Tmic
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Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2009-06-18 17:03:35 UTC
Update Date2014-12-24 20:23:05 UTC
Accession NumberT3D1035
Identification
Common NameDeltamethrin
ClassSmall Molecule
DescriptionDeltamethrin is a pyrethroid (type 2) ester insecticide. This material is a member of one of the safest classes of pesticides: synthetic pyrethroids. While mammalian exposure to deltamethrin is classified as safe, this pesticide is highly toxic to aquatic life, particularly fish, and therefore must be used with extreme caution around water. A pyrethroid is a synthetic chemical compound similar to the natural chemical pyrethrins produced by the flowers of pyrethrums (Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium and C. coccineum). Pyrethroids are common in commercial products such as household insecticides and insect repellents. In the concentrations used in such products, they are generally harmless to human beings but can harm sensitive individuals. They are usually broken apart by sunlight and the atmosphere in one or two days, and do not significantly affect groundwater quality except for being toxic to fish. Since deltamethrin is a neurotoxin, it temporarily attacks (in medical terms, insults) the nervous system of any animal with which it comes into contact. Skin contact can lead to tingling or reddening of the skin local to the application. If taken in through the eyes or mouth, a common symptom is facial paraesthesia, which can feel like many different abnormal sensations, including burning, partial numbness, pins and needles, skin crawling, etc.
Compound Type
  • Bromide Compound
  • Ester
  • Ether
  • Household Toxin
  • Insecticide
  • Metabolite
  • Nitrile
  • Organic Compound
  • Organobromide
  • Pesticide
  • Pyrethroid
  • Synthetic Compound
Chemical Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Synonym
(S)-cyano(3-phenoxyphenyl)methyl (1R,3R)-3-(2,2-dibromoethenyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropanecarboxylate
Butox
Cislin
Crackdown
Decamethrin
Decamethrine
Decis
Decis 0.5ULV
Decis 1.5ULV
Decis 2.5ULV
Dekametrin
DeltaGard
Deltagran
Deltamethrine
Esbecythrin
Glossinex 200
K-Obiol
K-Othrin
K-Othrine
New Musigie
Phagase 1
Suspend
Zorcis
Chemical FormulaC22H19Br2NO3
Average Molecular Mass505.199 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass502.973 g/mol
CAS Registry Number52918-63-5
IUPAC Name(S)-cyano(3-phenoxyphenyl)methyl (1R,3R)-3-(2,2-dibromoethenyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane-1-carboxylate
Traditional Namestricker
SMILES[H][C@@](OC(=O)[C@]1([H])[C@]([H])(C=C(Br)Br)C1(C)C)(C#N)C1=CC(OC2=CC=CC=C2)=CC=C1
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/C22H19Br2NO3/c1-22(2)17(12-19(23)24)20(22)21(26)28-18(13-25)14-7-6-10-16(11-14)27-15-8-4-3-5-9-15/h3-12,17-18,20H,1-2H3/t17-,18+,20-/m0/s1
InChI KeyInChIKey=OWZREIFADZCYQD-NSHGMRRFSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as pyrethroids. These are organic compounds similar to the pyrethrins. Some pyrethroids containing a chrysanthemic acid esterified with a cyclopentenone (pyrethrins), or with a phenoxybenzyl group.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassLipids and lipid-like molecules
ClassFatty Acyls
Sub ClassFatty acid esters
Direct ParentPyrethroids
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Pyrethroid skeleton
  • Diphenylether
  • Diaryl ether
  • Benzyloxycarbonyl
  • Phenoxy compound
  • Phenol ether
  • Monocyclic benzene moiety
  • Cyclopropanecarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Benzenoid
  • Carboxylic acid ester
  • Ketene acetal or derivatives
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Ether
  • Bromoalkene
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Carbonitrile
  • Nitrile
  • Haloalkene
  • Vinyl halide
  • Vinyl bromide
  • Carbonyl group
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Organohalogen compound
  • Organobromide
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Aromatic homomonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
OriginExogenous
Cellular Locations
  • Membrane
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationsNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
Applications
Biological Roles
Chemical Roles
Physical Properties
StateSolid
AppearanceColourless crystalline powder (15).
Experimental Properties
PropertyValue
Melting Point100°C
Boiling PointNot Available
Solubility2e-06 mg/mL at 25°C
LogP6.2
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.0013 g/LALOGPS
logP6.13ALOGPS
logP5.74ChemAxon
logS-5.6ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)10.62ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-3.7ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area59.32 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count7ChemAxon
Refractivity124.29 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability42.76 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings3ChemAxon
Bioavailability0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0zfr-3290000000-fc2670ebdafd72059d49View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-0udi-0060190000-d06e22076d1773eb0a44View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-0fb9-0190220000-42d1b03d814ec594ac38View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-004s-2390000000-81cbf54d9ff1579aaee8View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-0udi-0010190000-74170f71f0cac166e6c6View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-0uk9-3151590000-565197ea502710a2b39eView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0006-9430000000-f63f1a3abdb315fa7b1aView in MoNA
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-0ff3-7940000000-0aa3b4a622f8410e5b43View in MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureInhalation (11) ; oral (11) ; dermal (11) ; eye contact (11).
Mechanism of ToxicityBoth type I and type II pyrethroids exert their effect by prolonging the open phase of the sodium channel gates when a nerve cell is excited. They appear to bind to the membrane lipid phase in the immediate vicinity of the sodium channel, thus modifying the channel kinetics. This blocks the closing of the sodium gates in the nerves, and thus prolongs the return of the membrane potential to its resting state. The repetitive (sensory, motor) neuronal discharge and a prolonged negative afterpotential produces effects quite similar to those produced by DDT, leading to hyperactivity of the nervous system which can result in paralysis and/or death. Other mechanisms of action of pyrethroids include antagonism of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-mediated inhibition, modulation of nicotinic cholinergic transmission, enhancement of noradrenaline release, and actions on calcium ions. They also inhibit calium channels and Ca2+, Mg2+-ATPase. (5, 6, 11)
MetabolismDeltamethrin is readily absorbed by the oral route, but less so dermally; absorbed deltamethrin is readily metabolized and excreted. The major degradation pathway of cypermethrin is hydrolysis of the ester linkage to (yield ultimately) 3-phenoxybenzoic acid and 3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2- dimethylcyclopropanecarboxylic acid. (From the cis-isomer both cis- and trans- cyclopropanecarboxylic acids are found.) A minor degradative route is ring hydroxylation to give an alpha-cyano-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)benzyl ester followed by hydrolysis to produce the corresponding hydroxycarboxylic acid (3).
Toxicity ValuesLD50: 4123 mg/kg (Oral, Rat) (4) LD50: >2460 mg/kg (Dermal, Rabbit) (4)
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)3, not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans. (17)
Uses/SourcesPyrethroids are used as insecticides. (11)
Minimum Risk LevelNot Available
Health EffectsAt high doses, signs of poisoning attributable to deltamethrin include profuse salivation and pulmonary edema, clonic seizures, opisthotonos (i.e., the spine is bent forward such that a supine body rests on its head and heels), coma, and death. At lower doses, commonly observed effects include paresthesia and erythema (12).
SymptomsFollowing dermal exposure to deltamethrin, feelings of numbness, itching, burning, stinging, tingling, or warmth may occur, that could last for a few hours. Ddizziness, headache, nausea, muscle twitching, reduced energy, and changes in awareness can reult from inhalation or ingestion of large amounts of deltamethrin. Paralysis can occur after exposure (11).
TreatmentFollowing oral exposure, the treatment is symptomatic and supportive and includes monitoring for the development of hypersensitivity reactions with respiratory distress. Provide adequate airway management when needed. Gastric decontamination is usually not required unless the pyrethrin product is combined with a hydrocarbon. Following inhalation exposure, move patient to fresh air. monitor for respiratory distress. If cough or difficulty breathing develops, evaluate for respiratory tract irritation, bronchitis, or pneumonitis. Administer oxygen and assist ventilation as required. Treat bronchospasm with inhaled beta2 agonist and oral or parenteral corticosteroids. In case of eye exposure, irrigate exposed eyes with copious amounts of room temperature water for at least 15 minutes. If irritation, pain, swelling, lacrimation, or photophobia persist, the patient should be seen in a health care facility. If the contamination occurs through dermal exposure, Remove contaminated clothing and wash exposed area thoroughly with soap and water. A physician may need to examine the area if irritation or pain persists. Vitamin E topical application is highly effective in relieving parenthesis. (16)
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDNot Available
HMDB IDHMDB41866
PubChem Compound ID40585
ChEMBL IDCHEMBL1593566
ChemSpider ID37079
KEGG IDC10985
UniProt IDNot Available
OMIM ID
ChEBI ID4388
BioCyc IDNot Available
CTD IDNot Available
Stitch IDDeltamethrin
PDB IDNot Available
ACToR ID387
Wikipedia Linkdeltamethrin
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
MSDST3D1035.pdf
General References
  1. Leng G, Lewalter J, Rohrig B, Idel H: The influence of individual susceptibility in pyrethroid exposure. Toxicol Lett. 1999 Jun 30;107(1-3):123-30. [10414789 ]
  2. Sahib IK, Prasada Rao KS, Desaiah D: Pyrethroid inhibition of basal and calmodulin stimulated Ca2+ ATPase and adenylate cyclase in rat brain. J Appl Toxicol. 1987 Apr;7(2):75-80. [2957417 ]
  3. Wenzel A, von Lintig J, Oberhauser V, Tanimoto N, Grimm C, Seeliger MW: RPE65 is essential for the function of cone photoreceptors in NRL-deficient mice. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2007 Feb;48(2):534-42. [17251447 ]
  4. Moise AR, Isken A, Dominguez M, de Lera AR, von Lintig J, Palczewski K: Specificity of zebrafish retinol saturase: formation of all-trans-13,14-dihydroretinol and all-trans-7,8- dihydroretinol. Biochemistry. 2007 Feb 20;46(7):1811-20. Epub 2007 Jan 25. [17253779 ]
  5. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
  6. Hayes WJ Jr. and Laws ER Jr. (eds) (1991). Handbook of Pesticide Toxicology. Volume 3. Classes of Pesticides. New York, NY: Academic Press, Inc.
  7. Rumack BH (2009). POISINDEX(R) Information System. Englewood, CO: Micromedex, Inc. CCIS Volume 141, edition expires Aug, 2009.
  8. Aizawa, H (1982). Metabolic Maps of Pesticides. New York, NY: Academic Press.
  9. Spencer EY (1982). Guide to the Chemicals Used in Crop Protection. 7th ed. Publication 1093. Research Institute, Agriculture Canada, Ottawa, Canada: Information Canada.
  10. Wikipedia. Pyrethroid. Last Updated 8 June 2009. [Link]
  11. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2003). Toxicological profile for pyrethrins and pyrethroids. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
  12. Das R et al. Worker Illness Related to Ground Application of Pesticide --- Kern County, California. MMWR 2006;55(17):486-8 [Link]
  13. International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS) INCHEM (1990). Environmental Health Criteria for Cyhalothrin. [Link]
  14. Wikipedia. Deltamehtrin. Last Updated 5 August 2009. [Link]
  15. International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS) INCHEM (1990). Environmental Health Criteria for Deltamehtrin. [Link]
  16. Wikipedia. Blister agent. Last Updated 24 May 2009. [Link]
  17. International Agency for Research on Cancer (2014). IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. [Link]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated Genes
GeneGene SymbolGene IDInteractionChromosomeDetails
Down-Regulated Genes
GeneGene SymbolGene IDInteractionChromosomeDetails

Targets

General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Nuclear receptor that binds and is activated by variety of endogenous and xenobiotic compounds. Transcription factor that activates the transcription of multiple genes involved in the metabolism and secretion of potentially harmful xenobiotics, drugs and endogenous compounds. Activated by the antibiotic rifampicin and various plant metabolites, such as hyperforin, guggulipid, colupulone, and isoflavones. Response to specific ligands is species-specific. Activated by naturally occurring steroids, such as pregnenolone and progesterone. Binds to a response element in the promoters of the CYP3A4 and ABCB1/MDR1 genes.
Gene Name:
NR1I2
Uniprot ID:
O75469
Molecular Weight:
49761.245 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC500.16 uMATG_PXR_TRANSAttagene
AC500.79 uMATG_PXRE_CISAttagene
References
  1. Kojima H, Sata F, Takeuchi S, Sueyoshi T, Nagai T: Comparative study of human and mouse pregnane X receptor agonistic activity in 200 pesticides using in vitro reporter gene assays. Toxicology. 2011 Feb 27;280(3):77-87. doi: 10.1016/j.tox.2010.11.008. Epub 2010 Nov 27. [21115097 ]
  2. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Voltage-gated sodium channel activity
Specific Function:
Mediates the voltage-dependent sodium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Assuming opened or closed conformations in response to the voltage difference across the membrane, the protein forms a sodium-selective channel through which Na(+) ions may pass in accordance with their electrochemical gradient.
Gene Name:
SCN1A
Uniprot ID:
P35498
Molecular Weight:
228969.49 Da
References
  1. Everts HB, Sundberg JP, Ong DE: Immunolocalization of retinoic acid biosynthesis systems in selected sites in rat. Exp Cell Res. 2005 Aug 15;308(2):309-19. [15950969 ]
  2. Klaassen CD, Amdur MO, Doull J (eds) (1995). Casarett and Doull's Toxicology. The Basic Science of Poisons. 5th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
  3. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2003). Toxicological profile for pyrethrins and pyrethroids. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Voltage-gated sodium channel activity
Specific Function:
Tetrodotoxin-resistant channel that mediates the voltage-dependent sodium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Assuming opened or closed conformations in response to the voltage difference across the membrane, the protein forms a sodium-selective channel through which sodium ions may pass in accordance with their electrochemical gradient. Plays a role in neuropathic pain mechanisms.
Gene Name:
SCN10A
Uniprot ID:
Q9Y5Y9
Molecular Weight:
220623.605 Da
References
  1. Everts HB, Sundberg JP, Ong DE: Immunolocalization of retinoic acid biosynthesis systems in selected sites in rat. Exp Cell Res. 2005 Aug 15;308(2):309-19. [15950969 ]
  2. Klaassen CD, Amdur MO, Doull J (eds) (1995). Casarett and Doull's Toxicology. The Basic Science of Poisons. 5th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
  3. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2003). Toxicological profile for pyrethrins and pyrethroids. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Voltage-gated sodium channel activity
Specific Function:
This protein mediates the voltage-dependent sodium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Assuming opened or closed conformations in response to the voltage difference across the membrane, the protein forms a sodium-selective channel through which sodium ions may pass in accordance with their electrochemical gradient. It is a tetrodotoxin-resistant sodium channel isoform. Also involved, with the contribution of the receptor tyrosine kinase NTRK2, in rapid BDNF-evoked neuronal depolarization.
Gene Name:
SCN11A
Uniprot ID:
Q9UI33
Molecular Weight:
204919.66 Da
References
  1. Everts HB, Sundberg JP, Ong DE: Immunolocalization of retinoic acid biosynthesis systems in selected sites in rat. Exp Cell Res. 2005 Aug 15;308(2):309-19. [15950969 ]
  2. Klaassen CD, Amdur MO, Doull J (eds) (1995). Casarett and Doull's Toxicology. The Basic Science of Poisons. 5th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
  3. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2003). Toxicological profile for pyrethrins and pyrethroids. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Voltage-gated sodium channel activity
Specific Function:
Mediates the voltage-dependent sodium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Assuming opened or closed conformations in response to the voltage difference across the membrane, the protein forms a sodium-selective channel through which Na(+) ions may pass in accordance with their electrochemical gradient.
Gene Name:
SCN2A
Uniprot ID:
Q99250
Molecular Weight:
227972.64 Da
References
  1. Everts HB, Sundberg JP, Ong DE: Immunolocalization of retinoic acid biosynthesis systems in selected sites in rat. Exp Cell Res. 2005 Aug 15;308(2):309-19. [15950969 ]
  2. Klaassen CD, Amdur MO, Doull J (eds) (1995). Casarett and Doull's Toxicology. The Basic Science of Poisons. 5th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
  3. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2003). Toxicological profile for pyrethrins and pyrethroids. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Voltage-gated sodium channel activity
Specific Function:
Mediates the voltage-dependent sodium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Assuming opened or closed conformations in response to the voltage difference across the membrane, the protein forms a sodium-selective channel through which Na(+) ions may pass in accordance with their electrochemical gradient.
Gene Name:
SCN3A
Uniprot ID:
Q9NY46
Molecular Weight:
226291.905 Da
References
  1. Everts HB, Sundberg JP, Ong DE: Immunolocalization of retinoic acid biosynthesis systems in selected sites in rat. Exp Cell Res. 2005 Aug 15;308(2):309-19. [15950969 ]
  2. Klaassen CD, Amdur MO, Doull J (eds) (1995). Casarett and Doull's Toxicology. The Basic Science of Poisons. 5th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
  3. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2003). Toxicological profile for pyrethrins and pyrethroids. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Voltage-gated sodium channel activity
Specific Function:
This protein mediates the voltage-dependent sodium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Assuming opened or closed conformations in response to the voltage difference across the membrane, the protein forms a sodium-selective channel through which Na(+) ions may pass in accordance with their electrochemical gradient. This sodium channel may be present in both denervated and innervated skeletal muscle.
Gene Name:
SCN4A
Uniprot ID:
P35499
Molecular Weight:
208059.175 Da
References
  1. Everts HB, Sundberg JP, Ong DE: Immunolocalization of retinoic acid biosynthesis systems in selected sites in rat. Exp Cell Res. 2005 Aug 15;308(2):309-19. [15950969 ]
  2. Klaassen CD, Amdur MO, Doull J (eds) (1995). Casarett and Doull's Toxicology. The Basic Science of Poisons. 5th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
  3. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2003). Toxicological profile for pyrethrins and pyrethroids. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Voltage-gated sodium channel activity involved in sa node cell action potential
Specific Function:
This protein mediates the voltage-dependent sodium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Assuming opened or closed conformations in response to the voltage difference across the membrane, the protein forms a sodium-selective channel through which Na(+) ions may pass in accordance with their electrochemical gradient. It is a tetrodotoxin-resistant Na(+) channel isoform. This channel is responsible for the initial upstroke of the action potential. Channel inactivation is regulated by intracellular calcium levels.
Gene Name:
SCN5A
Uniprot ID:
Q14524
Molecular Weight:
226937.475 Da
References
  1. Everts HB, Sundberg JP, Ong DE: Immunolocalization of retinoic acid biosynthesis systems in selected sites in rat. Exp Cell Res. 2005 Aug 15;308(2):309-19. [15950969 ]
  2. Klaassen CD, Amdur MO, Doull J (eds) (1995). Casarett and Doull's Toxicology. The Basic Science of Poisons. 5th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
  3. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2003). Toxicological profile for pyrethrins and pyrethroids. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Voltage-gated sodium channel activity
Specific Function:
Mediates the voltage-dependent sodium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Assuming opened or closed conformations in response to the voltage difference across the membrane, the protein forms a sodium-selective channel through which Na(+) ions may pass in accordance with their electrochemical gradient.
Gene Name:
SCN7A
Uniprot ID:
Q01118
Molecular Weight:
193491.605 Da
References
  1. Everts HB, Sundberg JP, Ong DE: Immunolocalization of retinoic acid biosynthesis systems in selected sites in rat. Exp Cell Res. 2005 Aug 15;308(2):309-19. [15950969 ]
  2. Klaassen CD, Amdur MO, Doull J (eds) (1995). Casarett and Doull's Toxicology. The Basic Science of Poisons. 5th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
  3. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2003). Toxicological profile for pyrethrins and pyrethroids. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Voltage-gated sodium channel activity
Specific Function:
Mediates the voltage-dependent sodium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Assuming opened or closed conformations in response to the voltage difference across the membrane, the protein forms a sodium-selective channel through which Na(+) ions may pass in accordance with their electrochemical gradient. In macrophages and melanoma cells, isoform 5 may participate in the control of podosome and invadopodia formation.
Gene Name:
SCN8A
Uniprot ID:
Q9UQD0
Molecular Weight:
225278.005 Da
References
  1. Everts HB, Sundberg JP, Ong DE: Immunolocalization of retinoic acid biosynthesis systems in selected sites in rat. Exp Cell Res. 2005 Aug 15;308(2):309-19. [15950969 ]
  2. Klaassen CD, Amdur MO, Doull J (eds) (1995). Casarett and Doull's Toxicology. The Basic Science of Poisons. 5th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
  3. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2003). Toxicological profile for pyrethrins and pyrethroids. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Voltage-gated sodium channel activity
Specific Function:
Mediates the voltage-dependent sodium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Assuming opened or closed conformations in response to the voltage difference across the membrane, the protein forms a sodium-selective channel through which Na(+) ions may pass in accordance with their electrochemical gradient. It is a tetrodotoxin-sensitive Na(+) channel isoform. Plays a role in pain mechanisms, especially in the development of inflammatory pain (By similarity).
Gene Name:
SCN9A
Uniprot ID:
Q15858
Molecular Weight:
226370.175 Da
References
  1. Everts HB, Sundberg JP, Ong DE: Immunolocalization of retinoic acid biosynthesis systems in selected sites in rat. Exp Cell Res. 2005 Aug 15;308(2):309-19. [15950969 ]
  2. Klaassen CD, Amdur MO, Doull J (eds) (1995). Casarett and Doull's Toxicology. The Basic Science of Poisons. 5th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
  3. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2003). Toxicological profile for pyrethrins and pyrethroids. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Voltage-gated sodium channel activity involved in purkinje myocyte action potential
Specific Function:
Crucial in the assembly, expression, and functional modulation of the heterotrimeric complex of the sodium channel. The subunit beta-1 can modulate multiple alpha subunit isoforms from brain, skeletal muscle, and heart. Its association with neurofascin may target the sodium channels to the nodes of Ranvier of developing axons and retain these channels at the nodes in mature myelinated axons.Isoform 2: Cell adhesion molecule that plays a critical role in neuronal migration and pathfinding during brain development. Stimulates neurite outgrowth.
Gene Name:
SCN1B
Uniprot ID:
Q07699
Molecular Weight:
24706.955 Da
References
  1. Everts HB, Sundberg JP, Ong DE: Immunolocalization of retinoic acid biosynthesis systems in selected sites in rat. Exp Cell Res. 2005 Aug 15;308(2):309-19. [15950969 ]
  2. Klaassen CD, Amdur MO, Doull J (eds) (1995). Casarett and Doull's Toxicology. The Basic Science of Poisons. 5th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
  3. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2003). Toxicological profile for pyrethrins and pyrethroids. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Voltage-gated sodium channel activity involved in cardiac muscle cell action potential
Specific Function:
Crucial in the assembly, expression, and functional modulation of the heterotrimeric complex of the sodium channel. The subunit beta-2 causes an increase in the plasma membrane surface area and in its folding into microvilli. Interacts with TNR may play a crucial role in clustering and regulation of activity of sodium channels at nodes of Ranvier (By similarity).
Gene Name:
SCN2B
Uniprot ID:
O60939
Molecular Weight:
24325.69 Da
References
  1. Everts HB, Sundberg JP, Ong DE: Immunolocalization of retinoic acid biosynthesis systems in selected sites in rat. Exp Cell Res. 2005 Aug 15;308(2):309-19. [15950969 ]
  2. Klaassen CD, Amdur MO, Doull J (eds) (1995). Casarett and Doull's Toxicology. The Basic Science of Poisons. 5th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
  3. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2003). Toxicological profile for pyrethrins and pyrethroids. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Voltage-gated sodium channel activity involved in cardiac muscle cell action potential
Specific Function:
Modulates channel gating kinetics. Causes unique persistent sodium currents. Inactivates the sodium channel opening more slowly than the subunit beta-1. Its association with neurofascin may target the sodium channels to the nodes of Ranvier of developing axons and retain these channels at the nodes in mature myelinated axons (By similarity).
Gene Name:
SCN3B
Uniprot ID:
Q9NY72
Molecular Weight:
24702.08 Da
References
  1. Everts HB, Sundberg JP, Ong DE: Immunolocalization of retinoic acid biosynthesis systems in selected sites in rat. Exp Cell Res. 2005 Aug 15;308(2):309-19. [15950969 ]
  2. Klaassen CD, Amdur MO, Doull J (eds) (1995). Casarett and Doull's Toxicology. The Basic Science of Poisons. 5th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
  3. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2003). Toxicological profile for pyrethrins and pyrethroids. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Voltage-gated sodium channel activity involved in cardiac muscle cell action potential
Specific Function:
Modulates channel gating kinetics. Causes negative shifts in the voltage dependence of activation of certain alpha sodium channels, but does not affect the voltage dependence of inactivation. Modulates the suceptibility of the sodium channel to inhibition by toxic peptides from spider, scorpion, wasp and sea anemone venom.
Gene Name:
SCN4B
Uniprot ID:
Q8IWT1
Molecular Weight:
24968.755 Da
References
  1. Everts HB, Sundberg JP, Ong DE: Immunolocalization of retinoic acid biosynthesis systems in selected sites in rat. Exp Cell Res. 2005 Aug 15;308(2):309-19. [15950969 ]
  2. Klaassen CD, Amdur MO, Doull J (eds) (1995). Casarett and Doull's Toxicology. The Basic Science of Poisons. 5th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
  3. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2003). Toxicological profile for pyrethrins and pyrethroids. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Signal transducer activity
Specific Function:
This magnesium-dependent enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the transport of the calcium.
Gene Name:
ATP2C1
Uniprot ID:
P98194
Molecular Weight:
100576.42 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Metal ion binding
Specific Function:
This magnesium-dependent enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the transport of calcium.
Gene Name:
ATP2C2
Uniprot ID:
O75185
Molecular Weight:
103186.475 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Protein homodimerization activity
Specific Function:
Key regulator of striated muscle performance by acting as the major Ca(2+) ATPase responsible for the reuptake of cytosolic Ca(2+) into the sarcoplasmic reticulum. Catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the translocation of calcium from the cytosol to the sarcoplasmic reticulum lumen. Contributes to calcium sequestration involved in muscular excitation/contraction.
Gene Name:
ATP2A1
Uniprot ID:
O14983
Molecular Weight:
110251.36 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
S100 protein binding
Specific Function:
This magnesium-dependent enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the translocation of calcium from the cytosol to the sarcoplasmic reticulum lumen. Isoform 2 is involved in the regulation of the contraction/relaxation cycle.
Gene Name:
ATP2A2
Uniprot ID:
P16615
Molecular Weight:
114755.765 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Metal ion binding
Specific Function:
This magnesium-dependent enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the transport of calcium. Transports calcium ions from the cytosol into the sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum lumen. Contributes to calcium sequestration involved in muscular excitation/contraction.
Gene Name:
ATP2A3
Uniprot ID:
Q93084
Molecular Weight:
113976.23 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Receptor for retinoic acid. Retinoic acid receptors bind as heterodimers to their target response elements in response to their ligands, all-trans or 9-cis retinoic acid, and regulate gene expression in various biological processes. The RAR/RXR heterodimers bind to the retinoic acid response elements (RARE) composed of tandem 5'-AGGTCA-3' sites known as DR1-DR5. In the absence of ligand, acts mainly as an activator of gene expression due to weak binding to corepressors. Required for limb bud development. In concert with RARA or RARB, required for skeletal growth, matrix homeostasis and growth plate function (By similarity).
Gene Name:
RARG
Uniprot ID:
P13631
Molecular Weight:
50341.405 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC501.01 uMATG_RARg_TRANSAttagene
AC500.73 uMATG_DR5_CISAttagene
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Receptor for retinoic acid. Retinoic acid receptors bind as heterodimers to their target response elements in response to their ligands, all-trans or 9-cis retinoic acid, and regulate gene expression in various biological processes. The RXR/RAR heterodimers bind to the retinoic acid response elements (RARE) composed of tandem 5'-AGGTCA-3' sites known as DR1-DR5. In the absence or presence of hormone ligand, acts mainly as an activator of gene expression due to weak binding to corepressors. In concert with RARG, required for skeletal growth, matrix homeostasis and growth plate function.
Gene Name:
RARB
Uniprot ID:
P10826
Molecular Weight:
50488.63 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC500.85 uMATG_RARb_TRANSAttagene
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Receptor for retinoic acid. Retinoic acid receptors bind as heterodimers to their target response elements in response to their ligands, all-trans or 9-cis retinoic acid, and regulate gene expression in various biological processes. The RXR/RAR heterodimers bind to the retinoic acid response elements (RARE) composed of tandem 5'-AGGTCA-3' sites known as DR1-DR5. In the absence of ligand, the RXR-RAR heterodimers associate with a multiprotein complex containing transcription corepressors that induce histone acetylation, chromatin condensation and transcriptional suppression. On ligand binding, the corepressors dissociate from the receptors and associate with the coactivators leading to transcriptional activation. RARA plays an essential role in the regulation of retinoic acid-induced germ cell development during spermatogenesis. Has a role in the survival of early spermatocytes at the beginning prophase of meiosis. In Sertoli cells, may promote the survival and development of early meiotic prophase spermatocytes. In concert with RARG, required for skeletal growth, matrix homeostasis and growth plate function (By similarity). Regulates expression of target genes in a ligand-dependent manner by recruiting chromatin complexes containing KMT2E/MLL5. Mediates retinoic acid-induced granulopoiesis.
Gene Name:
RARA
Uniprot ID:
P10276
Molecular Weight:
50770.805 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC500.94 uMATG_RARa_TRANSAttagene
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Nuclear hormone receptor. Transcription factor that mediates the action of vitamin D3 by controlling the expression of hormone sensitive genes. Recruited to promoters via its interaction with BAZ1B/WSTF which mediates the interaction with acetylated histones, an essential step for VDR-promoter association. Plays a central role in calcium homeostasis.
Gene Name:
VDR
Uniprot ID:
P11473
Molecular Weight:
48288.64 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC500.97 uMATG_VDRE_CISAttagene
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Nuclear hormone receptor. The steroid hormones and their receptors are involved in the regulation of eukaryotic gene expression and affect cellular proliferation and differentiation in target tissues. Ligand-dependent nuclear transactivation involves either direct homodimer binding to a palindromic estrogen response element (ERE) sequence or association with other DNA-binding transcription factors, such as AP-1/c-Jun, c-Fos, ATF-2, Sp1 and Sp3, to mediate ERE-independent signaling. Ligand binding induces a conformational change allowing subsequent or combinatorial association with multiprotein coactivator complexes through LXXLL motifs of their respective components. Mutual transrepression occurs between the estrogen receptor (ER) and NF-kappa-B in a cell-type specific manner. Decreases NF-kappa-B DNA-binding activity and inhibits NF-kappa-B-mediated transcription from the IL6 promoter and displace RELA/p65 and associated coregulators from the promoter. Recruited to the NF-kappa-B response element of the CCL2 and IL8 promoters and can displace CREBBP. Present with NF-kappa-B components RELA/p65 and NFKB1/p50 on ERE sequences. Can also act synergistically with NF-kappa-B to activate transcription involving respective recruitment adjacent response elements; the function involves CREBBP. Can activate the transcriptional activity of TFF1. Also mediates membrane-initiated estrogen signaling involving various kinase cascades. Isoform 3 is involved in activation of NOS3 and endothelial nitric oxide production. Isoforms lacking one or several functional domains are thought to modulate transcriptional activity by competitive ligand or DNA binding and/or heterodimerization with the full length receptor. Essential for MTA1-mediated transcriptional regulation of BRCA1 and BCAS3. Isoform 3 can bind to ERE and inhibit isoform 1.
Gene Name:
ESR1
Uniprot ID:
P03372
Molecular Weight:
66215.45 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC507.77 uMATG_ERa_TRANSAttagene
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Ligand-activated transcription factor. Key regulator of lipid metabolism. Activated by the endogenous ligand 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphocholine (16:0/18:1-GPC). Activated by oleylethanolamide, a naturally occurring lipid that regulates satiety. Receptor for peroxisome proliferators such as hypolipidemic drugs and fatty acids. Regulates the peroxisomal beta-oxidation pathway of fatty acids. Functions as transcription activator for the ACOX1 and P450 genes. Transactivation activity requires heterodimerization with RXRA and is antagonized by NR2C2. May be required for the propagation of clock information to metabolic pathways regulated by PER2.
Gene Name:
PPARA
Uniprot ID:
Q07869
Molecular Weight:
52224.595 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC508.80 uMATG_PPRE_CISAttagene
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]