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Record Information
Creation Date2009-06-17 23:53:05 UTC
Update Date2014-12-24 20:23:01 UTC
Accession NumberT3D0993
Common NamePebulate
ClassSmall Molecule
DescriptionPebulate is a thiocarbamate herbicide. It is used to control both grassy and broadleaf weeds. Used for selective weed control in sugar beets, tobacco, and tomatoes. Thiocarbamates are mainly used in agriculture as insecticides, herbicides, and fungicides. Additional uses are as biocides for industrial or other commercial applications, and in household products. Some are used for vector control in public health. Thiocarbamates are mostly liquids or solids with low melting points.
Compound Type
  • Carbamate
  • Ether
  • Herbicide
  • Organic Compound
  • Synthetic Compound
Chemical Structure
Butylethylcarbamothioic acid S-propyl ester
Butylethylthiocarbamic acid S-propyl ester
Carbamic acid, butylethylthio-, S-propyl ester
Carbamothioic acid, butylethyl-, S-propyl ester (9ci)
Caswell No. 710
Pebulic acid
Propyl ethylbutylthiocarbamate
Propyl ethylbutylthiolcarbamate
Propyl n-ethyl-n-butylthiocarbamate
S-propyl butyl(ethyl)thiocarbamate
S-propyl butylethylcarbamothioate
S-propyl butylethylthiocarbamate
Stauffer R-2061
Chemical FormulaC10H21NOS
Average Molecular Mass203.345 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass203.134 g/mol
CAS Registry Number1114-71-2
IUPAC NameN-butyl-N-ethyl(propylsulfanyl)formamide
Traditional Namepebulate
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/C10H21NOS/c1-4-7-8-11(6-3)10(12)13-9-5-2/h4-9H2,1-3H3
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as thiocarbamic acid derivatives. These are organic compounds containing a functional group with the general structure OC(=S)NR2 or SC(=O)NR2.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganosulfur compounds
ClassThiocarbonyl compounds
Sub ClassThiocarbamic acid derivatives
Direct ParentThiocarbamic acid derivatives
Alternative Parents
  • Thiocarbamic acid derivative
  • Carbonic acid derivative
  • Sulfenyl compound
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
Cellular Locations
  • Membrane
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationsNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
ApplicationsNot Available
Biological RolesNot Available
Chemical RolesNot Available
Physical Properties
AppearanceColorless liquid
Experimental Properties
Melting Point< 25°C
Boiling PointNot Available
LogPNot Available
Predicted Properties
Water Solubility0.23 g/LALOGPS
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area20.31 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count7ChemAxon
Refractivity60.12 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability24.4 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-004i-9600000000-ab0a3bb0a44d5b1fad3aJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-0udi-7590000000-02ae95ff96a98bb31e57JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-0kdi-9810000000-26e7aca56d8b6e919bd8JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0a4l-9000000000-65d62bbae7d594e5983dJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-0udi-1960000000-08c7d1dbf1806a4b5941JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-0fb9-6910000000-af07fe998f2728148760JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0uk9-9500000000-e62545c7326b4e4fe8b2JSpectraViewer
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-0a6u-9200000000-ca2c1c6a160a36a042d0JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureInhalation (1) ; oral (1); dermal (1)
Mechanism of ToxicitySome thiocarbamates (EPTC, Molinate, Pebulate, and Cycloate) share a common mechanism of toxicity, i.e. the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase. An acetylcholinesterase inhibitor suppresses the action of acetylcholine esterase. Because of its essential function, chemicals that interfere with the action of acetylcholine esterase are potent neurotoxins, causing excessive salivation and eye-watering in low doses. Headache, salivation, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain and diarrhea are often prominent at higher levels of exposure. Acetylcholine esterase breaks down the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, which is released at nerve and muscle junctions, in order to allow the muscle or organ to relax. The result of acetylcholine esterase inhibition is that acetylcholine builds up and continues to act so that any nerve impulses are continually transmitted and muscle contractions do not stop.
MetabolismAs a general rule, thiocarbamates can be absorbed via the skin, mucous membranes, and the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts. They are eliminated quite rapidly, mainly via expired air and urine. Two major pathways exist for the metabolism of thiocarbamates in mammals. One is via sulfoxidation and conjugation with glutathione. The conjugation product is then cleaved to a cysteine derivative, which is metabolized to a mercapturic acid compound. The second route is oxidation of the sulfur to a sulfoxide, which is then oxidized to a sulfone, or hydroxylation to compounds that enter the carbon metabolic pool.
Toxicity ValuesNot Available
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)No indication of carcinogenicity to humans (not listed by IARC).
Uses/SourcesThiocarbamates are widely used throughout the world and are produced in great quantities, mainly as herbicides and fungicides.
Minimum Risk LevelNot Available
Health EffectsData concerning the effects of thiocarbamates on man are scarce. However, cases of irritation and sensitization have been observed among agricultural workers. Some thiocarbamates, e.g., molinate, have an effect on sperm morphology and, consequently, on reproduction. However, no teratogenic effects have been observed. The results of mutagenicity studies have shown that thiocarbamates containing dichloroallyl groups are highly mutagenic. Some thiocarbamates are acetylcholine esterase inhibitors. Acute exposure to cholinesterase inhibitors can cause a cholinergic crisis characterized by severe nausea/vomiting, salivation, sweating, bradycardia, hypotension, collapse, and convulsions. Increasing muscle weakness is a possibility and may result in death if respiratory muscles are involved.
SymptomsAs with organophosphates, the signs and symptoms are based on excessive cholinergic stimulation. Unlike organophosphate poisoning, carbamate poisonings tend to be of shorter duration because the inhibition of nervous tissue acetylcholinesterase is reversible, and carbamates are more rapidly metabolized. Muscle weakness, dizziness, sweating and slight body discomfort are commonly reported early symptoms. Headache, salivation, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain and diarrhea are often prominent at higher levels of exposure. Contraction of the pupils with blurred vision, incoordination, muscle twitching and slurred speech have been reported. (2)
TreatmentTreatment of carbamate poisoning is similar to that of organophosphate poisoning in that atropine sulfate injections readily reverse the effects. For acute exposures and first aid: EYES: irrigate opened eyes for several minutes under running water. INGESTION: do not induce vomiting. Rinse mouth with water (never give anything by mouth to an unconscious person). Seek immediate medical advice. SKIN: should be treated immediately by rinsing the affected parts in cold running water for at least 15 minutes, followed by thorough washing with soap and water. If necessary, the person should shower and change contaminated clothing and shoes, and then must seek medical attention. INHALATION: supply fresh air. If required provide artificial respiration.
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDNot Available
HMDB IDNot Available
PubChem Compound ID14215
ChemSpider ID13579
UniProt IDNot Available
ChEBI IDNot Available
BioCyc IDNot Available
CTD IDC017605
Stitch IDPebulate
PDB IDNot Available
ACToR ID1227
Wikipedia LinkNot Available
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
MSDSNot Available
General References
  1. IPCS Intox Database (1987). Antimony pentoxide. [Link]
  2. Fishel F (2009). Pesticide Toxicity Profile: Carbamate Pesticides. University of Florida, IFAS Extension. [Link]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated GenesNot Available
Down-Regulated GenesNot Available


General Function:
Serine hydrolase activity
Specific Function:
Terminates signal transduction at the neuromuscular junction by rapid hydrolysis of the acetylcholine released into the synaptic cleft. Role in neuronal apoptosis.
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular Weight:
67795.525 Da
  1. Fishel F (2009). Pesticide Toxicity Profile: Carbamate Pesticides. University of Florida, IFAS Extension. [Link]
General Function:
Identical protein binding
Specific Function:
Esterase with broad substrate specificity. Contributes to the inactivation of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Can degrade neurotoxic organophosphate esters.
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular Weight:
68417.575 Da
  1. Fishel F (2009). Pesticide Toxicity Profile: Carbamate Pesticides. University of Florida, IFAS Extension. [Link]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Steroid hormone receptors are ligand-activated transcription factors that regulate eukaryotic gene expression and affect cellular proliferation and differentiation in target tissues. Transcription factor activity is modulated by bound coactivator and corepressor proteins. Transcription activation is down-regulated by NR0B2. Activated, but not phosphorylated, by HIPK3 and ZIPK/DAPK3.
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular Weight:
98987.9 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC502.13 uMNVS_NR_hARNovascreen
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Nuclear hormone receptor. The steroid hormones and their receptors are involved in the regulation of eukaryotic gene expression and affect cellular proliferation and differentiation in target tissues. Ligand-dependent nuclear transactivation involves either direct homodimer binding to a palindromic estrogen response element (ERE) sequence or association with other DNA-binding transcription factors, such as AP-1/c-Jun, c-Fos, ATF-2, Sp1 and Sp3, to mediate ERE-independent signaling. Ligand binding induces a conformational change allowing subsequent or combinatorial association with multiprotein coactivator complexes through LXXLL motifs of their respective components. Mutual transrepression occurs between the estrogen receptor (ER) and NF-kappa-B in a cell-type specific manner. Decreases NF-kappa-B DNA-binding activity and inhibits NF-kappa-B-mediated transcription from the IL6 promoter and displace RELA/p65 and associated coregulators from the promoter. Recruited to the NF-kappa-B response element of the CCL2 and IL8 promoters and can displace CREBBP. Present with NF-kappa-B components RELA/p65 and NFKB1/p50 on ERE sequences. Can also act synergistically with NF-kappa-B to activate transcription involving respective recruitment adjacent response elements; the function involves CREBBP. Can activate the transcriptional activity of TFF1. Also mediates membrane-initiated estrogen signaling involving various kinase cascades. Isoform 3 is involved in activation of NOS3 and endothelial nitric oxide production. Isoforms lacking one or several functional domains are thought to modulate transcriptional activity by competitive ligand or DNA binding and/or heterodimerization with the full length receptor. Essential for MTA1-mediated transcriptional regulation of BRCA1 and BCAS3. Isoform 3 can bind to ERE and inhibit isoform 1.
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular Weight:
66215.45 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC503.03 uMNVS_NR_hERNovascreen
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]