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Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2009-06-17 23:53:05 UTC
Update Date2014-12-24 20:23:02 UTC
Accession NumberT3D1002
Identification
Common NamePropham
ClassSmall Molecule
DescriptionPropham is a carbamate pesticide. Carbamate pesticides are derived from carbamic acid and kill insects in a similar fashion as organophosphate insecticides. They are widely used in homes, gardens and agriculture. The first carbamate, carbaryl, was introduced in 1956 and more of it has been used throughout the world than all other carbamates combined. Because of carbaryl's relatively low mammalian oral and dermal toxicity and broad control spectrum, it has had wide use in lawn and garden settings. Most of the carbamates are extremely toxic to Hymenoptera, and precautions must be taken to avoid exposure to foraging bees or parasitic wasps. Some of the carbamates are translocated within plants, making them an effective systemic treatment. (3)
Compound Type
  • Amine
  • Carbamate
  • Ester
  • Ether
  • Organic Compound
  • Pesticide
  • Synthetic Compound
Chemical Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Synonym
1-Methylethyl phenylcarbamate
Agermin
Ban-hoe
Beet-kleen
Birgin
Carbamate pesticide ipc
Carbamic acid, phenyl, isopropyl ester
Carbanilic acid, isopropyl ester
Caswell No. 510
Chem Hoe FL4
Chem-hoe
Collavin
IFC
IFK
INPC
IPC
Ipc. ippc
IPPC
Iso.PPC
Isopropyl carbanilate
Isopropyl carbanilic acid ester
Isopropyl n-phenylcarbamate
Isopropyl phenyl urethane
Isopropyl phenylcarbamate
Isopropyl phenylcarbmate
Isopropyl-n-phenyl carbamate
Isopropyl-n-phenyl-carbamat
Isopropyl-n-phenylcarbamate
MSS IPC 50
N-phenyl isopropyl carbamate
N-phenyl-o-isopropylurethane
N-Phenylcarbamic acid, isopropyl ester
O-isopropyl n-phenyl carbamate
Ortho grass killer
Phenyl isopropyl carbamate
Phenylcarbamic acid, 1-methylethyl ester
Phenylcarbamic acid,1-methylethyl ester
Premalox
Profam
Prophos
RCRA waste no. U373
Tixit
Triherbide
Triherbide-ipc
Tuberit
Tuberite
USAF D-9
Chemical FormulaC10H13NO2
Average Molecular Mass179.216 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass179.095 g/mol
CAS Registry Number122-42-9
IUPAC Namepropan-2-yl N-phenylcarbamate
Traditional Nameisopropyl phenyl carbamate
SMILESCC(C)OC(=O)NC1=CC=CC=C1
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/C10H13NO2/c1-8(2)13-10(12)11-9-6-4-3-5-7-9/h3-8H,1-2H3,(H,11,12)
InChI KeyInChIKey=VXPLXMJHHKHSOA-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as phenylcarbamic acid esters. These are ester derivatives of phenylcarbamic acids.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassBenzenoids
ClassBenzene and substituted derivatives
Sub ClassPhenylcarbamic acid esters
Direct ParentPhenylcarbamic acid esters
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Phenylcarbamic acid ester
  • Carbamic acid ester
  • Carbonic acid derivative
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Aromatic homomonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
OriginExogenous
Cellular Locations
  • Membrane
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationsNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
ApplicationsNot Available
Biological RolesNot Available
Chemical RolesNot Available
Physical Properties
StateSolid
AppearanceWhite powder.
Experimental Properties
PropertyValue
Melting Point87.3°C
Boiling PointNot Available
Solubility0.179 mg/mL at 25°C [YALKOWSKY,SH & HE,Y (2003)]
LogPNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility1.92 g/LALOGPS
logP2.6ALOGPS
logP2.6ChemAxon
logS-2ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)13.04ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-0.94ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area38.33 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count3ChemAxon
Refractivity51.71 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability19.18 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-03el-8900000000-09aed53f94b46c4d5ae6JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-0006-9300000000-4c6dae4e4fbf35f6471eJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0006-9100000000-d42ebb34c93904bd46e8JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-016r-5900000000-2a9a662183a82b668d59JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-066u-9700000000-9fe7b5f21c54d80b0c22JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-052f-9100000000-f3d7572b49c546cd7216JSpectraViewer
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-0006-9200000000-01800cb872c195605426JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureInhalation (2) ; oral (2); dermal (2)
Mechanism of ToxicityPropham is a cholinesterase or acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor. Carbamates form unstable complexes with chlolinesterases by carbamoylation of the active sites of the enzymes. This inhibition is reversible. A cholinesterase inhibitor suppresses the action of acetylcholine esterase. Because of its essential function, chemicals that interfere with the action of acetylcholine esterase are potent neurotoxins, causing excessive salivation and eye-watering in low doses. Headache, salivation, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain and diarrhea are often prominent at higher levels of exposure. Acetylcholine esterase breaks down the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, which is released at nerve and muscle junctions, in order to allow the muscle or organ to relax. The result of acetylcholine esterase inhibition is that acetylcholine builds up and continues to act so that any nerve impulses are continually transmitted and muscle contractions do not stop.
MetabolismThe carbamates are hydrolyzed enzymatically by the liver; degradation products are excreted by the kidneys and the liver. (2)
Toxicity ValuesNot Available
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)3, not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans. (4)
Uses/SourcesPropham is widely used as an insecticide or pesticide in homes, gardens and agricultural applications. It is a synthetic compound.
Minimum Risk LevelNot Available
Health EffectsAcute exposure to cholinesterase inhibitors can cause a cholinergic crisis characterized by severe nausea/vomiting, salivation, sweating, bradycardia, hypotension, collapse, and convulsions. Increasing muscle weakness is a possibility and may result in death if respiratory muscles are involved. Accumulation of ACh at motor nerves causes overstimulation of nicotinic expression at the neuromuscular junction. When this occurs symptoms such as muscle weakness, fatigue, muscle cramps, fasciculation, and paralysis can be seen. When there is an accumulation of ACh at autonomic ganglia this causes overstimulation of nicotinic expression in the sympathetic system. Symptoms associated with this are hypertension, and hypoglycemia. Overstimulation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the central nervous system, due to accumulation of ACh, results in anxiety, headache, convulsions, ataxia, depression of respiration and circulation, tremor, general weakness, and potentially coma. When there is expression of muscarinic overstimulation due to excess acetylcholine at muscarinic acetylcholine receptors symptoms of visual disturbances, tightness in chest, wheezing due to bronchoconstriction, increased bronchial secretions, increased salivation, lacrimation, sweating, peristalsis, and urination can occur. Chronically high (>10 years) exposure leads to neuropsychological consequences including disturbances in perception and visuo-motor processing (1).
SymptomsAs with organophosphates, the signs and symptoms are based on excessive cholinergic stimulation. Unlike organophosphate poisoning, carbamate poisonings tend to be of shorter duration because the inhibition of nervous tissue acetylcholinesterase is reversible, and carbamates are more rapidly metabolized. Muscle weakness, dizziness, sweating and slight body discomfort are commonly reported early symptoms. Headache, salivation, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain and diarrhea are often prominent at higher levels of exposure. Contraction of the pupils with blurred vision, incoordination, muscle twitching and slurred speech have been reported. (3)
TreatmentIf the compound has been ingested, rapid gastric lavage should be performed using 5% sodium bicarbonate. For skin contact, the skin should be washed with soap and water. If the compound has entered the eyes, they should be washed with large quantities of isotonic saline or water. In serious cases, atropine and/or pralidoxime should be administered. Anti-cholinergic drugs work to counteract the effects of excess acetylcholine and reactivate AChE. Atropine can be used as an antidote in conjunction with pralidoxime or other pyridinium oximes (such as trimedoxime or obidoxime), though the use of '-oximes' has been found to be of no benefit, or possibly harmful, in at least two meta-analyses. Atropine is a muscarinic antagonist, and thus blocks the action of acetylcholine peripherally.
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDNot Available
HMDB IDNot Available
PubChem Compound ID24685
ChEMBL IDCHEMBL1080996
ChemSpider ID23083
KEGG IDC18887
UniProt IDNot Available
OMIM ID
ChEBI IDNot Available
BioCyc IDCPD-6967
CTD IDC100175
Stitch IDPropham
PDB IDNot Available
ACToR ID778
Wikipedia LinkNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
MSDST3D1002.pdf
General References
  1. Roldan-Tapia L, Nieto-Escamez FA, del Aguila EM, Laynez F, Parron T, Sanchez-Santed F: Neuropsychological sequelae from acute poisoning and long-term exposure to carbamate and organophosphate pesticides. Neurotoxicol Teratol. 2006 Nov-Dec;28(6):694-703. Epub 2006 Aug 30. [17029710 ]
  2. IPCS Intox Database (1987). Antimony pentoxide. [Link]
  3. Fishel F (2009). Pesticide Toxicity Profile: Carbamate Pesticides. University of Florida, IFAS Extension. [Link]
  4. International Agency for Research on Cancer (2014). IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. [Link]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated GenesNot Available
Down-Regulated GenesNot Available

Targets

General Function:
Serine hydrolase activity
Specific Function:
Terminates signal transduction at the neuromuscular junction by rapid hydrolysis of the acetylcholine released into the synaptic cleft. Role in neuronal apoptosis.
Gene Name:
ACHE
Uniprot ID:
P22303
Molecular Weight:
67795.525 Da
References
  1. Fishel F (2009). Pesticide Toxicity Profile: Carbamate Pesticides. University of Florida, IFAS Extension. [Link]
General Function:
Identical protein binding
Specific Function:
Esterase with broad substrate specificity. Contributes to the inactivation of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Can degrade neurotoxic organophosphate esters.
Gene Name:
BCHE
Uniprot ID:
P06276
Molecular Weight:
68417.575 Da
References
  1. Fishel F (2009). Pesticide Toxicity Profile: Carbamate Pesticides. University of Florida, IFAS Extension. [Link]