Tmic
You are using an unsupported browser. Please upgrade your browser to a newer version to get the best experience on Toxin, Toxin Target Database.
Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2009-06-18 21:54:33 UTC
Update Date2014-12-24 20:23:07 UTC
Accession NumberT3D1088
Identification
Common Name(±)-Metalaxyl
ClassSmall Molecule
Description(±)-Metalaxyl is a systemic agricultural fungicide belonging to the family of Depsipeptides. These are natural or synthetic compounds having sequences of amino and hydroxy carboxylic acid residues (usually I-amino and I-hydroxy acids), commonly but not necessarily regularly alternating.
Compound Type
  • Amide
  • Amine
  • Aromatic Hydrocarbon
  • Chloroacetanilide
  • Ester
  • Ether
  • Food Toxin
  • Household Toxin
  • Metabolite
  • Organic Compound
  • Organochloride
  • Pesticide
  • Synthetic Compound
Chemical Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Synonym
(+-)-Metalaxyl
(r)-Metalaxyl
(±)-metalaxyl
Allegiance
Apron
Apron 2E
Apron FL
Apron SD 35
Caswell No. 375AA
D,L-N-(2,6-Dimethylphenyl)-N-(2'-methoxyacetyl)alaninate de methyle
Mefenoxam
Metalasyl
Metalaxil
Metalaxyl
Metanaxin
Metasyl
Metaxanin
Methyl 2-[(methoxyacetyl)-2,6-dimethylanilino]propanoate
Methyl N-(2,6-dimethylphenyl)-N-(methoxyacetyl)-DL-alaninate
Methyl N-(2-methoxyacetyl)-N-(2,6-xylyl)-DL-alaninate
N-(2,6-Dimethylphenyl)-N-(methoxyacetyl)-alanine methyl ester
rac-Metalaxyl
Ridomil 2E
Ridomil 72WP
Ridomil vino
Subdue 2E
Subdue 5SP
Chemical FormulaC15H21NO4
Average Molecular Mass279.332 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass279.147 g/mol
CAS Registry Number57837-19-1
IUPAC Namemethyl 2-[N-(2,6-dimethylphenyl)-2-methoxyacetamido]propanoate
Traditional Name(+-)-metalaxyl
SMILESCOCC(=O)N(C(C)C(=O)OC)C1=C(C)C=CC=C1C
InChI IdentifierInChI=1/C15H21NO4/c1-10-7-6-8-11(2)14(10)16(13(17)9-19-4)12(3)15(18)20-5/h6-8,12H,9H2,1-5H3
InChI KeyInChIKey=ZQEIXNIJLIKNTD-UHFFFAOYNA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as alpha amino acid esters. These are ester derivatives of alpha amino acids.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic acids and derivatives
ClassCarboxylic acids and derivatives
Sub ClassAmino acids, peptides, and analogues
Direct ParentAlpha amino acid esters
Alternative ParentsNot Available
SubstituentsNot Available
Molecular FrameworkAromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External DescriptorsNot Available
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
OriginExogenous
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationsNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
Applications
Biological Roles
Chemical RolesNot Available
Physical Properties
StateSolid
AppearanceColorless, odorless crystal (8).
Experimental Properties
PropertyValue
Melting Point71 - 72°C
Boiling PointNot Available
Solubility8.4 mg/mL at 22°C [TOMLIN,C (1997)]
LogPNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility1.34 g/LALOGPS
logP1.47ALOGPS
logP2.12ChemAxon
logS-2.3ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)15.8ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-4.2ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area55.84 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count6ChemAxon
Refractivity75.92 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability29.51 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0592-3930000000-d56e2942ba3f6e452344View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-0002-0090000000-aad829151558e72524f6View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-001i-0090000000-2591a5eaf859e460f866View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-006x-0970000000-d0bbdb2f36069fe95a29View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-01ox-0910000000-33ece08e09c98f660242View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-03di-0900000000-3e0d4d4098a62b892e27View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-03ea-0900000000-e062baf0dcfc758aedc2View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-001i-0900000000-e113e4cc9de04128ed78View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-001i-0090000000-4534a8177ab4532a8e38View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-006x-0970000000-c891e8d01ae69479d14cView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-01ox-0910000000-0830c1f0a544a6ba9de5View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-03di-0900000000-de907346a6e657727d0bView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-03ea-0900000000-f0e6fbc8971da01db24aView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-001i-0900000000-eaafbbda1ffa7d96c621View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-0002-0090000000-82f49b397d4027b60e85View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positivesplash10-022d-0970000000-9799c863c08322bc95a3View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-001i-0090000000-6264726ac6e0d497a860View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-00ej-4390000000-919b2c2707afbecd452eView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0002-1900000000-e040c95fea0f0da19cbeView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-004j-0090000000-9fa282d3b264d46721d9View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-002b-2290000000-ace0e4668aacb7f19324View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-05fu-7920000000-fb750174ac7f551477c1View in MoNA
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-0002-9820000000-d8cdd771b6de936d1891View in MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureInhalation (8) ; oral (8) ; dermal (8) ; eye contact (8).
Mechanism of ToxicityBinds to nAChRs in nervous systems. It also causes endocrine disruption in humans by binding to and inhibiting the estrogen receptor. (3, 2)
MetabolismThree major and one minor metabolic pathways are proposed. One pathway involves hydrolysis of the ether, followed by oxidation of the resulting alcohol, ester hydrolysis, or N-dealkylation of the ester chain. A second pathway involves oxidation of an aromatic methyl to the benzylic acid or ester hydrolysis. The third major pathway is ester hydrolysis, sometimes followed by benzylic acid formation. The minor pathway involves hydroxylation at the meta position of the phenyl ring. The majority of urinary metabolites are conjugated (glucuronide or sulfate) whereas fecal metabolites are mostly unconjugated. The major metabolite in urine & feces is N-(2,6-dimethylphenyl)-N-(hydroxyacetyl) alanine. Metalaxyl is excreted in urine and the feces. (9)
Toxicity ValuesLD50: 669 mg/kg (Oral, Rat) (9) LD50: 7120 mg/kg (Oral, hamster) (9) LD50: >6000 mg/kg (Dermal, Rabbit) (9)
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)No indication of carcinogenicity to humans (not listed by IARC).
Uses/SourcesWidely used selective herbicide worldwide in corn, soybean and other crop cultures. Elevated concentrations of this herbicide and its degradation products have been detected in surface and groundwater. (1)
Minimum Risk LevelNot Available
Health EffectsARDS/acute lung injury, burns of the esophagus or gastrointestinal tract can result from metalaxyl poisoning. (4)
SymptomsMetalaxyl is mildly irritating to the skin and eyes. Exposure to metalaxyl often results in such nonspecific symptoms as headache, dizziness, weakness, and nausea. Metaxyl poisoning can produce an allergic hypersensitivity dermatitis or asthma with bronchospasm and wheezing with chronic exposure. (4)
TreatmentConsider gastric lavage, as well was dilution with milk or water after ingestion. Administer charcoal as a slurry following ingestion; however, activated charcoal should not be given to patients ingesting strong acidic or basic caustic chemicals. In case of inhalation, move patient to fresh air. Monitor for respiratory distress. If cough or difficulty breathing develops, evaluate for respiratory tract irritation, bronchitis, or pneumonitis. Administer oxygen and assist ventilation as required. Treat bronchospasm with inhaled beta2 agonist and oral or parenteral corticosteroids. Irrigate exposed eyes with copious amounts of room temperature water for at least 15 minutes. Following dermal exposure, remove contaminated clothing and wash exposed area thoroughly with soap and water. Treat dermal irritation or burns with standard topical therapy. Patients developing dermal hypersensitivity reactions may require treatment with systemic or topical corticosteroids or antihistamines. Administer symptomatic treatment as necessary. (4)
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDNot Available
HMDB IDHMDB31802
PubChem Compound ID42586
ChEMBL IDNot Available
ChemSpider ID38839
KEGG IDC10947
UniProt IDNot Available
OMIM ID
ChEBI ID6790
BioCyc IDCPD0-1558
CTD IDNot Available
Stitch IDMetalaxyl
PDB IDNot Available
ACToR ID6479
Wikipedia LinkNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
MSDST3D1088.pdf
General References
  1. Osano O, Admiraal W, Klamer HJ, Pastor D, Bleeker EA: Comparative toxic and genotoxic effects of chloroacetanilides, formamidines and their degradation products on Vibrio fischeri and Chironomus riparius. Environ Pollut. 2002;119(2):195-202. [12152826 ]
  2. Taccone-Gallucci M, Manca-di-Villahermosa S, Battistini L, Stuffler RG, Tedesco M, Maccarrone M: N-3 PUFAs reduce oxidative stress in ESRD patients on maintenance HD by inhibiting 5-lipoxygenase activity. Kidney Int. 2006 Apr;69(8):1450-4. [16531984 ]
  3. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
  4. Rumack BH (2009). POISINDEX(R) Information System. Englewood, CO: Micromedex, Inc. CCIS Volume 141, edition expires Aug, 2009.
  5. Luft S, Milki E, Glustrom E, Ampiah-Bonney R, O'Hara P. Binding of Organochloride and Pyrethroid Pesticides To Estrogen Receptors α and β: A Fluorescence Polarization Assay. Biophysical Journal 2009;96(3):444a.
  6. Yannai, Shmuel. (2004) Dictionary of food compounds with CD-ROM: Additives, flavors, and ingredients. Boca Raton: Chapman & Hall/CRC.
  7. Wikipedia. Metalaxyl. Last Updated 22 July 2009. [Link]
  8. Extension Toxicology Network (1996). Pesticide Information Profile for Metalaxyl. A Pesticide Information Project of Cooperative Extension Offices of Cornell University, Michigan State University, Oregon State University, and University of California at Davis. [Link]
  9. USEPA (2002). Reregistration Eligibility Decision - Metalaxyl. [Link]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated GenesNot Available
Down-Regulated GenesNot Available

Targets

General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Nuclear hormone receptor. The steroid hormones and their receptors are involved in the regulation of eukaryotic gene expression and affect cellular proliferation and differentiation in target tissues. Ligand-dependent nuclear transactivation involves either direct homodimer binding to a palindromic estrogen response element (ERE) sequence or association with other DNA-binding transcription factors, such as AP-1/c-Jun, c-Fos, ATF-2, Sp1 and Sp3, to mediate ERE-independent signaling. Ligand binding induces a conformational change allowing subsequent or combinatorial association with multiprotein coactivator complexes through LXXLL motifs of their respective components. Mutual transrepression occurs between the estrogen receptor (ER) and NF-kappa-B in a cell-type specific manner. Decreases NF-kappa-B DNA-binding activity and inhibits NF-kappa-B-mediated transcription from the IL6 promoter and displace RELA/p65 and associated coregulators from the promoter. Recruited to the NF-kappa-B response element of the CCL2 and IL8 promoters and can displace CREBBP. Present with NF-kappa-B components RELA/p65 and NFKB1/p50 on ERE sequences. Can also act synergistically with NF-kappa-B to activate transcription involving respective recruitment adjacent response elements; the function involves CREBBP. Can activate the transcriptional activity of TFF1. Also mediates membrane-initiated estrogen signaling involving various kinase cascades. Isoform 3 is involved in activation of NOS3 and endothelial nitric oxide production. Isoforms lacking one or several functional domains are thought to modulate transcriptional activity by competitive ligand or DNA binding and/or heterodimerization with the full length receptor. Essential for MTA1-mediated transcriptional regulation of BRCA1 and BCAS3. Isoform 3 can bind to ERE and inhibit isoform 1.
Gene Name:
ESR1
Uniprot ID:
P03372
Molecular Weight:
66215.45 Da
References
  1. Taccone-Gallucci M, Manca-di-Villahermosa S, Battistini L, Stuffler RG, Tedesco M, Maccarrone M: N-3 PUFAs reduce oxidative stress in ESRD patients on maintenance HD by inhibiting 5-lipoxygenase activity. Kidney Int. 2006 Apr;69(8):1450-4. [16531984 ]
  2. Luft S, Milki E, Glustrom E, Ampiah-Bonney R, O'Hara P. Binding of Organochloride and Pyrethroid Pesticides To Estrogen Receptors α and β: A Fluorescence Polarization Assay. Biophysical Journal 2009;96(3):444a.
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Nuclear hormone receptor. Binds estrogens with an affinity similar to that of ESR1, and activates expression of reporter genes containing estrogen response elements (ERE) in an estrogen-dependent manner (PubMed:20074560). Isoform beta-cx lacks ligand binding ability and has no or only very low ere binding activity resulting in the loss of ligand-dependent transactivation ability. DNA-binding by ESR1 and ESR2 is rapidly lost at 37 degrees Celsius in the absence of ligand while in the presence of 17 beta-estradiol and 4-hydroxy-tamoxifen loss in DNA-binding at elevated temperature is more gradual.
Gene Name:
ESR2
Uniprot ID:
Q92731
Molecular Weight:
59215.765 Da
References
  1. Taccone-Gallucci M, Manca-di-Villahermosa S, Battistini L, Stuffler RG, Tedesco M, Maccarrone M: N-3 PUFAs reduce oxidative stress in ESRD patients on maintenance HD by inhibiting 5-lipoxygenase activity. Kidney Int. 2006 Apr;69(8):1450-4. [16531984 ]
  2. Luft S, Milki E, Glustrom E, Ampiah-Bonney R, O'Hara P. Binding of Organochloride and Pyrethroid Pesticides To Estrogen Receptors α and β: A Fluorescence Polarization Assay. Biophysical Journal 2009;96(3):444a.
General Function:
Receptor binding
Specific Function:
Ionotropic receptor with a probable role in the modulation of auditory stimuli. Agonist binding may induce an extensive change in conformation that affects all subunits and leads to opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane. The channel is permeable to a range of divalent cations including calcium, the influx of which may activate a potassium current which hyperpolarizes the cell membrane. In the ear, this may lead to a reduction in basilar membrane motion, altering the activity of auditory nerve fibers and reducing the range of dynamic hearing. This may protect against acoustic trauma.
Gene Name:
CHRNA10
Uniprot ID:
Q9GZZ6
Molecular Weight:
49704.295 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
After binding acetylcholine, the AChR responds by an extensive change in conformation that affects all subunits and leads to opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane.
Gene Name:
CHRNA3
Uniprot ID:
P32297
Molecular Weight:
57479.54 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
After binding acetylcholine, the AChR responds by an extensive change in conformation that affects all subunits and leads to opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane permeable to sodium ions.
Gene Name:
CHRNA4
Uniprot ID:
P43681
Molecular Weight:
69956.47 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
After binding acetylcholine, the AChR responds by an extensive change in conformation that affects all subunits and leads to opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane.
Gene Name:
CHRNA5
Uniprot ID:
P30532
Molecular Weight:
53053.965 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Acetylcholine-activated cation-selective channel activity
Specific Function:
After binding acetylcholine, the AChR responds by an extensive change in conformation that affects all subunits and leads to opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane.
Gene Name:
CHRNA6
Uniprot ID:
Q15825
Molecular Weight:
56897.745 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Toxic substance binding
Specific Function:
After binding acetylcholine, the AChR responds by an extensive change in conformation that affects all subunits and leads to opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane. The channel is blocked by alpha-bungarotoxin.
Gene Name:
CHRNA7
Uniprot ID:
P36544
Molecular Weight:
56448.925 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Calcium channel activity
Specific Function:
Ionotropic receptor with a probable role in the modulation of auditory stimuli. Agonist binding induces a conformation change that leads to the opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane (PubMed:11752216, PubMed:25282151). The channel is permeable to a range of divalent cations including calcium, the influx of which may activate a potassium current which hyperpolarizes the cell membrane (PubMed:11752216, PubMed:25282151). In the ear, this may lead to a reduction in basilar membrane motion, altering the activity of auditory nerve fibers and reducing the range of dynamic hearing. This may protect against acoustic trauma. May also regulate keratinocyte adhesion (PubMed:11021840).
Gene Name:
CHRNA9
Uniprot ID:
Q9UGM1
Molecular Weight:
54806.63 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
After binding acetylcholine, the AChR responds by an extensive change in conformation that affects all subunits and leads to opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane permeable to sodiun ions.
Gene Name:
CHRNB2
Uniprot ID:
P17787
Molecular Weight:
57018.575 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Drug binding
Specific Function:
After binding acetylcholine, the AChR responds by an extensive change in conformation that affects all subunits and leads to opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane.
Gene Name:
CHRNB3
Uniprot ID:
Q05901
Molecular Weight:
52728.215 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
After binding acetylcholine, the AChR responds by an extensive change in conformation that affects all subunits and leads to opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane.
Gene Name:
CHRNB4
Uniprot ID:
P30926
Molecular Weight:
56378.985 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Nuclear receptor that binds and is activated by variety of endogenous and xenobiotic compounds. Transcription factor that activates the transcription of multiple genes involved in the metabolism and secretion of potentially harmful xenobiotics, drugs and endogenous compounds. Activated by the antibiotic rifampicin and various plant metabolites, such as hyperforin, guggulipid, colupulone, and isoflavones. Response to specific ligands is species-specific. Activated by naturally occurring steroids, such as pregnenolone and progesterone. Binds to a response element in the promoters of the CYP3A4 and ABCB1/MDR1 genes.
Gene Name:
NR1I2
Uniprot ID:
O75469
Molecular Weight:
49761.245 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC500.61 uMNVS_NR_hPXRNovascreen
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Mediates the Na(+)-independent uptake of organic anions such as pravastatin, taurocholate, methotrexate, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, 17-beta-glucuronosyl estradiol, estrone sulfate, prostaglandin E2, thromboxane B2, leukotriene C3, leukotriene E4, thyroxine and triiodothyronine. Involved in the clearance of bile acids and organic anions from the liver.
Gene Name:
SLCO1B1
Uniprot ID:
Q9Y6L6
Molecular Weight:
76447.99 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC503.72 uMCLZD_SLCO1B1_48CellzDirect
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Scaffold protein binding
Specific Function:
Receptor for extracellular adenine nucleotides such as ATP and ADP. In platelets binding to ADP leads to mobilization of intracellular calcium ions via activation of phospholipase C, a change in platelet shape, and probably to platelet aggregation.
Gene Name:
P2RY1
Uniprot ID:
P47900
Molecular Weight:
42071.08 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC505.20 uMNVS_GPCR_hPY2Novascreen
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Acts as a 1,4-cineole 2-exo-monooxygenase.
Gene Name:
CYP2B6
Uniprot ID:
P20813
Molecular Weight:
56277.81 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC506.33 uMCLZD_CYP2B6_6CellzDirect
AC507.76 uMCLZD_CYP2B6_24CellzDirect
AC508.76 uMCLZD_CYP2B6_48CellzDirect
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation reactions (e.g. caffeine 8-oxidation, omeprazole sulphoxidation, midazolam 1'-hydroxylation and midazolam 4-hydroxylation) of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Acts as a 1,8-cineole 2-exo-monooxygenase. The enzyme also hydroxylates etoposide (PubMed:11159812). Catalyzes 4-beta-hydroxylation of cholesterol. May catalyze 25-hydroxylation of cholesterol in vitro (PubMed:21576599).
Gene Name:
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID:
P08684
Molecular Weight:
57342.67 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC508.73 uMCLZD_CYP3A4_48CellzDirect
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]