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Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2009-06-17 23:53:01 UTC
Update Date2014-12-24 20:22:58 UTC
Accession NumberT3D0940
Identification
Common NameCarbaril
ClassSmall Molecule
DescriptionCarbaril is a carbamate pesticide. Carbamate pesticides are derived from carbamic acid and kill insects in a similar fashion as organophosphate insecticides. They are widely used in homes, gardens and agriculture. The first carbamate, carbaryl, was introduced in 1956 and more of it has been used throughout the world than all other carbamates combined. Because of carbaryl's relatively low mammalian oral and dermal toxicity and broad control spectrum, it has had wide use in lawn and garden settings. Most of the carbamates are extremely toxic to Hymenoptera, and precautions must be taken to avoid exposure to foraging bees or parasitic wasps. Some of the carbamates are translocated within plants, making them an effective systemic treatment. (4)
Compound Type
  • Amine
  • Carbamate
  • Ester
  • Household Toxin
  • Organic Compound
  • Pesticide
  • Pollutant
  • Synthetic Compound
Chemical Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Synonym
1-Naphthalenol methylcarbamate
1-Naphthalenol, methylcarbamate
1-Naphthalenyl methylcarbamate
1-Naphthol N-methylcarbamate
1-Naphthyl methylcarbamate
1-Naphthyl N-methylcarbamate
1-Naphthyl N-methylcarbamateacid O,O-diethyl ester
18, Concentrat VO
a-naftyl-n-methylkarbamat
a-naphthalenyl methylcarbamate
a-naphthyl methylcarbamate
a-naphthyl n-methylcarbamate
Alpha-naphthalenyl methylcarbamate
Alpha-naphthyl methylcarbamate
Alpha-naphthyl n-methylcarbamate
alpha.Naftyl-n-methylkarbamat
alpha.Naphthalenyl methylcarbamate
alpha.Naphthyl methylcarbamate
alpha.Naphthyl n-methylcarbamate
Antigale
Arilat
Arilate
Arylam
Atoxan
Avicopharma brand of carbaril
Bercema NMC50
Bug master
Caprolin
Carbamic acid, methyl-, naphthalenyl ester
Carbamic acid, N-methyl,1-naphthyl ester
Carbamic-14C acid, methyl-, 1-naphthyl ester
Carbamine
Carbaril avicopharma brand
Carbaril biov brand
Carbaril coophavet brand
Carbaril intraveno brand
Carbaril mavlab brand
Carbaril novartis brand
Carbaril ornis brand
Carbaril sanofi brand
Carbaril sogeval brand
Carbaril virbac brand
Carbaril vtoquinol brand
Carbarilo
Carbarilum
Carbaryl
Carbaryl (sevin)
Carbaryl solution
Carbaryl, Manganese (2+) Salt
Carbaryl, Nickel (2+) Salt
Carbatox
Carbatox 75
Carbatox-60
Carbatox-75
Carbavur
Carbomate
Carbyl
Carpolin
Carylderm
Caswell No. 160
Cekubaryl
Clinicide
Compound 7744
Concentrat VO 18
Coophavet brand of carbaril
Crag sevin
Crunch
David veterinary laboratories brand of carbaril
Denapon
Derbac
Devicarb
Dicarbam
Dicarbament 23,969
Dog net insecticide poudre
Dog-net insecticide poudre
Dognet insecticide poudre
Dyna-carbyl
Experimental Insecticide 7744
Fido's free itch
Fido's free-itch
Fido's freeitch
Flea and tick powder
G wizz
Gamonil
Gwizz
Hexavin
Insecticide moureau, poudre
Insecticide vetoquinol, poudre
Intraveno brand of carbaril
Joseph LYDDY
Karbaryl
Karbaspray
Karbatox
Karbatox 75
Karbatox zawiesinowy
Karbosep
Kid pest project (carbaryl) (see also carbaryl)
Mavlab brand of carbaril
Menaphtam
Methylcarbamat of e 1-naphthol
Methylcarbamate 1-naphthalenol
Methylcarbamate 1-naphthol
Methylcarbamate, 1-naphthalenol
Methylcarbamic acid, 1-naphthyl ester
Microcarb
Monsur
Moureau, poudre insecticide
Mugan
Murvin
Murvin 85
N-methyl naphthylcarbamate
N-methyl-.alpha.-naphthylcarbamate
N-methyl-.alpha.-naphthylurethan
N-Methyl-1-naphthyl carbamate
N-methyl-a-naphthylcarbamate
N-methyl-a-naphthylurethan
N-methyl-alpha-naphthylcarbamate
N-methyl-alpha-naphthylurethan
NAC
naphthalen-1-yl methylcarbamate
Naphthalenol, methylcarbamate
Naphthyl n-methylcarbamate
Noflo 5 vet
Novartis brand of carbaril
O-(1-Naphthyl)-N-methylcarbamat
Occoxil
Olititox
Oltitox
Ornis brand of carbaril
Panam
Pomex
Poudre insecticide moureau
Poudre insecticide vetoquinol
Poutic
Prosevor 85
Ravyon
Rylam
Sanofi brand of carbaril
Savit
Seffein
Septene
Sevimol
Sevin
Sevin (carbaryl)
Sevin 4
Sevin brand SL
Sewin
Skatta tick flea louse powder
Sogeval brand of carbaril
SOK
Suleo
Tercyl
Thinsec
Tigal
Tolyspaz
Tomado
Tornado
Toxan
Tricarnam
Union Carbide 7,744
Vetoquinol, poudre insecticide
Vetox
Vioxan
Virbac brand of carbaril
VO 18, Concentrat
Wasp destroyer
Chemical FormulaC12H11NO2
Average Molecular Mass201.221 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass201.079 g/mol
CAS Registry Number63-25-2
IUPAC Namenaphthalen-1-yl N-methylcarbamate
Traditional Namecarbaryl
SMILESCNC(=O)OC1=C2C=CC=CC2=CC=C1
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/C12H11NO2/c1-13-12(14)15-11-8-4-6-9-5-2-3-7-10(9)11/h2-8H,1H3,(H,13,14)
InChI KeyInChIKey=CVXBEEMKQHEXEN-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of chemical entities known as naphthalenes. These are compounds containing a naphthalene moiety, which consists of two fused benzene rings.
KingdomChemical entities
Super ClassOrganic compounds
ClassBenzenoids
Sub ClassNaphthalenes
Direct ParentNaphthalenes
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Naphthalene
  • Carbamic acid ester
  • Carbonic acid derivative
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Aromatic homopolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic homopolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
OriginExogenous
Cellular Locations
  • Membrane
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationsNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
Applications
Biological Roles
Chemical Roles
Physical Properties
StateSolid
AppearanceWhite powder.
Experimental Properties
PropertyValue
Melting Point145°C
Boiling PointNot Available
Solubility0.11 mg/mL at 22°C [USDA PESTICIDE PROPERTIES DATABASE]
LogPNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.0914 mg/mLALOGPS
logP2.45ALOGPS
logP2.46ChemAxon
logS-3.3ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)14.77ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area38.33 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count2ChemAxon
Refractivity57.21 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability21.12 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-0f6t-4970000000-f34a6a4b130cb9b4d1b0View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-0002-3910000000-7ef7bd590aab9c8b1fa7View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0kbb-9700000000-edce70d41273d856d2e7View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-0pb9-9450000000-47f0242f016e80a36b6bView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-0a4l-7920000000-1b72ab1698a1572b484dView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0006-4900000000-dfb9ade22f39eb2f59deView in MoNA
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-00kf-2900000000-cd5941ba48c8a1e6e58aView in MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot Available
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureInhalation (3) ; oral (3); dermal (3)
Mechanism of ToxicityCarbaril is a cholinesterase or acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor. Carbamates form unstable complexes with chlolinesterases by carbamoylation of the active sites of the enzymes. This inhibition is reversible. A cholinesterase inhibitor suppresses the action of acetylcholine esterase. Because of its essential function, chemicals that interfere with the action of acetylcholine esterase are potent neurotoxins, causing excessive salivation and eye-watering in low doses. Headache, salivation, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain and diarrhea are often prominent at higher levels of exposure. Acetylcholine esterase breaks down the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, which is released at nerve and muscle junctions, in order to allow the muscle or organ to relax. The result of acetylcholine esterase inhibition is that acetylcholine builds up and continues to act so that any nerve impulses are continually transmitted and muscle contractions do not stop.
MetabolismThe carbamates are hydrolyzed enzymatically by the liver; degradation products are excreted by the kidneys and the liver. (3)
Toxicity ValuesLD50: 230 mg/kg (Oral, Rat) (2) LD50: 4000 mg/kg (Dermal, Rat) (2) LD50: 64 mg/kg (Intraperitoneal, Rat) (2) LD50: 1400 mg/kg (Subcutaneous, Rat) (2) LD50: 41 900 ug/kg (Intravenous, Rat) (2)
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)3, not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans. (5)
Uses/SourcesCarbaril is widely used as an insecticide or pesticide in homes, gardens and agricultural applications. It is a synthetic compound.
Minimum Risk LevelNot Available
Health EffectsAcute exposure to cholinesterase inhibitors can cause a cholinergic crisis characterized by severe nausea/vomiting, salivation, sweating, bradycardia, hypotension, collapse, and convulsions. Increasing muscle weakness is a possibility and may result in death if respiratory muscles are involved. Accumulation of ACh at motor nerves causes overstimulation of nicotinic expression at the neuromuscular junction. When this occurs symptoms such as muscle weakness, fatigue, muscle cramps, fasciculation, and paralysis can be seen. When there is an accumulation of ACh at autonomic ganglia this causes overstimulation of nicotinic expression in the sympathetic system. Symptoms associated with this are hypertension, and hypoglycemia. Overstimulation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the central nervous system, due to accumulation of ACh, results in anxiety, headache, convulsions, ataxia, depression of respiration and circulation, tremor, general weakness, and potentially coma. When there is expression of muscarinic overstimulation due to excess acetylcholine at muscarinic acetylcholine receptors symptoms of visual disturbances, tightness in chest, wheezing due to bronchoconstriction, increased bronchial secretions, increased salivation, lacrimation, sweating, peristalsis, and urination can occur. Chronically high (>10 years) exposure leads to neuropsychological consequences including disturbances in perception and visuo-motor processing (1).
SymptomsAs with organophosphates, the signs and symptoms are based on excessive cholinergic stimulation. Unlike organophosphate poisoning, carbamate poisonings tend to be of shorter duration because the inhibition of nervous tissue acetylcholinesterase is reversible, and carbamates are more rapidly metabolized. Muscle weakness, dizziness, sweating and slight body discomfort are commonly reported early symptoms. Headache, salivation, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain and diarrhea are often prominent at higher levels of exposure. Contraction of the pupils with blurred vision, incoordination, muscle twitching and slurred speech have been reported. (4)
TreatmentIf the compound has been ingested, rapid gastric lavage should be performed using 5% sodium bicarbonate. For skin contact, the skin should be washed with soap and water. If the compound has entered the eyes, they should be washed with large quantities of isotonic saline or water. In serious cases, atropine and/or pralidoxime should be administered. Anti-cholinergic drugs work to counteract the effects of excess acetylcholine and reactivate AChE. Atropine can be used as an antidote in conjunction with pralidoxime or other pyridinium oximes (such as trimedoxime or obidoxime), though the use of '-oximes' has been found to be of no benefit, or possibly harmful, in at least two meta-analyses. Atropine is a muscarinic antagonist, and thus blocks the action of acetylcholine peripherally.
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDNot Available
HMDB IDNot Available
PubChem Compound ID6129
ChEMBL IDCHEMBL46917
ChemSpider ID5899
KEGG IDC07491
UniProt IDNot Available
OMIM ID
ChEBI ID3390
BioCyc IDNot Available
CTD IDD012721
Stitch IDCarbaril
PDB IDNot Available
ACToR ID250
Wikipedia LinkNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
MSDST3D0940.pdf
General References
  1. Roldan-Tapia L, Nieto-Escamez FA, del Aguila EM, Laynez F, Parron T, Sanchez-Santed F: Neuropsychological sequelae from acute poisoning and long-term exposure to carbamate and organophosphate pesticides. Neurotoxicol Teratol. 2006 Nov-Dec;28(6):694-703. Epub 2006 Aug 30. [17029710 ]
  2. Lewis RJ (1996). Sax's Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials. 9th ed. Volumes 1-3. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold.
  3. IPCS Intox Database (1987). Antimony pentoxide. [Link]
  4. Fishel F (2009). Pesticide Toxicity Profile: Carbamate Pesticides. University of Florida, IFAS Extension. [Link]
  5. International Agency for Research on Cancer (2014). IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. [Link]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated Genes
GeneGene SymbolGene IDInteractionChromosomeDetails
Down-Regulated Genes
GeneGene SymbolGene IDInteractionChromosomeDetails

Targets

General Function:
Fatty acid amide hydrolase activity
Specific Function:
Degrades bioactive fatty acid amides like oleamide, the endogenous cannabinoid, anandamide and myristic amide to their corresponding acids, thereby serving to terminate the signaling functions of these molecules. Hydrolyzes polyunsaturated substrate anandamide preferentially as compared to monounsaturated substrates.
Gene Name:
FAAH
Uniprot ID:
O00519
Molecular Weight:
63065.28 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
IC50>30 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50128572
References
  1. Seierstad M, Breitenbucher JG: Discovery and development of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitors. J Med Chem. 2008 Dec 11;51(23):7327-43. doi: 10.1021/jm800311k. [18983142 ]
  2. Otrubova K, Ezzili C, Boger DL: The discovery and development of inhibitors of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2011 Aug 15;21(16):4674-85. doi: 10.1016/j.bmcl.2011.06.096. Epub 2011 Jun 28. [21764305 ]
General Function:
Serine hydrolase activity
Specific Function:
Terminates signal transduction at the neuromuscular junction by rapid hydrolysis of the acetylcholine released into the synaptic cleft. Role in neuronal apoptosis.
Gene Name:
ACHE
Uniprot ID:
P22303
Molecular Weight:
67795.525 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
IC503.1 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50128572
References
  1. Tarzia G, Duranti A, Tontini A, Piersanti G, Mor M, Rivara S, Plazzi PV, Park C, Kathuria S, Piomelli D: Design, synthesis, and structure-activity relationships of alkylcarbamic acid aryl esters, a new class of fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibitors. J Med Chem. 2003 Jun 5;46(12):2352-60. [12773040 ]
General Function:
Identical protein binding
Specific Function:
Esterase with broad substrate specificity. Contributes to the inactivation of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Can degrade neurotoxic organophosphate esters.
Gene Name:
BCHE
Uniprot ID:
P06276
Molecular Weight:
68417.575 Da
References
  1. Fishel F (2009). Pesticide Toxicity Profile: Carbamate Pesticides. University of Florida, IFAS Extension. [Link]
General Function:
Ubiquitin protein ligase binding
Specific Function:
Receptor tyrosine kinase binding ligands of the EGF family and activating several signaling cascades to convert extracellular cues into appropriate cellular responses. Known ligands include EGF, TGFA/TGF-alpha, amphiregulin, epigen/EPGN, BTC/betacellulin, epiregulin/EREG and HBEGF/heparin-binding EGF. Ligand binding triggers receptor homo- and/or heterodimerization and autophosphorylation on key cytoplasmic residues. The phosphorylated receptor recruits adapter proteins like GRB2 which in turn activates complex downstream signaling cascades. Activates at least 4 major downstream signaling cascades including the RAS-RAF-MEK-ERK, PI3 kinase-AKT, PLCgamma-PKC and STATs modules. May also activate the NF-kappa-B signaling cascade. Also directly phosphorylates other proteins like RGS16, activating its GTPase activity and probably coupling the EGF receptor signaling to the G protein-coupled receptor signaling. Also phosphorylates MUC1 and increases its interaction with SRC and CTNNB1/beta-catenin.Isoform 2 may act as an antagonist of EGF action.
Gene Name:
EGFR
Uniprot ID:
P00533
Molecular Weight:
134276.185 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC501.48 uMBSK_hDFCGF_EGFR_upBioSeek
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Type iii transforming growth factor beta receptor binding
Specific Function:
Multifunctional protein that controls proliferation, differentiation and other functions in many cell types. Many cells synthesize TGFB1 and have specific receptors for it. It positively and negatively regulates many other growth factors. It plays an important role in bone remodeling as it is a potent stimulator of osteoblastic bone formation, causing chemotaxis, proliferation and differentiation in committed osteoblasts. Can promote either T-helper 17 cells (Th17) or regulatory T-cells (Treg) lineage differentiation in a concentration-dependent manner. At high concentrations, leads to FOXP3-mediated suppression of RORC and down-regulation of IL-17 expression, favoring Treg cell development. At low concentrations in concert with IL-6 and IL-21, leads to expression of the IL-17 and IL-23 receptors, favoring differentiation to Th17 cells.
Gene Name:
TGFB1
Uniprot ID:
P01137
Molecular Weight:
44340.685 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC501.48 uMBSK_BE3C_TGFb1_upBioSeek
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Cleaves collagens of types I, II, and III at one site in the helical domain. Also cleaves collagens of types VII and X. In case of HIV infection, interacts and cleaves the secreted viral Tat protein, leading to a decrease in neuronal Tat's mediated neurotoxicity.
Gene Name:
MMP1
Uniprot ID:
P03956
Molecular Weight:
54006.61 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC504.44 uMBSK_hDFCGF_MMP1_upBioSeek
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Prostaglandin e receptor activity
Specific Function:
Receptor for prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). The activity of this receptor is mediated by G(s) proteins that stimulate adenylate cyclase. The subsequent raise in intracellular cAMP is responsible for the relaxing effect of this receptor on smooth muscle.
Gene Name:
PTGER2
Uniprot ID:
P43116
Molecular Weight:
39759.945 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC504.44 uMBSK_LPS_PGE2_downBioSeek
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Primary amine oxidase activity
Specific Function:
Important in cell-cell recognition. Appears to function in leukocyte-endothelial cell adhesion. Interacts with integrin alpha-4/beta-1 (ITGA4/ITGB1) on leukocytes, and mediates both adhesion and signal transduction. The VCAM1/ITGA4/ITGB1 interaction may play a pathophysiologic role both in immune responses and in leukocyte emigration to sites of inflammation.
Gene Name:
VCAM1
Uniprot ID:
P19320
Molecular Weight:
81275.43 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC504.44 uMBSK_hDFCGF_VCAM1_downBioSeek
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Oxidoreductase activity, acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen, reduced flavin or flavoprotein as one donor, and incorporation of one atom of oxygen
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Most active in catalyzing 2-hydroxylation. Caffeine is metabolized primarily by cytochrome CYP1A2 in the liver through an initial N3-demethylation. Also acts in the metabolism of aflatoxin B1 and acetaminophen. Participates in the bioactivation of carcinogenic aromatic and heterocyclic amines. Catalizes the N-hydroxylation of heterocyclic amines and the O-deethylation of phenacetin.
Gene Name:
CYP1A2
Uniprot ID:
P05177
Molecular Weight:
58293.76 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC509.80 uMCLZD_CYP1A2_6CellzDirect
AC508.04 uMCLZD_CYP1A2_24CellzDirect
AC509.08 uMCLZD_CYP1A2_48CellzDirect
AC504.51 uMNVS_ADME_hCYP1A2Novascreen
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Sulfotransferase activity
Specific Function:
Sulfotransferase that utilizes 3'-phospho-5'-adenylyl sulfate (PAPS) as sulfonate donor to catalyze the sulfonation of steroids and bile acids in the liver and adrenal glands.
Gene Name:
SULT2A1
Uniprot ID:
Q06520
Molecular Weight:
33779.57 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC507.18 uMCLZD_SULT2A1_48CellzDirect
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Steroid binding
Specific Function:
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isoform glucuronidates bilirubin IX-alpha to form both the IX-alpha-C8 and IX-alpha-C12 monoconjugates and diconjugate. Is also able to catalyze the glucuronidation of 17beta-estradiol, 17alpha-ethinylestradiol, 1-hydroxypyrene, 4-methylumbelliferone, 1-naphthol, paranitrophenol, scopoletin, and umbelliferone. Isoform 2 lacks transferase activity but acts as a negative regulator of isoform 1.
Gene Name:
UGT1A1
Uniprot ID:
P22309
Molecular Weight:
59590.91 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC508.41 uMCLZD_UGT1A1_48CellzDirect
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation reactions (e.g. caffeine 8-oxidation, omeprazole sulphoxidation, midazolam 1'-hydroxylation and midazolam 4-hydroxylation) of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Acts as a 1,8-cineole 2-exo-monooxygenase. The enzyme also hydroxylates etoposide (PubMed:11159812). Catalyzes 4-beta-hydroxylation of cholesterol. May catalyze 25-hydroxylation of cholesterol in vitro (PubMed:21576599).
Gene Name:
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID:
P08684
Molecular Weight:
57342.67 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC508.42 uMCLZD_CYP3A4_48CellzDirect
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Vitamin d 24-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics.
Gene Name:
CYP1A1
Uniprot ID:
P04798
Molecular Weight:
58164.815 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC509.44 uMCLZD_CYP1A1_6CellzDirect
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Cholesterol binding
Specific Function:
Can bind protoporphyrin IX and may play a role in the transport of porphyrins and heme (By similarity). Promotes the transport of cholesterol across mitochondrial membranes and may play a role in lipid metabolism (PubMed:24814875), but its precise physiological role is controversial. It is apparently not required for steroid hormone biosynthesis. Was initially identified as peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor; can also bind isoquinoline carboxamides (PubMed:1847678).
Gene Name:
TSPO
Uniprot ID:
P30536
Molecular Weight:
18827.81 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC509.51 uMNVS_MP_hPBRNovascreen
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Acts as a 1,4-cineole 2-exo-monooxygenase.
Gene Name:
CYP2B6
Uniprot ID:
P20813
Molecular Weight:
56277.81 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC5010.00 uMCLZD_CYP2B6_6CellzDirect
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]