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Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2009-06-18 21:54:32 UTC
Update Date2014-12-24 20:23:06 UTC
Accession NumberT3D1064
Identification
Common Name[2-(Nitromethylene)-1-pyrrolidinyl]acetonitrile
ClassSmall Molecule
DescriptionAromatic heterocycle containing a nitromethylene substituent. Fast acting neurotoxicant, effective both by contact or oral ingestion; they are relatively safe to vertebrates and degrade rapidly in the environment. (1)
Compound Type
  • Amine
  • Cyanide Compound
  • Nitrile
  • Nitromethylene
  • Organic Compound
  • Pesticide
  • Synthetic Compound
Chemical Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Synonym
2-[2-(Nitromethylidene)pyrrolidin-1-yl]acetonitrile
[(2Z)-2-(Nitromethylene)pyrrolidin-1-yl]acetonitrile
Chemical FormulaC7H9N3O2
Average Molecular Mass167.165 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass167.069 g/mol
CAS Registry Number91417-82-2
IUPAC Name2-[2-(nitromethylidene)pyrrolidin-1-yl]acetonitrile
Traditional Name2-[2-(nitromethylidene)pyrrolidin-1-yl]acetonitrile
SMILES[O-][N+](=O)\C=C1\CCCN1CC#N
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/C7H9N3O2/c8-3-5-9-4-1-2-7(9)6-10(11)12/h6H,1-2,4-5H2/b7-6-
InChI KeyInChIKey=UUBCVVUIZRGQQU-SREVYHEPSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as n-alkylpyrrolidines. N-alkylpyrrolidines are compounds containing a pyrrolidine moiety that is substituted at the N1-position with an alkyl group. Pyrrolidine is a five-membered saturated aliphatic heterocycle with one nitrogen atom and four carbon atoms.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganoheterocyclic compounds
ClassPyrrolidines
Sub ClassN-alkylpyrrolidines
Direct ParentN-alkylpyrrolidines
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • N-alkylpyrrolidine
  • Alpha-aminonitrile
  • Organic nitro compound
  • Tertiary aliphatic amine
  • Tertiary amine
  • C-nitro compound
  • Azacycle
  • Organic 1,3-dipolar compound
  • Propargyl-type 1,3-dipolar organic compound
  • Allyl-type 1,3-dipolar organic compound
  • Organic oxoazanium
  • Nitrile
  • Carbonitrile
  • Enamine
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Amine
  • Aliphatic heteromonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External DescriptorsNot Available
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
OriginExogenous
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationsNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
ApplicationsNot Available
Biological RolesNot Available
Chemical RolesNot Available
Physical Properties
StateSolid
AppearanceWhite powder.
Experimental Properties
PropertyValue
Melting PointNot Available
Boiling PointNot Available
SolubilityNot Available
LogPNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility10.6 g/LALOGPS
logP-0.06ALOGPS
logP-0.23ChemAxon
logS-1.2ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Basic)0.99ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area72.85 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count2ChemAxon
Refractivity43.66 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability15.74 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-014i-1900000000-56670ddc768bda48c749JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-0006-8900000000-7a26ce7b0af3045fea0dJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-052f-9000000000-d6bccb19b75c4e468ff9JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-014j-0900000000-0771d7a460bb18c0b3b7JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-014i-0900000000-5f1c616cb2029addab3aJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0k96-9700000000-54b52dd3b1c0371e6030JSpectraViewer
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureNot Available
Mechanism of Toxicity Acts as a neurotransmitter mimic , having both excitatory and depressant effects, eventually blocking postsynaptic nicotinic receptors. (1) Organic nitriles decompose into cyanide ions both in vivo and in vitro. Consequently the primary mechanism of toxicity for organic nitriles is their production of toxic cyanide ions or hydrogen cyanide. Cyanide is an inhibitor of cytochrome c oxidase in the fourth complex of the electron transport chain (found in the membrane of the mitochondria of eukaryotic cells). It complexes with the ferric iron atom in this enzyme. The binding of cyanide to this cytochrome prevents transport of electrons from cytochrome c oxidase to oxygen. As a result, the electron transport chain is disrupted and the cell can no longer aerobically produce ATP for energy. Tissues that mainly depend on aerobic respiration, such as the central nervous system and the heart, are particularly affected. Cyanide is also known produce some of its toxic effects by binding to catalase, glutathione peroxidase, methemoglobin, hydroxocobalamin, phosphatase, tyrosinase, ascorbic acid oxidase, xanthine oxidase, succinic dehydrogenase, and Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase. Cyanide binds to the ferric ion of methemoglobin to form inactive cyanmethemoglobin. (3)
MetabolismOrganic nitriles are converted into cyanide ions through the action of cytochrome P450 enzymes in the liver. Cyanide is rapidly absorbed and distributed throughout the body. Cyanide is mainly metabolized into thiocyanate by either rhodanese or 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfur transferase. Cyanide metabolites are excreted in the urine. (2)
Toxicity ValuesNot Available
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)No indication of carcinogenicity to humans (not listed by IARC).
Uses/SourcesNitromethylenes are used as pesticides. (1)
Minimum Risk LevelNot Available
Health EffectsNitromethylenes are neurotoxic. (1)
SymptomsNot Available
TreatmentNot Available
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDNot Available
HMDB IDNot Available
PubChem Compound ID2247078
ChEMBL IDNot Available
ChemSpider ID1681488
KEGG IDNot Available
UniProt IDNot Available
OMIM ID
ChEBI IDNot Available
BioCyc IDNot Available
CTD IDNot Available
Stitch ID[2-(Nitromethylene)-1-pyrrolidinyl]acetonitrile
PDB IDNot Available
ACToR IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
MSDSNot Available
General References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
  2. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2006). Toxicological profile for cyanide. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
  3. Wikipedia. Cyanide poisoning. Last Updated 30 March 2009. [Link]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated GenesNot Available
Down-Regulated GenesNot Available

Targets

General Function:
Ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
After binding acetylcholine, the AChR responds by an extensive change in conformation that affects all subunits and leads to opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane.
Gene Name:
CHRNB1
Uniprot ID:
P11230
Molecular Weight:
56697.9 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
After binding acetylcholine, the AChR responds by an extensive change in conformation that affects all subunits and leads to opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane.
Gene Name:
CHRNA3
Uniprot ID:
P32297
Molecular Weight:
57479.54 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
After binding acetylcholine, the AChR responds by an extensive change in conformation that affects all subunits and leads to opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane permeable to sodium ions.
Gene Name:
CHRNA4
Uniprot ID:
P43681
Molecular Weight:
69956.47 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
After binding acetylcholine, the AChR responds by an extensive change in conformation that affects all subunits and leads to opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane.
Gene Name:
CHRNA5
Uniprot ID:
P30532
Molecular Weight:
53053.965 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
After binding acetylcholine, the AChR responds by an extensive change in conformation that affects all subunits and leads to opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane permeable to sodiun ions.
Gene Name:
CHRNB2
Uniprot ID:
P17787
Molecular Weight:
57018.575 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.