,4-11)17-9-8(15)7(14)6(13)5(3-12)16-9/h5-9,12-15H,3H2,1-2H3/t5-,6-,7+,8-,9+/m1/s1
InChI KeyInChIKey=QLTCHMYAEJEXBT-ZEBDFXRSSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as cyanogenic glycosides. These are glycosides in which the aglycone moiety contains a cyanide group.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic oxygen compounds
ClassOrganooxygen compounds
Sub ClassCarbohydrates and carbohydrate conjugates
Direct ParentCyanogenic glycosides
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Cyanogenic glycoside
  • Hexose monosaccharide
  • O-glycosyl compound
  • Monosaccharide
  • Oxane
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Polyol
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Oxacycle
  • Nitrile
  • Carbonitrile
  • Acetal
  • Primary alcohol
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Alcohol
  • Aliphatic heteromonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
  • beta-D-glucoside (CHEBI:16441 )
  • Cyanogenic glucosides derived from valine or isoleucine (C01594 )
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
OriginExogenous
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationsNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
ApplicationsNot Available
Biological RolesNot Available
Chemical RolesNot Available
Physical Properties
StateSolid
AppearanceWhite powder.
Experimental Properties
PropertyValue
Melting Point143 - 144°C
Boiling PointNot Available
SolubilityNot Available
LogPNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility66.8 g/LALOGPS
logP-1.2ALOGPS
logP-1.8ChemAxon
logS-0.57ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)12.21ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-3ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count7ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count4ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area123.17 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count3ChemAxon
Refractivity54.95 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability23.34 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0bu0-9530000000-e58b8985888c18c2b644JSpectraViewer
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (4 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-00di-3121490000-6e31a29cb4593bc0a0f1JSpectraViewer
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, PositiveNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, PositiveNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Linear Ion Trap , negativesplash10-014i-0940000000-bf243e2c29ff6b26fcf2JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Linear Ion Trap , negativesplash10-014i-0950000000-79243dda9f61101991c6JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Linear Ion Trap , positivesplash10-0udi-0910000000-1f3450a50f0470bcbca4JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Linear Ion Trap , positivesplash10-0udi-0910000000-a1faa4a6e57a8ab98259JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Linear Ion Trap , positivesplash10-0006-0390000000-dbccc3f4d1e4a414e258JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Linear Ion Trap , positivesplash10-0006-0390000000-790cec5ee5082b154919JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-00ks-9150000000-21a7a562083ca747be69JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-014r-9000000000-41f560bdd8b351dbae10JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-014i-9000000000-218d76388b6e2adf862bJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-00l2-9260000000-8d2767506ce49eb7251aJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-001i-9110000000-036fd16f5b6281c51d5bJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-00lr-9000000000-2ef6f32d0883a3ce35e2JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-0002-0290000000-04e466e80fc34a31711fJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-014j-9430000000-938a48430e27b76573bbJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0api-9000000000-13d670ae474f26ad1b06JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-0002-1970000000-9f82b8d658576c297dd8JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-014u-9400000000-bc1ee3aa7d00ae291fb1JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0uxu-9000000000-b040996bb0528ff70807JSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureOral
Mechanism of ToxicityOrganic nitriles decompose into cyanide ions both in vivo and in vitro. Consequently the primary mechanism of toxicity for organic nitriles is their production of toxic cyanide ions or hydrogen cyanide. Cyanide is an inhibitor of cytochrome c oxidase in the fourth complex of the electron transport chain (found in the membrane of the mitochondria of eukaryotic cells). It complexes with the ferric iron atom in this enzyme. The binding of cyanide to this cytochrome prevents transport of electrons from cytochrome c oxidase to oxygen. As a result, the electron transport chain is disrupted and the cell can no longer aerobically produce ATP for energy. Tissues that mainly depend on aerobic respiration, such as the central nervous system and the heart, are particularly affected. Cyanide is also known produce some of its toxic effects by binding to catalase, glutathione peroxidase, methemoglobin, hydroxocobalamin, phosphatase, tyrosinase, ascorbic acid oxidase, xanthine oxidase, succinic dehydrogenase, and Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase. Cyanide binds to the ferric ion of methemoglobin to form inactive cyanmethemoglobin. (3)
MetabolismUpon exposure to enzymes and gut flora in the human intestine, linamarin can decompose to the toxic chemical hydrogen cyanide. This occurs via the enzyme linamarase, which is found in the cell wall of the plant. Chewing of the plant allows the enzyme to contact the linamarin, converting it into acetone cyanohydrin, which then spontaneously decomposes to hydrogen cyanide. Ingested and absorbed linamarin is rapidly excreted in the urine and the glucoside itself does not appear to be acutely toxic. (4) Organic nitriles are converted into cyanide ions through the action of cytochrome P450 enzymes in the liver. Cyanide is rapidly absorbed and distributed throughout the body. Cyanide is mainly metabolized into thiocyanate by either rhodanese or 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfur transferase. Cyanide metabolites are excreted in the urine. (2)
Toxicity ValuesNot Available
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)No indication of carcinogenicity to humans (not listed by IARC).
Uses/SourcesLinamarin is a cyanogenic glucoside found in the leaves and roots of plants such as cassava, lima beans, and flax. (4)
Minimum Risk LevelNot Available
Health EffectsIngestion of food prepared from insufficiently processed cassava roots with high linamarin levels has been associated with dietary toxicity, particularly with the upper motor neuron disease known as konzo to the African populations. Dietary exposure to linamarin has also been reported as a risk factor in developing glucose intolerance and diabetes. (4)
SymptomsCyanide poisoning is identified by rapid, deep breathing and shortness of breath, general weakness, giddiness, headaches, vertigo, confusion, convulsions/seizures and eventually loss of consciousness. (2, 3)
TreatmentNot Available
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDNot Available
HMDB IDHMDB33699
PubChem Compound ID11128
ChEMBL IDCHEMBL3039425
ChemSpider ID10657
KEGG IDC01594
UniProt IDNot Available
OMIM ID
ChEBI ID16441
BioCyc IDNot Available
CTD IDC005091
Stitch IDLinamarin
PDB IDNot Available
ACToR IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkLinamarin
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
MSDSNot Available
General References
  1. Yannai, Shmuel. (2004) Dictionary of food compounds with CD-ROM: Additives, flavors, and ingredients. Boca Raton: Chapman & Hall/CRC.
  2. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2006). Toxicological profile for cyanide. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
  3. Wikipedia. Cyanide poisoning. Last Updated 30 March 2009. [Link]
  4. Wikipedia. Linamarin. Last Updated 11 May 2009. [Link]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated GenesNot Available
Down-Regulated GenesNot Available

Targets

General Function:
Metal ion binding
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ALPPL2
Uniprot ID:
P10696
Molecular Weight:
57376.515 Da
References
  1. Gerbitz KD: Human alkaline phosphatases. II. Metalloenzyme properties of the enzyme from human liver. Hoppe Seylers Z Physiol Chem. 1977 Nov;358(11):1491-7. [924371 ]
General Function:
Pyrophosphatase activity
Specific Function:
This isozyme may play a role in skeletal mineralization.
Gene Name:
ALPL
Uniprot ID:
P05186
Molecular Weight:
57304.435 Da
References
  1. Gerbitz KD: Human alkaline phosphatases. II. Metalloenzyme properties of the enzyme from human liver. Hoppe Seylers Z Physiol Chem. 1977 Nov;358(11):1491-7. [924371 ]
General Function:
Receptor binding
Specific Function:
Occurs in almost all aerobically respiring organisms and serves to protect cells from the toxic effects of hydrogen peroxide. Promotes growth of cells including T-cells, B-cells, myeloid leukemia cells, melanoma cells, mastocytoma cells and normal and transformed fibroblast cells.
Gene Name:
CAT
Uniprot ID:
P04040
Molecular Weight:
59755.82 Da
References
  1. Kang YS, Lee DH, Yoon BJ, Oh DC: Purification and characterization of a catalase from photosynthetic bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum S1 grown under anaerobic conditions. J Microbiol. 2006 Apr;44(2):185-91. [16728955 ]
General Function:
Iron ion binding
Specific Function:
Cytochrome c oxidase is the component of the respiratory chain that catalyzes the reduction of oxygen to water. Subunits 1-3 form the functional core of the enzyme complex. CO I is the catalytic subunit of the enzyme. Electrons originating in cytochrome c are transferred via the copper A center of subunit 2 and heme A of subunit 1 to the bimetallic center formed by heme A3 and copper B.
Gene Name:
MT-CO1
Uniprot ID:
P00395
Molecular Weight:
57040.91 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Cyanide poisoning. Last Updated 30 March 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Cytochrome-c oxidase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochrome c oxidase is the component of the respiratory chain that catalyzes the reduction of oxygen to water. Subunits 1-3 form the functional core of the enzyme complex. Subunit 2 transfers the electrons from cytochrome c via its binuclear copper A center to the bimetallic center of the catalytic subunit 1.
Gene Name:
MT-CO2
Uniprot ID:
P00403
Molecular Weight:
25564.73 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Cyanide poisoning. Last Updated 30 March 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Cytochrome-c oxidase activity
Specific Function:
Subunits I, II and III form the functional core of the enzyme complex.
Gene Name:
MT-CO3
Uniprot ID:
P00414
Molecular Weight:
29950.6 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Cyanide poisoning. Last Updated 30 March 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Cytochrome-c oxidase activity
Specific Function:
This protein is one of the nuclear-coded polypeptide chains of cytochrome c oxidase, the terminal oxidase in mitochondrial electron transport.
Gene Name:
COX4I1
Uniprot ID:
P13073
Molecular Weight:
19576.6 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Cyanide poisoning. Last Updated 30 March 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Cytochrome-c oxidase activity
Specific Function:
This protein is one of the nuclear-coded polypeptide chains of cytochrome c oxidase, the terminal oxidase in mitochondrial electron transport.
Gene Name:
COX4I2
Uniprot ID:
Q96KJ9
Molecular Weight:
20010.02 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Cyanide poisoning. Last Updated 30 March 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Metal ion binding
Specific Function:
This is the heme A-containing chain of cytochrome c oxidase, the terminal oxidase in mitochondrial electron transport.
Gene Name:
COX5A
Uniprot ID:
P20674
Molecular Weight:
16761.985 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Cyanide poisoning. Last Updated 30 March 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Metal ion binding
Specific Function:
This protein is one of the nuclear-coded polypeptide chains of cytochrome c oxidase, the terminal oxidase in mitochondrial electron transport.
Gene Name:
COX5B
Uniprot ID:
P10606
Molecular Weight:
13695.57 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Cyanide poisoning. Last Updated 30 March 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Cytochrome-c oxidase activity
Specific Function:
This protein is one of the nuclear-coded polypeptide chains of cytochrome c oxidase, the terminal oxidase in mitochondrial electron transport.
Gene Name:
COX6A1
Uniprot ID:
P12074
Molecular Weight:
12154.8 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Cyanide poisoning. Last Updated 30 March 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Cytochrome-c oxidase activity
Specific Function:
This protein is one of the nuclear-coded polypeptide chains of cytochrome c oxidase, the terminal oxidase in mitochondrial electron transport.
Gene Name:
COX6A2
Uniprot ID:
Q02221
Molecular Weight:
10815.32 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Cyanide poisoning. Last Updated 30 March 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Cytochrome-c oxidase activity
Specific Function:
Connects the two COX monomers into the physiological dimeric form.
Gene Name:
COX6B1
Uniprot ID:
P14854
Molecular Weight:
10192.345 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Cyanide poisoning. Last Updated 30 March 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Cytochrome-c oxidase activity
Specific Function:
Connects the two COX monomers into the physiological dimeric form.
Gene Name:
COX6B2
Uniprot ID:
Q6YFQ2
Molecular Weight:
10528.905 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Cyanide poisoning. Last Updated 30 March 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Cytochrome-c oxidase activity
Specific Function:
This protein is one of the nuclear-coded polypeptide chains of cytochrome c oxidase, the terminal oxidase in mitochondrial electron transport.
Gene Name:
COX6C
Uniprot ID:
P09669
Molecular Weight:
8781.36 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Cyanide poisoning. Last Updated 30 March 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Cytochrome-c oxidase activity
Specific Function:
This protein is one of the nuclear-coded polypeptide chains of cytochrome c oxidase, the terminal oxidase in mitochondrial electron transport.
Gene Name:
COX7A1
Uniprot ID:
P24310
Molecular Weight:
9117.44 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Cyanide poisoning. Last Updated 30 March 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Cytochrome-c oxidase activity
Specific Function:
This protein is one of the nuclear-coded polypeptide chains of cytochrome c oxidase, the terminal oxidase in mitochondrial electron transport.
Gene Name:
COX7A2
Uniprot ID:
P14406
Molecular Weight:
9395.89 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Cyanide poisoning. Last Updated 30 March 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Cytochrome-c oxidase activity
Specific Function:
This protein is one of the nuclear-coded polypeptide chains of cytochrome c oxidase, the terminal oxidase in mitochondrial electron transport. Plays a role in proper central nervous system (CNS) development in vertebrates.
Gene Name:
COX7B
Uniprot ID:
P24311
Molecular Weight:
9160.485 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Cyanide poisoning. Last Updated 30 March 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Cytochrome-c oxidase activity
Specific Function:
This protein is one of the nuclear-coded polypeptide chains of cytochrome c oxidase, the terminal oxidase in mitochondrial electron transport.
Gene Name:
COX7B2
Uniprot ID:
Q8TF08
Molecular Weight:
9077.43 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Cyanide poisoning. Last Updated 30 March 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Cytochrome-c oxidase activity
Specific Function:
This protein is one of the nuclear-coded polypeptide chains of cytochrome c oxidase, the terminal oxidase in mitochondrial electron transport.
Gene Name:
COX7C
Uniprot ID:
P15954
Molecular Weight:
7245.45 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Cyanide poisoning. Last Updated 30 March 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Cytochrome-c oxidase activity
Specific Function:
This protein is one of the nuclear-coded polypeptide chains of cytochrome c oxidase, the terminal oxidase in mitochondrial electron transport.
Gene Name:
COX8A
Uniprot ID:
P10176
Molecular Weight:
7579.0 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Cyanide poisoning. Last Updated 30 March 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Cytochrome-c oxidase activity
Specific Function:
This protein is one of the nuclear-coded polypeptide chains of cytochrome c oxidase, the terminal oxidase in mitochondrial electron transport.
Gene Name:
COX8C
Uniprot ID:
Q7Z4L0
Molecular Weight:
8128.575 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Cyanide poisoning. Last Updated 30 March 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Glutathione peroxidase activity
Specific Function:
Protects cells and enzymes from oxidative damage, by catalyzing the reduction of hydrogen peroxide, lipid peroxides and organic hydroperoxide, by glutathione. May constitute a glutathione peroxidase-like protective system against peroxide damage in sperm membrane lipids.
Gene Name:
GPX5
Uniprot ID:
O75715
Molecular Weight:
25202.14 Da
References
  1. Kraus RJ, Ganther HE: Reaction of cyanide with glutathione peroxidase. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1980 Oct 16;96(3):1116-22. [7437059 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Protect the extracellular space from toxic effect of reactive oxygen intermediates by converting superoxide radicals into hydrogen peroxide and oxygen.
Gene Name:
SOD3
Uniprot ID:
P08294
Molecular Weight:
25850.675 Da
References
  1. Lee WG, Hwang JH, Na BK, Cho JH, Lee HW, Cho SH, Kong Y, Song CY, Kim TS: Functional expression of a recombinant copper/zinc superoxide dismutase of filarial nematode, Brugia malayi. J Parasitol. 2005 Feb;91(1):205-8. [15856906 ]
General Function:
Sh3 domain binding
Specific Function:
Protects the hemoglobin in erythrocytes from oxidative breakdown.
Gene Name:
GPX1
Uniprot ID:
P07203
Molecular Weight:
22087.94 Da
References
  1. Kraus RJ, Ganther HE: Reaction of cyanide with glutathione peroxidase. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1980 Oct 16;96(3):1116-22. [7437059 ]
General Function:
Glutathione peroxidase activity
Specific Function:
Could play a major role in protecting mammals from the toxicity of ingested organic hydroperoxides. Tert-butyl hydroperoxide, cumene hydroperoxide and linoleic acid hydroperoxide but not phosphatidycholine hydroperoxide, can act as acceptors.
Gene Name:
GPX2
Uniprot ID:
P18283
Molecular Weight:
21953.835 Da
References
  1. Kraus RJ, Ganther HE: Reaction of cyanide with glutathione peroxidase. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1980 Oct 16;96(3):1116-22. [7437059 ]
General Function:
Transcription factor binding
Specific Function:
Protects cells and enzymes from oxidative damage, by catalyzing the reduction of hydrogen peroxide, lipid peroxides and organic hydroperoxide, by glutathione.
Gene Name:
GPX3
Uniprot ID:
P22352
Molecular Weight:
25552.185 Da
References
  1. Kraus RJ, Ganther HE: Reaction of cyanide with glutathione peroxidase. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1980 Oct 16;96(3):1116-22. [7437059 ]
General Function:
Glutathione peroxidase activity
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
GPX6
Uniprot ID:
P59796
Molecular Weight:
24970.46 Da
References
  1. Kraus RJ, Ganther HE: Reaction of cyanide with glutathione peroxidase. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1980 Oct 16;96(3):1116-22. [7437059 ]
General Function:
Peroxidase activity
Specific Function:
It protects esophageal epithelia from hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress. It suppresses acidic bile acid-induced reactive oxigen species (ROS) and protects against oxidative DNA damage and double-strand breaks.
Gene Name:
GPX7
Uniprot ID:
Q96SL4
Molecular Weight:
20995.88 Da
References
  1. Kraus RJ, Ganther HE: Reaction of cyanide with glutathione peroxidase. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1980 Oct 16;96(3):1116-22. [7437059 ]
General Function:
Nadp binding
Specific Function:
Maintains high levels of reduced glutathione in the cytosol.
Gene Name:
GSR
Uniprot ID:
P00390
Molecular Weight:
56256.565 Da
References
  1. Ardelt BK, Borowitz JL, Isom GE: Brain lipid peroxidation and antioxidant protectant mechanisms following acute cyanide intoxication. Toxicology. 1989 Jun 1;56(2):147-54. [2734799 ]
General Function:
Phospholipid-hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase activity
Specific Function:
Protects cells against membrane lipid peroxidation and cell death. Required for normal sperm development and male fertility. Could play a major role in protecting mammals from the toxicity of ingested lipid hydroperoxides. Essential for embryonic development. Protects from radiation and oxidative damage.
Gene Name:
GPX4
Uniprot ID:
P36969
Molecular Weight:
22174.52 Da
References
  1. Kraus RJ, Ganther HE: Reaction of cyanide with glutathione peroxidase. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1980 Oct 16;96(3):1116-22. [7437059 ]
General Function:
Peroxidase activity
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
GPX8
Uniprot ID:
Q8TED1
Molecular Weight:
23880.83 Da
References
  1. Kraus RJ, Ganther HE: Reaction of cyanide with glutathione peroxidase. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1980 Oct 16;96(3):1116-22. [7437059 ]
General Function:
Xenobiotic transporter activity
Specific Function:
Facilitative glucose transporter. This isoform may be responsible for constitutive or basal glucose uptake. Has a very broad substrate specificity; can transport a wide range of aldoses including both pentoses and hexoses.
Gene Name:
SLC2A1
Uniprot ID:
P11166
Molecular Weight:
54083.325 Da
References
  1. Sreeja VG, Nagahara N, Li Q, Minami M: New aspects in pathogenesis of konzo: neural cell damage directly caused by linamarin contained in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz). Br J Nutr. 2003 Aug;90(2):467-72. [12908909 ]
General Function:
Sugar:proton symporter activity
Specific Function:
Facilitative glucose transporter.
Gene Name:
SLC2A10
Uniprot ID:
O95528
Molecular Weight:
56910.77 Da
References
  1. Sreeja VG, Nagahara N, Li Q, Minami M: New aspects in pathogenesis of konzo: neural cell damage directly caused by linamarin contained in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz). Br J Nutr. 2003 Aug;90(2):467-72. [12908909 ]
General Function:
Substrate-specific transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Facilitative glucose transporter.
Gene Name:
SLC2A11
Uniprot ID:
Q9BYW1
Molecular Weight:
53702.055 Da
References
  1. Sreeja VG, Nagahara N, Li Q, Minami M: New aspects in pathogenesis of konzo: neural cell damage directly caused by linamarin contained in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz). Br J Nutr. 2003 Aug;90(2):467-72. [12908909 ]
General Function:
Substrate-specific transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Facilitative glucose transporter.
Gene Name:
SLC2A12
Uniprot ID:
Q8TD20
Molecular Weight:
66965.7 Da
References
  1. Sreeja VG, Nagahara N, Li Q, Minami M: New aspects in pathogenesis of konzo: neural cell damage directly caused by linamarin contained in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz). Br J Nutr. 2003 Aug;90(2):467-72. [12908909 ]
General Function:
Hexose transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Facilitative glucose transporter. This isoform likely mediates the bidirectional transfer of glucose across the plasma membrane of hepatocytes and is responsible for uptake of glucose by the beta cells; may comprise part of the glucose-sensing mechanism of the beta cell. May also participate with the Na(+)/glucose cotransporter in the transcellular transport of glucose in the small intestine and kidney.
Gene Name:
SLC2A2
Uniprot ID:
P11168
Molecular Weight:
57488.955 Da
References
  1. Sreeja VG, Nagahara N, Li Q, Minami M: New aspects in pathogenesis of konzo: neural cell damage directly caused by linamarin contained in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz). Br J Nutr. 2003 Aug;90(2):467-72. [12908909 ]
General Function:
Glucose transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Facilitative glucose transporter that can also mediate the uptake of various other monosaccharides across the cell membrane (PubMed:9477959, PubMed:26176916). Mediates the uptake of glucose, 2-deoxyglucose, galactose, mannose, xylose and fucose, and probably also dehydroascorbate (PubMed:9477959, PubMed:26176916). Does not mediate fructose transport (PubMed:9477959, PubMed:26176916).
Gene Name:
SLC2A3
Uniprot ID:
P11169
Molecular Weight:
53923.785 Da
References
  1. Sreeja VG, Nagahara N, Li Q, Minami M: New aspects in pathogenesis of konzo: neural cell damage directly caused by linamarin contained in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz). Br J Nutr. 2003 Aug;90(2):467-72. [12908909 ]
General Function:
Glucose transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Insulin-regulated facilitative glucose transporter.
Gene Name:
SLC2A4
Uniprot ID:
P14672
Molecular Weight:
54786.79 Da
References
  1. Sreeja VG, Nagahara N, Li Q, Minami M: New aspects in pathogenesis of konzo: neural cell damage directly caused by linamarin contained in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz). Br J Nutr. 2003 Aug;90(2):467-72. [12908909 ]
General Function:
Glucose transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Cytochalasin B-sensitive carrier. Seems to function primarily as a fructose transporter.
Gene Name:
SLC2A5
Uniprot ID:
P22732
Molecular Weight:
54973.42 Da
References
  1. Sreeja VG, Nagahara N, Li Q, Minami M: New aspects in pathogenesis of konzo: neural cell damage directly caused by linamarin contained in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz). Br J Nutr. 2003 Aug;90(2):467-72. [12908909 ]
General Function:
Glucose transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Facilitative glucose transporter; binds cytochalasin B with low affinity.
Gene Name:
SLC2A6
Uniprot ID:
Q9UGQ3
Molecular Weight:
54538.55 Da
References
  1. Sreeja VG, Nagahara N, Li Q, Minami M: New aspects in pathogenesis of konzo: neural cell damage directly caused by linamarin contained in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz). Br J Nutr. 2003 Aug;90(2):467-72. [12908909 ]
General Function:
Substrate-specific transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
High-affinity transporter for glucose and fructose Does not transport galactose, 2-deoxy-d-glucose and xylose.
Gene Name:
SLC2A7
Uniprot ID:
Q6PXP3
Molecular Weight:
55726.915 Da
References
  1. Sreeja VG, Nagahara N, Li Q, Minami M: New aspects in pathogenesis of konzo: neural cell damage directly caused by linamarin contained in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz). Br J Nutr. 2003 Aug;90(2):467-72. [12908909 ]
General Function:
Glucose transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Insulin-regulated facilitative glucose transporter. Binds cytochalasin B in a glucose-inhibitable manner. Seems to be a dual-specific sugar transporter as it is inhibitable by fructose (By similarity).
Gene Name:
SLC2A8
Uniprot ID:
Q9NY64
Molecular Weight:
50818.54 Da
References
  1. Sreeja VG, Nagahara N, Li Q, Minami M: New aspects in pathogenesis of konzo: neural cell damage directly caused by linamarin contained in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz). Br J Nutr. 2003 Aug;90(2):467-72. [12908909 ]
General Function:
Sugar:proton symporter activity
Specific Function:
Transport urate and fructose. May have a role in the urate reabsorption by proximal tubules. Also transports glucose at low rate.
Gene Name:
SLC2A9
Uniprot ID:
Q9NRM0
Molecular Weight:
58701.205 Da
References
  1. Sreeja VG, Nagahara N, Li Q, Minami M: New aspects in pathogenesis of konzo: neural cell damage directly caused by linamarin contained in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz). Br J Nutr. 2003 Aug;90(2):467-72. [12908909 ]
General Function:
Ubiquinone binding
Specific Function:
Membrane-anchoring subunit of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) that is involved in complex II of the mitochondrial electron transport chain and is responsible for transferring electrons from succinate to ubiquinone (coenzyme Q).
Gene Name:
SDHD
Uniprot ID:
O14521
Molecular Weight:
17042.82 Da
References
  1. Ardelt BK, Borowitz JL, Isom GE: Brain lipid peroxidation and antioxidant protectant mechanisms following acute cyanide intoxication. Toxicology. 1989 Jun 1;56(2):147-54. [2734799 ]
General Function:
Succinate dehydrogenase activity
Specific Function:
Flavoprotein (FP) subunit of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) that is involved in complex II of the mitochondrial electron transport chain and is responsible for transferring electrons from succinate to ubiquinone (coenzyme Q). Can act as a tumor suppressor.
Gene Name:
SDHA
Uniprot ID:
P31040
Molecular Weight:
72690.975 Da
References
  1. Ardelt BK, Borowitz JL, Isom GE: Brain lipid peroxidation and antioxidant protectant mechanisms following acute cyanide intoxication. Toxicology. 1989 Jun 1;56(2):147-54. [2734799 ]
General Function:
Ubiquinone binding
Specific Function:
Iron-sulfur protein (IP) subunit of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) that is involved in complex II of the mitochondrial electron transport chain and is responsible for transferring electrons from succinate to ubiquinone (coenzyme Q).
Gene Name:
SDHB
Uniprot ID:
P21912
Molecular Weight:
31629.365 Da
References
  1. Ardelt BK, Borowitz JL, Isom GE: Brain lipid peroxidation and antioxidant protectant mechanisms following acute cyanide intoxication. Toxicology. 1989 Jun 1;56(2):147-54. [2734799 ]
General Function:
Succinate dehydrogenase activity
Specific Function:
Membrane-anchoring subunit of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) that is involved in complex II of the mitochondrial electron transport chain and is responsible for transferring electrons from succinate to ubiquinone (coenzyme Q).
Gene Name:
SDHC
Uniprot ID:
Q99643
Molecular Weight:
18610.03 Da
References
  1. Ardelt BK, Borowitz JL, Isom GE: Brain lipid peroxidation and antioxidant protectant mechanisms following acute cyanide intoxication. Toxicology. 1989 Jun 1;56(2):147-54. [2734799 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Destroys radicals which are normally produced within the cells and which are toxic to biological systems.
Gene Name:
SOD1
Uniprot ID:
P00441
Molecular Weight:
15935.685 Da
References
  1. Lee WG, Hwang JH, Na BK, Cho JH, Lee HW, Cho SH, Kong Y, Song CY, Kim TS: Functional expression of a recombinant copper/zinc superoxide dismutase of filarial nematode, Brugia malayi. J Parasitol. 2005 Feb;91(1):205-8. [15856906 ]
General Function:
Protein homodimerization activity
Specific Function:
This is a copper-containing oxidase that functions in the formation of pigments such as melanins and other polyphenolic compounds. Catalyzes the rate-limiting conversions of tyrosine to DOPA, DOPA to DOPA-quinone and possibly 5,6-dihydroxyindole to indole-5,6 quinone.
Gene Name:
TYR
Uniprot ID:
P14679
Molecular Weight:
60392.69 Da
References
  1. Laufer Z, Beckett RP, Minibayeva FV: Co-occurrence of the multicopper oxidases tyrosinase and laccase in lichens in sub-order peltigerineae. Ann Bot. 2006 Nov;98(5):1035-42. Epub 2006 Sep 1. [16950829 ]