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Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2009-06-17 23:53:00 UTC
Update Date2014-12-24 20:22:57 UTC
Accession NumberT3D0926
Identification
Common NameBendiocarb
ClassSmall Molecule
DescriptionBendiocarb is a carbamate pesticide. Bendiocarb is a carbamate insecticide. Carbamate pesticides are derived from carbamic acid and kill insects in a similar fashion as organophosphate insecticides. They are widely used in homes, gardens and agriculture. All bendiocarb-containing products in the United States were recently cancelled, after its manufacturers voluntarily chose to pull their products off the market, rather than conduct additional safety studies required by the EPA. In other countries, Bendiocarb is still used in homes, industrial plants, and food storage sites to control bedbugs, mosquitoes, flies, wasps, ants, fleas, cockroaches, silverfish, and ticks but can be used against a wide variety of insects as well as snails and slugs. It is one of 12 insecticides recommended by the World Health Organization for use in malaria control. Most of the carbamates are extremely toxic to Hymenoptera, and precautions must be taken to avoid exposure to foraging bees or parasitic wasps.
Compound Type
  • Amine
  • Carbamate
  • Ester
  • Food Toxin
  • Industrial/Workplace Toxin
  • Insecticide
  • Organic Compound
  • Pesticide
  • Synthetic Compound
Chemical Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Synonym
1,3-Benzodioxol-4-ol, 2,2-dimethyl-, methylcarbamate
2,2-Dimethyl-1,3-benzdioxol-4-yl N-methylcarbamate
2,2-Dimethyl-1,3-benzodioxol-4-ol methylcarbamate
2,2-Dimethyl-1,3-benzodioxol-4-yl methylcarbamate
2,2-dimethyl-1,3-benzodioxole-N-methylcarbamate
2,2-dimethyl-4-(methylcarbamoyloxy)-1,3-benzodioxole
2,2-Dimethylbenzo-1,3-dioxol-4-yl methylcarbamate
2,3-Isopropylidene-dioxyphenyl methylcarbamate
2,3-Isopropylidenedioxyphenyl methylcarbamate
Bencarbate
Bendiocarbamate
Bendiocarbe
Dycarb
Ficam
Ficam 80 W
FICAM 80W
Ficam b
Ficam d
Ficam plus
Ficam ulv
Ficam ulv' ul
Ficam w
Ficam z
Fisons NC 6897
FUAM
Garvox
Methylcarbamic acid 2,3-(isopropylidenedioxy)phenyl ester
Multamat
Multimet
Niomil
RCRA waste no. U278
Rotate
Sedox
Seedox
Seedox 80W
Seedox SC
Seedoxin
Tatoo
Tattoo
Turcam
Chemical FormulaC11H13NO4
Average Molecular Mass223.225 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass223.084 g/mol
CAS Registry Number22781-23-3
IUPAC Name2,2-dimethyl-2H-1,3-benzodioxol-4-yl N-methylcarbamate
Traditional Namebendiocarb
SMILESCNC(=O)OC1=CC=CC2=C1OC(C)(C)O2
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/C11H13NO4/c1-11(2)15-8-6-4-5-7(9(8)16-11)14-10(13)12-3/h4-6H,1-3H3,(H,12,13)
InChI KeyInChIKey=XEGGRYVFLWGFHI-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as benzodioxoles. These are organic compounds containing a benzene ring fused to either isomers of dioxole. Dioxole is a five-membered unsaturated ring of two oxygen atoms and three carbon atoms.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganoheterocyclic compounds
ClassBenzodioxoles
Sub ClassNot Available
Direct ParentBenzodioxoles
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Benzodioxole
  • Ketal
  • Benzenoid
  • Carbamic acid ester
  • Carbonic acid derivative
  • Oxacycle
  • Acetal
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
OriginExogenous
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationsNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
Applications
Biological Roles
Chemical Roles
Physical Properties
StateSolid
AppearanceWhite powder.
Experimental Properties
PropertyValue
Melting Point129.5°C
Boiling PointNot Available
Solubility0.26 mg/mL at 25°C [USDA PESTICIDE PROPERTIES DATABASE]
LogPNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility2.39 g/LALOGPS
logP1.53ALOGPS
logP1.57ChemAxon
logS-2ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)14.76ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-4.8ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area56.79 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count2ChemAxon
Refractivity56.39 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability22.59 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-01b9-4970000000-3f323afd9f10568bbbe8JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-0aor-3910000000-750ff9ee81afc648efa9JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0a6r-9600000000-f5c34e6a6eaefb01451eJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-0ab9-9550000000-ebe6168ce90681e76228JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-0aor-7920000000-7ca3158aef0e02a4717dJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0aor-9400000000-aba2ddc92bd8439a43b0JSpectraViewer
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-0udi-5900000000-4e6a18c5310b2dfe28d3JSpectraViewer | MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureInhalation (2) ; oral (2); dermal (2)
Mechanism of ToxicityBendiocarb is a cholinesterase or acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor. Carbamates form unstable complexes with chlolinesterases by carbamoylation of the active sites of the enzymes. This inhibition is reversible. A cholinesterase inhibitor suppresses the action of acetylcholine esterase. Because of its essential function, chemicals that interfere with the action of acetylcholine esterase are potent neurotoxins, causing excessive salivation and eye-watering in low doses. Headache, salivation, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain and diarrhea are often prominent at higher levels of exposure. Acetylcholine esterase breaks down the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, which is released at nerve and muscle junctions, in order to allow the muscle or organ to relax. The result of acetylcholine esterase inhibition is that acetylcholine builds up and continues to act so that any nerve impulses are continually transmitted and muscle contractions do not stop.
MetabolismThe carbamates are hydrolyzed enzymatically by the liver; degradation products are excreted by the kidneys and the liver. (2)
Toxicity ValuesLD50: 50 mg/kg (Oral, Rat); LD50: 700 mg/kg (Dermal, Rat); LD50 35-40 mg/kg (Oral, Rabbits); LD50: 35 mg/kg (Oral, Guinea Pigs) (4)
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)No indication of carcinogenicity to humans (not listed by IARC).
Uses/SourcesPesticide, widely used in agriculture production.
Minimum Risk LevelNot Available
Health EffectsAcute exposure to cholinesterase inhibitors can cause a cholinergic crisis characterized by severe nausea/vomiting, salivation, sweating, bradycardia, hypotension, collapse, and convulsions. Increasing muscle weakness is a possibility and may result in death if respiratory muscles are involved. Accumulation of ACh at motor nerves causes overstimulation of nicotinic expression at the neuromuscular junction. When this occurs symptoms such as muscle weakness, fatigue, muscle cramps, fasciculation, and paralysis can be seen. When there is an accumulation of ACh at autonomic ganglia this causes overstimulation of nicotinic expression in the sympathetic system. Symptoms associated with this are hypertension, and hypoglycemia. Overstimulation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the central nervous system, due to accumulation of ACh, results in anxiety, headache, convulsions, ataxia, depression of respiration and circulation, tremor, general weakness, and potentially coma. When there is expression of muscarinic overstimulation due to excess acetylcholine at muscarinic acetylcholine receptors symptoms of visual disturbances, tightness in chest, wheezing due to bronchoconstriction, increased bronchial secretions, increased salivation, lacrimation, sweating, peristalsis, and urination can occur. Chronically high (>10 years) exposure leads to neuropsychological consequences including disturbances in perception and visuo-motor processing (1).
SymptomsAs with organophosphates, the signs and symptoms are based on excessive cholinergic stimulation. Unlike organophosphate poisoning, carbamate poisonings tend to be of shorter duration because the inhibition of nervous tissue acetylcholinesterase is reversible, and carbamates are more rapidly metabolized. Muscle weakness, dizziness, sweating and slight body discomfort are commonly reported early symptoms. Headache, salivation, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain and diarrhea are often prominent at higher levels of exposure. Contraction of the pupils with blurred vision, incoordination, muscle twitching and slurred speech have been reported. (3)
TreatmentIf the compound has been ingested, rapid gastric lavage should be performed using 5% sodium bicarbonate. For skin contact, the skin should be washed with soap and water. If the compound has entered the eyes, they should be washed with large quantities of isotonic saline or water. In serious cases, atropine and/or pralidoxime should be administered. Anti-cholinergic drugs work to counteract the effects of excess acetylcholine and reactivate AChE. Atropine can be used as an antidote in conjunction with pralidoxime or other pyridinium oximes (such as trimedoxime or obidoxime), though the use of '-oximes' has been found to be of no benefit, or possibly harmful, in at least two meta-analyses. Atropine is a muscarinic antagonist, and thus blocks the action of acetylcholine peripherally.
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDNot Available
HMDB IDNot Available
PubChem Compound ID2314
ChEMBL IDNot Available
ChemSpider IDNot Available
KEGG IDC14433
UniProt IDNot Available
OMIM ID
ChEBI ID34556
BioCyc IDNot Available
CTD IDC007725
Stitch IDBendiocarb
PDB IDNot Available
ACToR ID7721
Wikipedia LinkNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
MSDST3D0926.pdf
General References
  1. Roldan-Tapia L, Nieto-Escamez FA, del Aguila EM, Laynez F, Parron T, Sanchez-Santed F: Neuropsychological sequelae from acute poisoning and long-term exposure to carbamate and organophosphate pesticides. Neurotoxicol Teratol. 2006 Nov-Dec;28(6):694-703. Epub 2006 Aug 30. [17029710 ]
  2. IPCS Intox Database (1987). Antimony pentoxide. [Link]
  3. Fishel F (2009). Pesticide Toxicity Profile: Carbamate Pesticides. University of Florida, IFAS Extension. [Link]
  4. NPIC - Bendiocarb Technical Fact Sheet [Link]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated GenesNot Available
Down-Regulated GenesNot Available

Targets

General Function:
Identical protein binding
Specific Function:
Esterase with broad substrate specificity. Contributes to the inactivation of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Can degrade neurotoxic organophosphate esters.
Gene Name:
BCHE
Uniprot ID:
P06276
Molecular Weight:
68417.575 Da
References
  1. Fishel F (2009). Pesticide Toxicity Profile: Carbamate Pesticides. University of Florida, IFAS Extension. [Link]
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. This enzyme contributes to the wide pharmacokinetics variability of the metabolism of drugs such as S-warfarin, diclofenac, phenytoin, tolbutamide and losartan.
Gene Name:
CYP2C9
Uniprot ID:
P11712
Molecular Weight:
55627.365 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC500.01 uMCLZD_CYP2C9_6CellzDirect
AC500.01 uMCLZD_CYP2C9_6CellzDirect
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Serine hydrolase activity
Specific Function:
Terminates signal transduction at the neuromuscular junction by rapid hydrolysis of the acetylcholine released into the synaptic cleft. Role in neuronal apoptosis.
Gene Name:
ACHE
Uniprot ID:
P22303
Molecular Weight:
67795.525 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC501.90 uMNVS_ENZ_hAChENovascreen
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Serine hydrolase activity
Specific Function:
Terminates signal transduction at the neuromuscular junction by rapid hydrolysis of the acetylcholine released into the synaptic cleft. Role in neuronal apoptosis.
Gene Name:
ACHE
Uniprot ID:
P22303
Molecular Weight:
67795.525 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC504.09 uMNVS_ENZ_hAChENovascreen
AC501.90 uMNVS_ENZ_hAChENovascreen
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Platelet-derived growth factor binding
Specific Function:
Collagen type III occurs in most soft connective tissues along with type I collagen. Involved in regulation of cortical development. Is the major ligand of GPR56 in the developing brain and binding to GPR56 inhibits neuronal migration and activates the RhoA pathway by coupling GPR56 to GNA13 and possibly GNA12.
Gene Name:
COL3A1
Uniprot ID:
P02461
Molecular Weight:
138564.005 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC504.44 uMBSK_hDFCGF_CollagenIII_upBioSeek
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Type iii transforming growth factor beta receptor binding
Specific Function:
Multifunctional protein that controls proliferation, differentiation and other functions in many cell types. Many cells synthesize TGFB1 and have specific receptors for it. It positively and negatively regulates many other growth factors. It plays an important role in bone remodeling as it is a potent stimulator of osteoblastic bone formation, causing chemotaxis, proliferation and differentiation in committed osteoblasts. Can promote either T-helper 17 cells (Th17) or regulatory T-cells (Treg) lineage differentiation in a concentration-dependent manner. At high concentrations, leads to FOXP3-mediated suppression of RORC and down-regulation of IL-17 expression, favoring Treg cell development. At low concentrations in concert with IL-6 and IL-21, leads to expression of the IL-17 and IL-23 receptors, favoring differentiation to Th17 cells.
Gene Name:
TGFB1
Uniprot ID:
P01137
Molecular Weight:
44340.685 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC504.44 uMBSK_BE3C_TGFb1_downBioSeek
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Urokinase plasminogen activator receptor activity
Specific Function:
Acts as a receptor for urokinase plasminogen activator. Plays a role in localizing and promoting plasmin formation. Mediates the proteolysis-independent signal transduction activation effects of U-PA. It is subject to negative-feedback regulation by U-PA which cleaves it into an inactive form.
Gene Name:
PLAUR
Uniprot ID:
Q03405
Molecular Weight:
36977.62 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC504.44 uMBSK_3C_uPAR_downBioSeek
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Acts as a 1,4-cineole 2-exo-monooxygenase.
Gene Name:
CYP2B6
Uniprot ID:
P20813
Molecular Weight:
56277.81 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC505.64 uMCLZD_CYP2B6_6CellzDirect
AC505.34 uMCLZD_CYP2B6_24CellzDirect
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]