You are using an unsupported browser. Please upgrade your browser to a newer version to get the best experience on Toxin, Toxin Target Database.
Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2009-06-19 21:58:18 UTC
Update Date2014-12-24 20:23:08 UTC
Accession NumberT3D1097
Identification
Common NameBarium cadmium stearate
ClassSmall Molecule
DescriptionBarium cadmium stearate is a chemical compound of barium and cadmium. Barium is a metallic alkaline earth metal with the symbol Ba, and atomic number 56. It never occurs in nature in its pure form due to its reactivity with air, but combines with other chemicals such as sulfur or carbon and oxygen to form barium compounds that may be found as minerals. Cadmium is a transition metal and chemical element with the symbol Cd and atomic number 48. It is found naturally in the earth's crust, though rarely on it's own. (6, 12)
Compound Type
  • Barium Compound
  • Cadmium Compound
  • Industrial/Workplace Toxin
  • Inorganic Compound
  • Pollutant
  • Synthetic Compound
Chemical Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Synonym
Barium cadmium stearic acid
Barium cadmium tetrastearate
Cadmium barium stearate
Octadecanoic acid, barium cadmium salt (4:1:1)
Stearic acid, barium cadmium salt (4:1:1)
Chemical FormulaC72H148BaCaO8
Average Molecular Mass1319.346 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass1318.985 g/mol
CAS Registry Number1191-79-3
IUPAC Nametetrakis(octadecanoic acid) barium dihydride calcium dihydride
Traditional Nametetrakis(stearic acid) barium dihydride calcium dihydride
SMILES[CaH2].[BaH2].CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC(O)=O.CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC(O)=O.CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC(O)=O.CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC(O)=O
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/4C18H36O2.Ba.Ca.4H/c4*1-2-3-4-5-6-7-8-9-10-11-12-13-14-15-16-17-18(19)20;;;;;;/h4*2-17H2,1H3,(H,19,20);;;;;;
InChI KeyInChIKey=YSVUBLFZIOGXCN-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as long-chain fatty acids. These are fatty acids with an aliphatic tail that contains between 13 and 21 carbon atoms.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassLipids and lipid-like molecules
ClassFatty Acyls
Sub ClassFatty acids and conjugates
Direct ParentLong-chain fatty acids
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Long-chain fatty acid
  • Straight chain fatty acid
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkNot Available
External DescriptorsNot Available
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
OriginExogenous
Cellular Locations
  • Membrane
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationsNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
ApplicationsNot Available
Biological RolesNot Available
Chemical RolesNot Available
Physical Properties
StateSolid
AppearanceWhite powder.
Experimental Properties
PropertyValue
Melting PointNot Available
Boiling PointNot Available
SolubilityNot Available
LogPNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility6.6e-05 g/LALOGPS
logP8.02ALOGPS
logP7.15ChemAxon
logS-6.6ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)4.95ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area37.3 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count64ChemAxon
Refractivity86.29 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability38.64 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-004i-0009000000-d390d93990f529e9ce90JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-004i-0009000000-d390d93990f529e9ce90JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-004i-0009000000-d390d93990f529e9ce90JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-004i-0009000000-ab3fed1dffdee3f45b55JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-004i-0009000000-ab3fed1dffdee3f45b55JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-004i-0009000000-ab3fed1dffdee3f45b55JSpectraViewer
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureOral (6) ; inhalation (6) ; dermal (6)
Mechanism of ToxicityBarium is a competitive potassium channel antagonist that blocks the passive efflux of intracellular potassium, resulting in a shift of potassium from extracellular to intracellular compartments. The intracellular translocation of potassium results in a decreased resting membrane potential, making the muscle fibers electrically unexcitable and causing paralysis. Some of these barium's effects may also be due to barium induced neuromuscular blockade and membrane depolarization. Cadmium initially binds to metallothionein and is transported to the kidney. Toxic effects are observed once the concentration of cadmium exceeds that of available metallothionein, and it has also been shown that the cadmium-metallothionein complex may be damaging. Accumulation of cadmium in the kidney results in increased excretion of vital low and high weight molecular proteins. Cadmium is a high affinity zinc analog and can interfere in its biological processes. It also binds to and activates the estrogen receptor, likely stimulating the growth of certain types of cancer cells and causing other estrogenic effects, such as reproductive dysfunction. Cadmium causes cell apoptosis by activating mitogen-activated protein kinases. (7, 1, 2, 3, 12)
MetabolismBarium compounds are absorbed via ingestion and inhalation, the extent of which depends on the individual compound. In the body, the majority of the barium is found in the bone, while small amounts exists in the muscle, adipose, skin, and connective tissue. Barium is not metabolized in the body, but it may be transported or incorporated into complexes or tissues. Barium is excreted in the urine and faeces. Cadmium is absorbed from oral, inhalation, and dermal routes. Cadmium initially binds to metallothionein and albumin and is transported mainly to the kidney and liver. Toxic effects are observed once the concentration of cadmium exceeds that of available metallothionein, and it has also been shown that the cadmium-metallothionein complex may be damaging. Cadmium is not known to undergo any direct metabolic conversion and is excreted unchanged, mainly in the urine. (6, 12)
Toxicity ValuesNot Available
Lethal Dose1 to 15 grams for an adult human (barium salts). (5)
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)1, carcinogenic to humans. (10)
Uses/SourcesNot Available
Minimum Risk LevelIntermediate Oral: 0.2 mg/kg/day (Barium) (9) Chronic Oral: 0.2 mg/kg/day (Barium) (9) Acute Inhalation: 0.00003 mg/m3 (Cadmium) (9) Chronic Inhalation: 0.00001 mg/m3 (Cadmium) (9) Intermediate Oral: 0.0005 mg/kg/day (Cadmium) (9) Chronic Oral: 0.0001 mg/kg/day (Cadmium) (9)
Health EffectsThe health effects of the different barium compounds depend on how well the compound dissolves in water or the stomach contents. At low doses, barium acts as a muscle stimulant, while higher doses affect the nervous system, causing cardiac irregularities, tremors, weakness, anxiety, dyspnea, paralysisand possibly death. Barium may also cause gastrointestinal disturbances, damage the kidneys and cause decreases in body weight. Chronic exposure to cadmium fumes can cause chemical pneumonitis, pulmonary edema, and lung diseases such as bronchitis and emphysema. Cadmium also accumulates in the kidneys, causing permanent damage. Loss of bone density also occurs. (6, 12)
SymptomsIngesting excess barium may cause vomiting, abdominal cramps, diarrhea, difficulties in breathing, increased or decreased blood pressure, numbness around the face, and muscle weakness. High levels may result in changes in heart rhythm or paralysis and possibly death. Acute inhalation of cadmium fumes results in metal fume fever, which is characterized by chills, fever, headache, weakness, dryness of the nose and throat, chest pain, and coughing. Ingestion of cadmium causes vomiting and diarrhea. (6, 12)
TreatmentIntravenous infusion of potassium often relieves many of the symptoms of barium toxicity. Cadmium poisoning is treated by removal from exposure and supportive care. If ingested, induced vomiting or gastric lavage may be performed. (11, 12)
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDNot Available
HMDB IDNot Available
PubChem Compound ID6336539
ChEMBL IDNot Available
ChemSpider IDNot Available
KEGG IDNot Available
UniProt IDNot Available
OMIM ID
ChEBI IDNot Available
BioCyc IDNot Available
CTD IDNot Available
Stitch IDBarium cadmium stearate
PDB IDNot Available
ACToR IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
MSDSNot Available
General References
  1. Tsuruoka S, Swenson ER, Fujimura A, Imai M: Mechanism of Cd-induced inhibition of Na-glucose cotransporter in rabbit proximal tubule cells: roles of luminal pH and membrane-bound carbonic anhydrase. Nephron Physiol. 2008;110(2):p11-20. doi: 10.1159/000161986. Epub 2008 Oct 13. [18849623 ]
  2. Zang Y, Odwin-Dacosta S, Yager JD: Effects of cadmium on estrogen receptor mediated signaling and estrogen induced DNA synthesis in T47D human breast cancer cells. Toxicol Lett. 2009 Jan 30;184(2):134-8. doi: 10.1016/j.toxlet.2008.10.032. Epub 2008 Nov 11. [19041697 ]
  3. Chen L, Liu L, Luo Y, Huang S: MAPK and mTOR pathways are involved in cadmium-induced neuronal apoptosis. J Neurochem. 2008 Apr;105(1):251-61. Epub 2007 Nov 16. [18021293 ]
  4. Lewis RJ (1996). Sax's Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials. 9th ed. Volumes 1-3. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold.
  5. Gosselin RE, Smith RP, and Hodge HC (1984). Clinical Toxicology of Commercial Products. 5th ed. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins.
  6. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2008). Toxicological profile for cadmium. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
  7. OSHA (2005). Safety and Health Topics: Cadmium. Occupational Safety & Health Administrations. [Link]
  8. Wikipedia. Metallothionein. Last Updated 20 December 2008. [Link]
  9. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2001). Minimal Risk Levels (MRLs) for Hazardous Substances. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
  10. International Agency for Research on Cancer (2014). IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. [Link]
  11. International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS) INCHEM (1992). Poison Information Monograph for Cadmium. [Link]
  12. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2007). Toxicological profile for barium. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated GenesNot Available
Down-Regulated GenesNot Available

Targets

General Function:
Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate binding
Specific Function:
In the kidney, probably plays a major role in potassium homeostasis. Inward rectifier potassium channels are characterized by a greater tendency to allow potassium to flow into the cell rather than out of it. Their voltage dependence is regulated by the concentration of extracellular potassium; as external potassium is raised, the voltage range of the channel opening shifts to more positive voltages. The inward rectification is mainly due to the blockage of outward current by internal magnesium. This channel is activated by internal ATP and can be blocked by external barium.
Gene Name:
KCNJ1
Uniprot ID:
P48048
Molecular Weight:
44794.6 Da
References
  1. Alagem N, Dvir M, Reuveny E: Mechanism of Ba(2+) block of a mouse inwardly rectifying K+ channel: differential contribution by two discrete residues. J Physiol. 2001 Jul 15;534(Pt. 2):381-93. [11454958 ]
General Function:
Voltage-gated potassium channel activity
Specific Function:
This receptor is controlled by G proteins. Inward rectifier potassium channels are characterized by a greater tendency to allow potassium to flow into the cell rather than out of it. Their voltage dependence is regulated by the concentration of extracellular potassium; as external potassium is raised, the voltage range of the channel opening shifts to more positive voltages. The inward rectification is mainly due to the blockage of outward current by internal magnesium. Can be blocked by extracellular barium (By similarity). Subunit of ATP-sensitive potassium channels (KATP). Can form cardiac and smooth muscle-type KATP channels with ABCC9. KCNJ11 forms the channel pore while ABCC9 is required for activation and regulation.
Gene Name:
KCNJ11
Uniprot ID:
Q14654
Molecular Weight:
43540.375 Da
References
  1. Alagem N, Dvir M, Reuveny E: Mechanism of Ba(2+) block of a mouse inwardly rectifying K+ channel: differential contribution by two discrete residues. J Physiol. 2001 Jul 15;534(Pt. 2):381-93. [11454958 ]
General Function:
Inward rectifier potassium channel activity
Specific Function:
Inward rectifying potassium channel that is activated by phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate and that probably participates in controlling the resting membrane potential in electrically excitable cells. Probably participates in establishing action potential waveform and excitability of neuronal and muscle tissues. Inward rectifier potassium channels are characterized by a greater tendency to allow potassium to flow into the cell rather than out of it. Their voltage dependence is regulated by the concentration of extracellular potassium; as external potassium is raised, the voltage range of the channel opening shifts to more positive voltages. The inward rectification is mainly due to the blockage of outward current by internal magnesium.
Gene Name:
KCNJ12
Uniprot ID:
Q14500
Molecular Weight:
49000.6 Da
References
  1. Alagem N, Dvir M, Reuveny E: Mechanism of Ba(2+) block of a mouse inwardly rectifying K+ channel: differential contribution by two discrete residues. J Physiol. 2001 Jul 15;534(Pt. 2):381-93. [11454958 ]
General Function:
Inward rectifier potassium channel activity
Specific Function:
This potassium channel is controlled by G proteins. Inward rectifier potassium channels are characterized by a greater tendency to allow potassium to flow into the cell rather than out of it. Their voltage dependence is regulated by the concentration of extracellular potassium; as external potassium is raised, the voltage range of the channel opening shifts to more positive voltages. The inward rectification is mainly due to the blockage of outward current by internal magnesium. Can be blocked by external barium (By similarity).
Gene Name:
KCNJ8
Uniprot ID:
Q15842
Molecular Weight:
47967.455 Da
References
  1. Alagem N, Dvir M, Reuveny E: Mechanism of Ba(2+) block of a mouse inwardly rectifying K+ channel: differential contribution by two discrete residues. J Physiol. 2001 Jul 15;534(Pt. 2):381-93. [11454958 ]
5. ATP-sensitive potassium channel (Protein Group)
General Function:
Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate binding
Specific Function:
In the kidney, probably plays a major role in potassium homeostasis. Inward rectifier potassium channels are characterized by a greater tendency to allow potassium to flow into the cell rather than out of it. Their voltage dependence is regulated by the concentration of extracellular potassium; as external potassium is raised, the voltage range of the channel opening shifts to more positive voltages. The inward rectification is mainly due to the blockage of outward current by internal magnesium. This channel is activated by internal ATP and can be blocked by external barium.
Included Proteins:
P48048 , P78508 , Q14654 , Q14500 , Q9UNX9 , Q99712 , Q15842
References
  1. Alagem N, Dvir M, Reuveny E: Mechanism of Ba(2+) block of a mouse inwardly rectifying K+ channel: differential contribution by two discrete residues. J Physiol. 2001 Jul 15;534(Pt. 2):381-93. [11454958 ]
6. ATP-sensitive potassium channel (Protein Group)
General Function:
Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate binding
Specific Function:
In the kidney, probably plays a major role in potassium homeostasis. Inward rectifier potassium channels are characterized by a greater tendency to allow potassium to flow into the cell rather than out of it. Their voltage dependence is regulated by the concentration of extracellular potassium; as external potassium is raised, the voltage range of the channel opening shifts to more positive voltages. The inward rectification is mainly due to the blockage of outward current by internal magnesium. This channel is activated by internal ATP and can be blocked by external barium.
Included Proteins:
P48048 , P78508 , Q14654 , Q14500 , Q9UNX9 , Q99712 , Q15842
References
  1. Alagem N, Dvir M, Reuveny E: Mechanism of Ba(2+) block of a mouse inwardly rectifying K+ channel: differential contribution by two discrete residues. J Physiol. 2001 Jul 15;534(Pt. 2):381-93. [11454958 ]
7. ATP-sensitive potassium channel (Protein Group)
General Function:
Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate binding
Specific Function:
In the kidney, probably plays a major role in potassium homeostasis. Inward rectifier potassium channels are characterized by a greater tendency to allow potassium to flow into the cell rather than out of it. Their voltage dependence is regulated by the concentration of extracellular potassium; as external potassium is raised, the voltage range of the channel opening shifts to more positive voltages. The inward rectification is mainly due to the blockage of outward current by internal magnesium. This channel is activated by internal ATP and can be blocked by external barium.
Included Proteins:
P48048 , P78508 , Q14654 , Q14500 , Q9UNX9 , Q99712 , Q15842
References
  1. Alagem N, Dvir M, Reuveny E: Mechanism of Ba(2+) block of a mouse inwardly rectifying K+ channel: differential contribution by two discrete residues. J Physiol. 2001 Jul 15;534(Pt. 2):381-93. [11454958 ]
General Function:
Protein kinase inhibitor activity
Specific Function:
The JNK-interacting protein (JIP) group of scaffold proteins selectively mediates JNK signaling by aggregating specific components of the MAPK cascade to form a functional JNK signaling module. Required for JNK activation in response to excitotoxic stress. Cytoplasmic MAPK8IP1 causes inhibition of JNK-regulated activity by retaining JNK in the cytoplasm and inhibiting JNK phosphorylation of c-Jun. May also participate in ApoER2-specific reelin signaling. Directly, or indirectly, regulates GLUT2 gene expression and beta-cell function. Appears to have a role in cell signaling in mature and developing nerve terminals. May function as a regulator of vesicle transport, through interactions with the JNK-signaling components and motor proteins (By similarity). Functions as an anti-apoptotic protein and whose level seems to influence the beta-cell death or survival response.
Gene Name:
MAPK8IP1
Uniprot ID:
Q9UQF2
Molecular Weight:
77523.56 Da
References
  1. Chen L, Liu L, Luo Y, Huang S: MAPK and mTOR pathways are involved in cadmium-induced neuronal apoptosis. J Neurochem. 2008 Apr;105(1):251-61. Epub 2007 Nov 16. [18021293 ]
General Function:
Structural molecule activity
Specific Function:
The JNK-interacting protein (JIP) group of scaffold proteins selectively mediates JNK signaling by aggregating specific components of the MAPK cascade to form a functional JNK signaling module. JIP2 inhibits IL1 beta-induced apoptosis in insulin-secreting cells. May function as a regulator of vesicle transport, through interactions with the JNK-signaling components and motor proteins (By similarity).
Gene Name:
MAPK8IP2
Uniprot ID:
Q13387
Molecular Weight:
87973.915 Da
References
  1. Chen L, Liu L, Luo Y, Huang S: MAPK and mTOR pathways are involved in cadmium-induced neuronal apoptosis. J Neurochem. 2008 Apr;105(1):251-61. Epub 2007 Nov 16. [18021293 ]
General Function:
Receptor signaling complex scaffold activity
Specific Function:
The JNK-interacting protein (JIP) group of scaffold proteins selectively mediates JNK signaling by aggregating specific components of the MAPK cascade to form a functional JNK signaling module. May function as a regulator of vesicle transport, through interactions with the JNK-signaling components and motor proteins (By similarity).
Gene Name:
MAPK8IP3
Uniprot ID:
Q9UPT6
Molecular Weight:
147455.935 Da
References
  1. Chen L, Liu L, Luo Y, Huang S: MAPK and mTOR pathways are involved in cadmium-induced neuronal apoptosis. J Neurochem. 2008 Apr;105(1):251-61. Epub 2007 Nov 16. [18021293 ]
General Function:
Receptor signaling complex scaffold activity
Specific Function:
The JNK-interacting protein (JIP) group of scaffold proteins selectively mediates JNK signaling by aggregating specific components of the MAPK cascade to form a functional JNK signaling module. Isoform 5 may play a role in spermatozoa-egg-interaction.
Gene Name:
SPAG9
Uniprot ID:
O60271
Molecular Weight:
146204.38 Da
References
  1. Chen L, Liu L, Luo Y, Huang S: MAPK and mTOR pathways are involved in cadmium-induced neuronal apoptosis. J Neurochem. 2008 Apr;105(1):251-61. Epub 2007 Nov 16. [18021293 ]
General Function:
Titin binding
Specific Function:
Calmodulin mediates the control of a large number of enzymes, ion channels, aquaporins and other proteins by Ca(2+). Among the enzymes to be stimulated by the calmodulin-Ca(2+) complex are a number of protein kinases and phosphatases. Together with CCP110 and centrin, is involved in a genetic pathway that regulates the centrosome cycle and progression through cytokinesis.
Gene Name:
CALM1
Uniprot ID:
P0DP23
Molecular Weight:
16837.47 Da
References
  1. Kursula P, Majava V: A structural insight into lead neurotoxicity and calmodulin activation by heavy metals. Acta Crystallogr Sect F Struct Biol Cryst Commun. 2007 Aug 1;63(Pt 8):653-6. Epub 2007 Jul 28. [17671360 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Nuclear hormone receptor. The steroid hormones and their receptors are involved in the regulation of eukaryotic gene expression and affect cellular proliferation and differentiation in target tissues. Ligand-dependent nuclear transactivation involves either direct homodimer binding to a palindromic estrogen response element (ERE) sequence or association with other DNA-binding transcription factors, such as AP-1/c-Jun, c-Fos, ATF-2, Sp1 and Sp3, to mediate ERE-independent signaling. Ligand binding induces a conformational change allowing subsequent or combinatorial association with multiprotein coactivator complexes through LXXLL motifs of their respective components. Mutual transrepression occurs between the estrogen receptor (ER) and NF-kappa-B in a cell-type specific manner. Decreases NF-kappa-B DNA-binding activity and inhibits NF-kappa-B-mediated transcription from the IL6 promoter and displace RELA/p65 and associated coregulators from the promoter. Recruited to the NF-kappa-B response element of the CCL2 and IL8 promoters and can displace CREBBP. Present with NF-kappa-B components RELA/p65 and NFKB1/p50 on ERE sequences. Can also act synergistically with NF-kappa-B to activate transcription involving respective recruitment adjacent response elements; the function involves CREBBP. Can activate the transcriptional activity of TFF1. Also mediates membrane-initiated estrogen signaling involving various kinase cascades. Isoform 3 is involved in activation of NOS3 and endothelial nitric oxide production. Isoforms lacking one or several functional domains are thought to modulate transcriptional activity by competitive ligand or DNA binding and/or heterodimerization with the full length receptor. Essential for MTA1-mediated transcriptional regulation of BRCA1 and BCAS3. Isoform 3 can bind to ERE and inhibit isoform 1.
Gene Name:
ESR1
Uniprot ID:
P03372
Molecular Weight:
66215.45 Da
References
  1. Zang Y, Odwin-Dacosta S, Yager JD: Effects of cadmium on estrogen receptor mediated signaling and estrogen induced DNA synthesis in T47D human breast cancer cells. Toxicol Lett. 2009 Jan 30;184(2):134-8. doi: 10.1016/j.toxlet.2008.10.032. Epub 2008 Nov 11. [19041697 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Nuclear hormone receptor. Binds estrogens with an affinity similar to that of ESR1, and activates expression of reporter genes containing estrogen response elements (ERE) in an estrogen-dependent manner (PubMed:20074560). Isoform beta-cx lacks ligand binding ability and has no or only very low ere binding activity resulting in the loss of ligand-dependent transactivation ability. DNA-binding by ESR1 and ESR2 is rapidly lost at 37 degrees Celsius in the absence of ligand while in the presence of 17 beta-estradiol and 4-hydroxy-tamoxifen loss in DNA-binding at elevated temperature is more gradual.
Gene Name:
ESR2
Uniprot ID:
Q92731
Molecular Weight:
59215.765 Da
References
  1. Zang Y, Odwin-Dacosta S, Yager JD: Effects of cadmium on estrogen receptor mediated signaling and estrogen induced DNA synthesis in T47D human breast cancer cells. Toxicol Lett. 2009 Jan 30;184(2):134-8. doi: 10.1016/j.toxlet.2008.10.032. Epub 2008 Nov 11. [19041697 ]
General Function:
G-protein activated inward rectifier potassium channel activity
Specific Function:
This potassium channel is controlled by G proteins. Inward rectifier potassium channels are characterized by a greater tendency to allow potassium to flow into the cell rather than out of it. Their voltage dependence is regulated by the concentration of extracellular potassium; as external potassium is raised, the voltage range of the channel opening shifts to more positive voltages. The inward rectification is mainly due to the blockage of outward current by internal magnesium. This receptor plays a crucial role in regulating the heartbeat.
Gene Name:
KCNJ3
Uniprot ID:
P48549
Molecular Weight:
56602.84 Da
References
  1. Alagem N, Dvir M, Reuveny E: Mechanism of Ba(2+) block of a mouse inwardly rectifying K+ channel: differential contribution by two discrete residues. J Physiol. 2001 Jul 15;534(Pt. 2):381-93. [11454958 ]
General Function:
Inward rectifier potassium channel activity
Specific Function:
This potassium channel may be involved in the regulation of insulin secretion by glucose and/or neurotransmitters acting through G-protein-coupled receptors. Inward rectifier potassium channels are characterized by a greater tendency to allow potassium to flow into the cell rather than out of it. Their voltage dependence is regulated by the concentration of extracellular potassium; as external potassium is raised, the voltage range of the channel opening shifts to more positive voltages. The inward rectification is mainly due to the blockage of outward current by internal magnesium.
Gene Name:
KCNJ6
Uniprot ID:
P48051
Molecular Weight:
48450.96 Da
References
  1. Alagem N, Dvir M, Reuveny E: Mechanism of Ba(2+) block of a mouse inwardly rectifying K+ channel: differential contribution by two discrete residues. J Physiol. 2001 Jul 15;534(Pt. 2):381-93. [11454958 ]
General Function:
G-protein activated inward rectifier potassium channel activity
Specific Function:
This receptor is controlled by G proteins. Inward rectifier potassium channels are characterized by a greater tendency to allow potassium to flow into the cell rather than out of it. Their voltage dependence is regulated by the concentration of extracellular potassium; as external potassium is raised, the voltage range of the channel opening shifts to more positive voltages. The inward rectification is mainly due to the blockage of outward current by internal magnesium (By similarity).
Gene Name:
KCNJ9
Uniprot ID:
Q92806
Molecular Weight:
44019.45 Da
References
  1. Alagem N, Dvir M, Reuveny E: Mechanism of Ba(2+) block of a mouse inwardly rectifying K+ channel: differential contribution by two discrete residues. J Physiol. 2001 Jul 15;534(Pt. 2):381-93. [11454958 ]
General Function:
G-protein activated inward rectifier potassium channel activity
Specific Function:
This potassium channel is controlled by G proteins. Inward rectifier potassium channels are characterized by a greater tendency to allow potassium to flow into the cell rather than out of it. Their voltage dependence is regulated by the concentration of extracellular potassium; as external potassium is raised, the voltage range of the channel opening shifts to more positive voltages. The inward rectification is mainly due to the blockage of outward current by internal magnesium. Can be blocked by external barium.
Gene Name:
KCNJ5
Uniprot ID:
P48544
Molecular Weight:
47667.3 Da
References
  1. Alagem N, Dvir M, Reuveny E: Mechanism of Ba(2+) block of a mouse inwardly rectifying K+ channel: differential contribution by two discrete residues. J Physiol. 2001 Jul 15;534(Pt. 2):381-93. [11454958 ]
General Function:
Inward rectifier potassium channel activity
Specific Function:
Inward rectifier potassium channels are characterized by a greater tendency to allow potassium to flow into the cell rather than out of it. Their voltage dependence is regulated by the concentration of extracellular potassium; as external potassium is raised, the voltage range of the channel opening shifts to more positive voltages. The inward rectification is mainly due to the blockage of outward current by internal magnesium. KCNJ13 has a very low single channel conductance, low sensitivity to block by external barium and cesium, and no dependence of its inward rectification properties on the internal blocking particle magnesium.
Gene Name:
KCNJ13
Uniprot ID:
O60928
Molecular Weight:
40529.195 Da
References
  1. Alagem N, Dvir M, Reuveny E: Mechanism of Ba(2+) block of a mouse inwardly rectifying K+ channel: differential contribution by two discrete residues. J Physiol. 2001 Jul 15;534(Pt. 2):381-93. [11454958 ]
General Function:
Inward rectifier potassium channel activity
Specific Function:
Inward rectifier potassium channels are characterized by a greater tendency to allow potassium to flow into the cell rather than out of it. Their voltage dependence is regulated by the concentration of extracellular potassium; as external potassium is raised, the voltage range of the channel opening shifts to more positive voltages. The inward rectification is mainly due to the blockage of outward current by internal magnesium. KCNJ16 may be involved in the regulation of fluid and pH balance.
Gene Name:
KCNJ16
Uniprot ID:
Q9NPI9
Molecular Weight:
47948.585 Da
References
  1. Alagem N, Dvir M, Reuveny E: Mechanism of Ba(2+) block of a mouse inwardly rectifying K+ channel: differential contribution by two discrete residues. J Physiol. 2001 Jul 15;534(Pt. 2):381-93. [11454958 ]
General Function:
Voltage-gated potassium channel activity involved in cardiac muscle cell action potential repolarization
Specific Function:
Probably participates in establishing action potential waveform and excitability of neuronal and muscle tissues. Inward rectifier potassium channels are characterized by a greater tendency to allow potassium to flow into the cell rather than out of it. Their voltage dependence is regulated by the concentration of extracellular potassium; as external potassium is raised, the voltage range of the channel opening shifts to more positive voltages. The inward rectification is mainly due to the blockage of outward current by internal magnesium. Can be blocked by extracellular barium or cesium.
Gene Name:
KCNJ2
Uniprot ID:
P63252
Molecular Weight:
48287.82 Da
References
  1. Alagem N, Dvir M, Reuveny E: Mechanism of Ba(2+) block of a mouse inwardly rectifying K+ channel: differential contribution by two discrete residues. J Physiol. 2001 Jul 15;534(Pt. 2):381-93. [11454958 ]
General Function:
Pdz domain binding
Specific Function:
Inward rectifier potassium channels are characterized by a greater tendency to allow potassium to flow into the cell rather than out of it. Their voltage dependence is regulated by the concentration of extracellular potassium; as external potassium is raised, the voltage range of the channel opening shifts to more positive voltages. The inward rectification is mainly due to the blockage of outward current by internal magnesium. Can be blocked by extracellular barium and cesium (By similarity).
Gene Name:
KCNJ4
Uniprot ID:
P48050
Molecular Weight:
49499.61 Da
References
  1. Alagem N, Dvir M, Reuveny E: Mechanism of Ba(2+) block of a mouse inwardly rectifying K+ channel: differential contribution by two discrete residues. J Physiol. 2001 Jul 15;534(Pt. 2):381-93. [11454958 ]
General Function:
Rna polymerase ii carboxy-terminal domain kinase activity
Specific Function:
Serine/threonine kinase which acts as an essential component of the MAP kinase signal transduction pathway. MAPK1/ERK2 and MAPK3/ERK1 are the 2 MAPKs which play an important role in the MAPK/ERK cascade. They participate also in a signaling cascade initiated by activated KIT and KITLG/SCF. Depending on the cellular context, the MAPK/ERK cascade mediates diverse biological functions such as cell growth, adhesion, survival and differentiation through the regulation of transcription, translation, cytoskeletal rearrangements. The MAPK/ERK cascade plays also a role in initiation and regulation of meiosis, mitosis, and postmitotic functions in differentiated cells by phosphorylating a number of transcription factors. About 160 substrates have already been discovered for ERKs. Many of these substrates are localized in the nucleus, and seem to participate in the regulation of transcription upon stimulation. However, other substrates are found in the cytosol as well as in other cellular organelles, and those are responsible for processes such as translation, mitosis and apoptosis. Moreover, the MAPK/ERK cascade is also involved in the regulation of the endosomal dynamics, including lysosome processing and endosome cycling through the perinuclear recycling compartment (PNRC); as well as in the fragmentation of the Golgi apparatus during mitosis. The substrates include transcription factors (such as ATF2, BCL6, ELK1, ERF, FOS, HSF4 or SPZ1), cytoskeletal elements (such as CANX, CTTN, GJA1, MAP2, MAPT, PXN, SORBS3 or STMN1), regulators of apoptosis (such as BAD, BTG2, CASP9, DAPK1, IER3, MCL1 or PPARG), regulators of translation (such as EIF4EBP1) and a variety of other signaling-related molecules (like ARHGEF2, DCC, FRS2 or GRB10). Protein kinases (such as RAF1, RPS6KA1/RSK1, RPS6KA3/RSK2, RPS6KA2/RSK3, RPS6KA6/RSK4, SYK, MKNK1/MNK1, MKNK2/MNK2, RPS6KA5/MSK1, RPS6KA4/MSK2, MAPKAPK3 or MAPKAPK5) and phosphatases (such as DUSP1, DUSP4, DUSP6 or DUSP16) are other substrates which enable the propagation the MAPK/ERK signal to additional cytosolic and nuclear targets, thereby extending the specificity of the cascade. Mediates phosphorylation of TPR in respons to EGF stimulation. May play a role in the spindle assembly checkpoint. Phosphorylates PML and promotes its interaction with PIN1, leading to PML degradation.Acts as a transcriptional repressor. Binds to a [GC]AAA[GC] consensus sequence. Repress the expression of interferon gamma-induced genes. Seems to bind to the promoter of CCL5, DMP1, IFIH1, IFITM1, IRF7, IRF9, LAMP3, OAS1, OAS2, OAS3 and STAT1. Transcriptional activity is independent of kinase activity.
Gene Name:
MAPK1
Uniprot ID:
P28482
Molecular Weight:
41389.265 Da
References
  1. Chen L, Liu L, Luo Y, Huang S: MAPK and mTOR pathways are involved in cadmium-induced neuronal apoptosis. J Neurochem. 2008 Apr;105(1):251-61. Epub 2007 Nov 16. [18021293 ]
General Function:
Map kinase kinase activity
Specific Function:
Serine/threonine-protein kinase involved in various processes such as neuronal proliferation, differentiation, migration and programmed cell death. Extracellular stimuli such as proinflammatory cytokines or physical stress stimulate the stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun N-terminal kinase (SAP/JNK) signaling pathway. In this cascade, two dual specificity kinases MAP2K4/MKK4 and MAP2K7/MKK7 phosphorylate and activate MAPK10/JNK3. In turn, MAPK10/JNK3 phosphorylates a number of transcription factors, primarily components of AP-1 such as JUN and ATF2 and thus regulates AP-1 transcriptional activity. Plays regulatory roles in the signaling pathways during neuronal apoptosis. Phosphorylates the neuronal microtubule regulator STMN2. Acts in the regulation of the beta-amyloid precursor protein/APP signaling during neuronal differentiation by phosphorylating APP. Participates also in neurite growth in spiral ganglion neurons. Phosphorylates the CLOCK-ARNTL/BMAL1 heterodimer and plays a role in the photic regulation of the circadian clock (PubMed:22441692).
Gene Name:
MAPK10
Uniprot ID:
P53779
Molecular Weight:
52585.015 Da
References
  1. Chen L, Liu L, Luo Y, Huang S: MAPK and mTOR pathways are involved in cadmium-induced neuronal apoptosis. J Neurochem. 2008 Apr;105(1):251-61. Epub 2007 Nov 16. [18021293 ]
General Function:
Protein serine/threonine kinase activity
Specific Function:
Serine/threonine kinase which acts as an essential component of the MAP kinase signal transduction pathway. MAPK11 is one of the four p38 MAPKs which play an important role in the cascades of cellular responses evoked by extracellular stimuli such as proinflammatory cytokines or physical stress leading to direct activation of transcription factors. Accordingly, p38 MAPKs phosphorylate a broad range of proteins and it has been estimated that they may have approximately 200 to 300 substrates each. MAPK11 functions are mostly redundant with those of MAPK14. Some of the targets are downstream kinases which are activated through phosphorylation and further phosphorylate additional targets. RPS6KA5/MSK1 and RPS6KA4/MSK2 can directly phosphorylate and activate transcription factors such as CREB1, ATF1, the NF-kappa-B isoform RELA/NFKB3, STAT1 and STAT3, but can also phosphorylate histone H3 and the nucleosomal protein HMGN1. RPS6KA5/MSK1 and RPS6KA4/MSK2 play important roles in the rapid induction of immediate-early genes in response to stress or mitogenic stimuli, either by inducing chromatin remodeling or by recruiting the transcription machinery. On the other hand, two other kinase targets, MAPKAPK2/MK2 and MAPKAPK3/MK3, participate in the control of gene expression mostly at the post-transcriptional level, by phosphorylating ZFP36 (tristetraprolin) and ELAVL1, and by regulating EEF2K, which is important for the elongation of mRNA during translation. MKNK1/MNK1 and MKNK2/MNK2, two other kinases activated by p38 MAPKs, regulate protein synthesis by phosphorylating the initiation factor EIF4E2. In the cytoplasm, the p38 MAPK pathway is an important regulator of protein turnover. For example, CFLAR is an inhibitor of TNF-induced apoptosis whose proteasome-mediated degradation is regulated by p38 MAPK phosphorylation. Ectodomain shedding of transmembrane proteins is regulated by p38 MAPKs as well. In response to inflammatory stimuli, p38 MAPKs phosphorylate the membrane-associated metalloprotease ADAM17. Such phosphorylation is required for ADAM17-mediated ectodomain shedding of TGF-alpha family ligands, which results in the activation of EGFR signaling and cell proliferation. Additional examples of p38 MAPK substrates are the FGFR1. FGFR1 can be translocated from the extracellular space into the cytosol and nucleus of target cells, and regulates processes such as rRNA synthesis and cell growth. FGFR1 translocation requires p38 MAPK activation. In the nucleus, many transcription factors are phosphorylated and activated by p38 MAPKs in response to different stimuli. Classical examples include ATF1, ATF2, ATF6, ELK1, PTPRH, DDIT3, TP53/p53 and MEF2C and MEF2A. The p38 MAPKs are emerging as important modulators of gene expression by regulating chromatin modifiers and remodelers. The promoters of several genes involved in the inflammatory response, such as IL6, IL8 and IL12B, display a p38 MAPK-dependent enrichment of histone H3 phosphorylation on 'Ser-10' (H3S10ph) in LPS-stimulated myeloid cells. This phosphorylation enhances the accessibility of the cryptic NF-kappa-B-binding sites marking promoters for increased NF-kappa-B recruitment.
Gene Name:
MAPK11
Uniprot ID:
Q15759
Molecular Weight:
41356.875 Da
References
  1. Chen L, Liu L, Luo Y, Huang S: MAPK and mTOR pathways are involved in cadmium-induced neuronal apoptosis. J Neurochem. 2008 Apr;105(1):251-61. Epub 2007 Nov 16. [18021293 ]
General Function:
Protein serine/threonine kinase activity
Specific Function:
Serine/threonine kinase which acts as an essential component of the MAP kinase signal transduction pathway. MAPK12 is one of the four p38 MAPKs which play an important role in the cascades of cellular responses evoked by extracellular stimuli such as proinflammatory cytokines or physical stress leading to direct activation of transcription factors such as ELK1 and ATF2. Accordingly, p38 MAPKs phosphorylate a broad range of proteins and it has been estimated that they may have approximately 200 to 300 substrates each. Some of the targets are downstream kinases such as MAPKAPK2, which are activated through phosphorylation and further phosphorylate additional targets. Plays a role in myoblast differentiation and also in the down-regulation of cyclin D1 in response to hypoxia in adrenal cells suggesting MAPK12 may inhibit cell proliferation while promoting differentiation. Phosphorylates DLG1. Following osmotic shock, MAPK12 in the cell nucleus increases its association with nuclear DLG1, thereby causing dissociation of DLG1-SFPQ complexes. This function is independent of its catalytic activity and could affect mRNA processing and/or gene transcription to aid cell adaptation to osmolarity changes in the environment. Regulates UV-induced checkpoint signaling and repair of UV-induced DNA damage and G2 arrest after gamma-radiation exposure. MAPK12 is involved in the regulation of SLC2A1 expression and basal glucose uptake in L6 myotubes; and negatively regulates SLC2A4 expression and contraction-mediated glucose uptake in adult skeletal muscle. C-Jun (JUN) phosphorylation is stimulated by MAPK14 and inhibited by MAPK12, leading to a distinct AP-1 regulation. MAPK12 is required for the normal kinetochore localization of PLK1, prevents chromosomal instability and supports mitotic cell viability. MAPK12-signaling is also positively regulating the expansion of transient amplifying myogenic precursor cells during muscle growth and regeneration.
Gene Name:
MAPK12
Uniprot ID:
P53778
Molecular Weight:
41939.84 Da
References
  1. Chen L, Liu L, Luo Y, Huang S: MAPK and mTOR pathways are involved in cadmium-induced neuronal apoptosis. J Neurochem. 2008 Apr;105(1):251-61. Epub 2007 Nov 16. [18021293 ]
General Function:
Protein serine/threonine kinase activity
Specific Function:
Serine/threonine kinase which acts as an essential component of the MAP kinase signal transduction pathway. MAPK13 is one of the four p38 MAPKs which play an important role in the cascades of cellular responses evoked by extracellular stimuli such as proinflammatory cytokines or physical stress leading to direct activation of transcription factors such as ELK1 and ATF2. Accordingly, p38 MAPKs phosphorylate a broad range of proteins and it has been estimated that they may have approximately 200 to 300 substrates each. MAPK13 is one of the less studied p38 MAPK isoforms. Some of the targets are downstream kinases such as MAPKAPK2, which are activated through phosphorylation and further phosphorylate additional targets. Plays a role in the regulation of protein translation by phosphorylating and inactivating EEF2K. Involved in cytoskeletal remodeling through phosphorylation of MAPT and STMN1. Mediates UV irradiation induced up-regulation of the gene expression of CXCL14. Plays an important role in the regulation of epidermal keratinocyte differentiation, apoptosis and skin tumor development. Phosphorylates the transcriptional activator MYB in response to stress which leads to rapid MYB degradation via a proteasome-dependent pathway. MAPK13 also phosphorylates and down-regulates PRKD1 during regulation of insulin secretion in pancreatic beta cells.
Gene Name:
MAPK13
Uniprot ID:
O15264
Molecular Weight:
42089.28 Da
References
  1. Chen L, Liu L, Luo Y, Huang S: MAPK and mTOR pathways are involved in cadmium-induced neuronal apoptosis. J Neurochem. 2008 Apr;105(1):251-61. Epub 2007 Nov 16. [18021293 ]
General Function:
Protein serine/threonine kinase activity
Specific Function:
Serine/threonine kinase which acts as an essential component of the MAP kinase signal transduction pathway. MAPK14 is one of the four p38 MAPKs which play an important role in the cascades of cellular responses evoked by extracellular stimuli such as proinflammatory cytokines or physical stress leading to direct activation of transcription factors. Accordingly, p38 MAPKs phosphorylate a broad range of proteins and it has been estimated that they may have approximately 200 to 300 substrates each. Some of the targets are downstream kinases which are activated through phosphorylation and further phosphorylate additional targets. RPS6KA5/MSK1 and RPS6KA4/MSK2 can directly phosphorylate and activate transcription factors such as CREB1, ATF1, the NF-kappa-B isoform RELA/NFKB3, STAT1 and STAT3, but can also phosphorylate histone H3 and the nucleosomal protein HMGN1. RPS6KA5/MSK1 and RPS6KA4/MSK2 play important roles in the rapid induction of immediate-early genes in response to stress or mitogenic stimuli, either by inducing chromatin remodeling or by recruiting the transcription machinery. On the other hand, two other kinase targets, MAPKAPK2/MK2 and MAPKAPK3/MK3, participate in the control of gene expression mostly at the post-transcriptional level, by phosphorylating ZFP36 (tristetraprolin) and ELAVL1, and by regulating EEF2K, which is important for the elongation of mRNA during translation. MKNK1/MNK1 and MKNK2/MNK2, two other kinases activated by p38 MAPKs, regulate protein synthesis by phosphorylating the initiation factor EIF4E2. MAPK14 interacts also with casein kinase II, leading to its activation through autophosphorylation and further phosphorylation of TP53/p53. In the cytoplasm, the p38 MAPK pathway is an important regulator of protein turnover. For example, CFLAR is an inhibitor of TNF-induced apoptosis whose proteasome-mediated degradation is regulated by p38 MAPK phosphorylation. In a similar way, MAPK14 phosphorylates the ubiquitin ligase SIAH2, regulating its activity towards EGLN3. MAPK14 may also inhibit the lysosomal degradation pathway of autophagy by interfering with the intracellular trafficking of the transmembrane protein ATG9. Another function of MAPK14 is to regulate the endocytosis of membrane receptors by different mechanisms that impinge on the small GTPase RAB5A. In addition, clathrin-mediated EGFR internalization induced by inflammatory cytokines and UV irradiation depends on MAPK14-mediated phosphorylation of EGFR itself as well as of RAB5A effectors. Ectodomain shedding of transmembrane proteins is regulated by p38 MAPKs as well. In response to inflammatory stimuli, p38 MAPKs phosphorylate the membrane-associated metalloprotease ADAM17. Such phosphorylation is required for ADAM17-mediated ectodomain shedding of TGF-alpha family ligands, which results in the activation of EGFR signaling and cell proliferation. Another p38 MAPK substrate is FGFR1. FGFR1 can be translocated from the extracellular space into the cytosol and nucleus of target cells, and regulates processes such as rRNA synthesis and cell growth. FGFR1 translocation requires p38 MAPK activation. In the nucleus, many transcription factors are phosphorylated and activated by p38 MAPKs in response to different stimuli. Classical examples include ATF1, ATF2, ATF6, ELK1, PTPRH, DDIT3, TP53/p53 and MEF2C and MEF2A. The p38 MAPKs are emerging as important modulators of gene expression by regulating chromatin modifiers and remodelers. The promoters of several genes involved in the inflammatory response, such as IL6, IL8 and IL12B, display a p38 MAPK-dependent enrichment of histone H3 phosphorylation on 'Ser-10' (H3S10ph) in LPS-stimulated myeloid cells. This phosphorylation enhances the accessibility of the cryptic NF-kappa-B-binding sites marking promoters for increased NF-kappa-B recruitment. Phosphorylates CDC25B and CDC25C which is required for binding to 14-3-3 proteins and leads to initiation of a G2 delay after ultraviolet radiation. Phosphorylates TIAR following DNA damage, releasing TIAR from GADD45A mRNA and preventing mRNA degradation. The p38 MAPKs may also have kinase-independent roles, which are thought to be due to the binding to targets in the absence of phosphorylation. Protein O-Glc-N-acylation catalyzed by the OGT is regulated by MAPK14, and, although OGT does not seem to be phosphorylated by MAPK14, their interaction increases upon MAPK14 activation induced by glucose deprivation. This interaction may regulate OGT activity by recruiting it to specific targets such as neurofilament H, stimulating its O-Glc-N-acylation. Required in mid-fetal development for the growth of embryo-derived blood vessels in the labyrinth layer of the placenta. Also plays an essential role in developmental and stress-induced erythropoiesis, through regulation of EPO gene expression. Isoform MXI2 activation is stimulated by mitogens and oxidative stress and only poorly phosphorylates ELK1 and ATF2. Isoform EXIP may play a role in the early onset of apoptosis. Phosphorylates S100A9 at 'Thr-113'.
Gene Name:
MAPK14
Uniprot ID:
Q16539
Molecular Weight:
41292.885 Da
References
  1. Chen L, Liu L, Luo Y, Huang S: MAPK and mTOR pathways are involved in cadmium-induced neuronal apoptosis. J Neurochem. 2008 Apr;105(1):251-61. Epub 2007 Nov 16. [18021293 ]
General Function:
Sh3 domain binding
Specific Function:
In vitro, phosphorylates MBP.
Gene Name:
MAPK15
Uniprot ID:
Q8TD08
Molecular Weight:
59831.645 Da
References
  1. Chen L, Liu L, Luo Y, Huang S: MAPK and mTOR pathways are involved in cadmium-induced neuronal apoptosis. J Neurochem. 2008 Apr;105(1):251-61. Epub 2007 Nov 16. [18021293 ]
General Function:
Phosphatase binding
Specific Function:
Serine/threonine kinase which acts as an essential component of the MAP kinase signal transduction pathway. MAPK1/ERK2 and MAPK3/ERK1 are the 2 MAPKs which play an important role in the MAPK/ERK cascade. They participate also in a signaling cascade initiated by activated KIT and KITLG/SCF. Depending on the cellular context, the MAPK/ERK cascade mediates diverse biological functions such as cell growth, adhesion, survival and differentiation through the regulation of transcription, translation, cytoskeletal rearrangements. The MAPK/ERK cascade plays also a role in initiation and regulation of meiosis, mitosis, and postmitotic functions in differentiated cells by phosphorylating a number of transcription factors. About 160 substrates have already been discovered for ERKs. Many of these substrates are localized in the nucleus, and seem to participate in the regulation of transcription upon stimulation. However, other substrates are found in the cytosol as well as in other cellular organelles, and those are responsible for processes such as translation, mitosis and apoptosis. Moreover, the MAPK/ERK cascade is also involved in the regulation of the endosomal dynamics, including lysosome processing and endosome cycling through the perinuclear recycling compartment (PNRC); as well as in the fragmentation of the Golgi apparatus during mitosis. The substrates include transcription factors (such as ATF2, BCL6, ELK1, ERF, FOS, HSF4 or SPZ1), cytoskeletal elements (such as CANX, CTTN, GJA1, MAP2, MAPT, PXN, SORBS3 or STMN1), regulators of apoptosis (such as BAD, BTG2, CASP9, DAPK1, IER3, MCL1 or PPARG), regulators of translation (such as EIF4EBP1) and a variety of other signaling-related molecules (like ARHGEF2, FRS2 or GRB10). Protein kinases (such as RAF1, RPS6KA1/RSK1, RPS6KA3/RSK2, RPS6KA2/RSK3, RPS6KA6/RSK4, SYK, MKNK1/MNK1, MKNK2/MNK2, RPS6KA5/MSK1, RPS6KA4/MSK2, MAPKAPK3 or MAPKAPK5) and phosphatases (such as DUSP1, DUSP4, DUSP6 or DUSP16) are other substrates which enable the propagation the MAPK/ERK signal to additional cytosolic and nuclear targets, thereby extending the specificity of the cascade.
Gene Name:
MAPK3
Uniprot ID:
P27361
Molecular Weight:
43135.16 Da
References
  1. Chen L, Liu L, Luo Y, Huang S: MAPK and mTOR pathways are involved in cadmium-induced neuronal apoptosis. J Neurochem. 2008 Apr;105(1):251-61. Epub 2007 Nov 16. [18021293 ]
General Function:
Protein serine/threonine kinase activity
Specific Function:
Atypical MAPK protein. Phosphorylates microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) and MAPKAPK5. The precise role of the complex formed with MAPKAPK5 is still unclear, but the complex follows a complex set of phosphorylation events: upon interaction with atypical MAPKAPK5, ERK4/MAPK4 is phosphorylated at Ser-186 and then mediates phosphorylation and activation of MAPKAPK5, which in turn phosphorylates ERK4/MAPK4. May promote entry in the cell cycle (By similarity).
Gene Name:
MAPK4
Uniprot ID:
P31152
Molecular Weight:
65921.01 Da
References
  1. Chen L, Liu L, Luo Y, Huang S: MAPK and mTOR pathways are involved in cadmium-induced neuronal apoptosis. J Neurochem. 2008 Apr;105(1):251-61. Epub 2007 Nov 16. [18021293 ]
General Function:
Protein serine/threonine kinase activity
Specific Function:
Atypical MAPK protein. Phosphorylates microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) and MAPKAPK5. The precise role of the complex formed with MAPKAPK5 is still unclear, but the complex follows a complex set of phosphorylation events: upon interaction with atypical MAPKAPK5, ERK3/MAPK6 is phosphorylated at Ser-189 and then mediates phosphorylation and activation of MAPKAPK5, which in turn phosphorylates ERK3/MAPK6. May promote entry in the cell cycle (By similarity).
Gene Name:
MAPK6
Uniprot ID:
Q16659
Molecular Weight:
82680.11 Da
References
  1. Chen L, Liu L, Luo Y, Huang S: MAPK and mTOR pathways are involved in cadmium-induced neuronal apoptosis. J Neurochem. 2008 Apr;105(1):251-61. Epub 2007 Nov 16. [18021293 ]
General Function:
Mitogen-activated protein kinase binding
Specific Function:
Plays a role in various cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation and cell survival. The upstream activator of MAPK7 is the MAPK kinase MAP2K5. Upon activation, it translocates to the nucleus and phosphorylates various downstream targets including MEF2C. EGF activates MAPK7 through a Ras-independent and MAP2K5-dependent pathway. May have a role in muscle cell differentiation. May be important for endothelial function and maintenance of blood vessel integrity. MAP2K5 and MAPK7 interact specifically with one another and not with MEK1/ERK1 or MEK2/ERK2 pathways. Phosphorylates SGK1 at Ser-78 and this is required for growth factor-induced cell cycle progression. Involved in the regulation of p53/TP53 by disrupting the PML-MDM2 interaction.
Gene Name:
MAPK7
Uniprot ID:
Q13164
Molecular Weight:
88385.515 Da
References
  1. Chen L, Liu L, Luo Y, Huang S: MAPK and mTOR pathways are involved in cadmium-induced neuronal apoptosis. J Neurochem. 2008 Apr;105(1):251-61. Epub 2007 Nov 16. [18021293 ]
General Function:
Protein serine/threonine kinase activity
Specific Function:
Serine/threonine-protein kinase involved in various processes such as cell proliferation, differentiation, migration, transformation and programmed cell death. Extracellular stimuli such as proinflammatory cytokines or physical stress stimulate the stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun N-terminal kinase (SAP/JNK) signaling pathway. In this cascade, two dual specificity kinases MAP2K4/MKK4 and MAP2K7/MKK7 phosphorylate and activate MAPK8/JNK1. In turn, MAPK8/JNK1 phosphorylates a number of transcription factors, primarily components of AP-1 such as JUN, JDP2 and ATF2 and thus regulates AP-1 transcriptional activity. Phosphorylates the replication licensing factor CDT1, inhibiting the interaction between CDT1 and the histone H4 acetylase HBO1 to replication origins. Loss of this interaction abrogates the acetylation required for replication initiation. Promotes stressed cell apoptosis by phosphorylating key regulatory factors including p53/TP53 and Yes-associates protein YAP1. In T-cells, MAPK8 and MAPK9 are required for polarized differentiation of T-helper cells into Th1 cells. Contributes to the survival of erythroid cells by phosphorylating the antagonist of cell death BAD upon EPO stimulation. Mediates starvation-induced BCL2 phosphorylation, BCL2 dissociation from BECN1, and thus activation of autophagy. Phosphorylates STMN2 and hence regulates microtubule dynamics, controlling neurite elongation in cortical neurons. In the developing brain, through its cytoplasmic activity on STMN2, negatively regulates the rate of exit from multipolar stage and of radial migration from the ventricular zone. Phosphorylates several other substrates including heat shock factor protein 4 (HSF4), the deacetylase SIRT1, ELK1, or the E3 ligase ITCH. Phosphorylates the CLOCK-ARNTL/BMAL1 heterodimer and plays a role in the regulation of the circadian clock (PubMed:22441692).JNK1 isoforms display different binding patterns: beta-1 preferentially binds to c-Jun, whereas alpha-1, alpha-2, and beta-2 have a similar low level of binding to both c-Jun or ATF2. However, there is no correlation between binding and phosphorylation, which is achieved at about the same efficiency by all isoforms.
Gene Name:
MAPK8
Uniprot ID:
P45983
Molecular Weight:
48295.14 Da
References
  1. Chen L, Liu L, Luo Y, Huang S: MAPK and mTOR pathways are involved in cadmium-induced neuronal apoptosis. J Neurochem. 2008 Apr;105(1):251-61. Epub 2007 Nov 16. [18021293 ]
General Function:
Transcription factor binding
Specific Function:
Serine/threonine-protein kinase involved in various processes such as cell proliferation, differentiation, migration, transformation and programmed cell death. Extracellular stimuli such as proinflammatory cytokines or physical stress stimulate the stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun N-terminal kinase (SAP/JNK) signaling pathway. In this cascade, two dual specificity kinases MAP2K4/MKK4 and MAP2K7/MKK7 phosphorylate and activate MAPK9/JNK2. In turn, MAPK9/JNK2 phosphorylates a number of transcription factors, primarily components of AP-1 such as JUN and ATF2 and thus regulates AP-1 transcriptional activity. In response to oxidative or ribotoxic stresses, inhibits rRNA synthesis by phosphorylating and inactivating the RNA polymerase 1-specific transcription initiation factor RRN3. Promotes stressed cell apoptosis by phosphorylating key regulatory factors including TP53 and YAP1. In T-cells, MAPK8 and MAPK9 are required for polarized differentiation of T-helper cells into Th1 cells. Upon T-cell receptor (TCR) stimulation, is activated by CARMA1, BCL10, MAP2K7 and MAP3K7/TAK1 to regulate JUN protein levels. Plays an important role in the osmotic stress-induced epithelial tight-junctions disruption. When activated, promotes beta-catenin/CTNNB1 degradation and inhibits the canonical Wnt signaling pathway. Participates also in neurite growth in spiral ganglion neurons. Phosphorylates the CLOCK-ARNTL/BMAL1 heterodimer and plays a role in the regulation of the circadian clock (PubMed:22441692).MAPK9 isoforms display different binding patterns: alpha-1 and alpha-2 preferentially bind to JUN, whereas beta-1 and beta-2 bind to ATF2. However, there is no correlation between binding and phosphorylation, which is achieved at about the same efficiency by all isoforms. JUNB is not a substrate for JNK2 alpha-2, and JUND binds only weakly to it.
Gene Name:
MAPK9
Uniprot ID:
P45984
Molecular Weight:
48138.655 Da
References
  1. Chen L, Liu L, Luo Y, Huang S: MAPK and mTOR pathways are involved in cadmium-induced neuronal apoptosis. J Neurochem. 2008 Apr;105(1):251-61. Epub 2007 Nov 16. [18021293 ]
General Function:
Voltage-gated potassium channel activity involved in ventricular cardiac muscle cell action potential repolarization
Specific Function:
Potassium channel that plays an important role in a number of tissues, including heart, inner ear, stomach and colon (By similarity) (PubMed:10646604). Associates with KCNE beta subunits that modulates current kinetics (By similarity) (PubMed:9312006, PubMed:9108097, PubMed:8900283, PubMed:10646604, PubMed:11101505, PubMed:19687231). Induces a voltage-dependent by rapidly activating and slowly deactivating potassium-selective outward current (By similarity) (PubMed:9312006, PubMed:9108097, PubMed:8900283, PubMed:10646604, PubMed:11101505). Promotes also a delayed voltage activated potassium current showing outward rectification characteristic (By similarity). During beta-adrenergic receptor stimulation participates in cardiac repolarization by associating with KCNE1 to form the I(Ks) cardiac potassium current that increases the amplitude and slows down the activation kinetics of outward potassium current I(Ks) (By similarity) (PubMed:9312006, PubMed:9108097, PubMed:8900283, PubMed:10646604, PubMed:11101505). Muscarinic agonist oxotremorine-M strongly suppresses KCNQ1/KCNE1 current (PubMed:10713961). When associated with KCNE3, forms the potassium channel that is important for cyclic AMP-stimulated intestinal secretion of chloride ions (PubMed:10646604). This interaction with KCNE3 is reduced by 17beta-estradiol, resulting in the reduction of currents (By similarity). During conditions of increased substrate load, maintains the driving force for proximal tubular and intestinal sodium ions absorption, gastric acid secretion, and cAMP-induced jejunal chloride ions secretion (By similarity). Allows the provision of potassium ions to the luminal membrane of the secretory canaliculus in the resting state as well as during stimulated acid secretion (By similarity). When associated with KCNE2, forms an heterooligomer complex leading to currents with an apparently instantaneous activation, a rapid deactivation process and a linear current-voltage relationship and decreases the amplitude of the outward current (PubMed:11101505). When associated with KCNE4, inhibits voltage-gated potassium channel activity (PubMed:19687231). When associated with KCNE5, this complex only conducts current upon strong and continued depolarization (PubMed:12324418). Also forms an heterotetramer with KCNQ5; has a voltage-gated potassium channel activity (PubMed:24855057). Binds with phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PubMed:25037568).Isoform 2: Non-functional alone but modulatory when coexpressed with the full-length isoform 1.
Gene Name:
KCNQ1
Uniprot ID:
P51787
Molecular Weight:
74697.925 Da
References
  1. Gibor G, Yakubovich D, Peretz A, Attali B: External barium affects the gating of KCNQ1 potassium channels and produces a pore block via two discrete sites. J Gen Physiol. 2004 Jul;124(1):83-102. [15226366 ]
General Function:
Voltage-gated potassium channel activity
Specific Function:
Probably important in the regulation of neuronal excitability. Associates with KCNQ3 to form a potassium channel with essentially identical properties to the channel underlying the native M-current, a slowly activating and deactivating potassium conductance which plays a critical role in determining the subthreshold electrical excitability of neurons as well as the responsiveness to synaptic inputs. KCNQ2/KCNQ3 current is blocked by linopirdine and XE991, and activated by the anticonvulsant retigabine. Muscarinic agonist oxotremorine-M strongly suppress KCNQ2/KCNQ3 current in cells in which cloned KCNQ2/KCNQ3 channels were coexpressed with M1 muscarinic receptors.
Gene Name:
KCNQ2
Uniprot ID:
O43526
Molecular Weight:
95846.575 Da
References
  1. Gibor G, Yakubovich D, Peretz A, Attali B: External barium affects the gating of KCNQ1 potassium channels and produces a pore block via two discrete sites. J Gen Physiol. 2004 Jul;124(1):83-102. [15226366 ]
General Function:
Voltage-gated potassium channel activity
Specific Function:
Probably important in the regulation of neuronal excitability. Associates with KCNQ2 or KCNQ5 to form a potassium channel with essentially identical properties to the channel underlying the native M-current, a slowly activating and deactivating potassium conductance which plays a critical role in determining the subthreshold electrical excitability of neurons as well as the responsiveness to synaptic inputs.
Gene Name:
KCNQ3
Uniprot ID:
O43525
Molecular Weight:
96741.515 Da
References
  1. Gibor G, Yakubovich D, Peretz A, Attali B: External barium affects the gating of KCNQ1 potassium channels and produces a pore block via two discrete sites. J Gen Physiol. 2004 Jul;124(1):83-102. [15226366 ]
General Function:
Potassium channel activity
Specific Function:
Probably important in the regulation of neuronal excitability. May underlie a potassium current involved in regulating the excitability of sensory cells of the cochlea. KCNQ4 channels are blocked by linopirdin, XE991 and bepridil, whereas clofilium is without significant effect. Muscarinic agonist oxotremorine-M strongly suppress KCNQ4 current in CHO cells in which cloned KCNQ4 channels were coexpressed with M1 muscarinic receptors.
Gene Name:
KCNQ4
Uniprot ID:
P56696
Molecular Weight:
77099.99 Da
References
  1. Gibor G, Yakubovich D, Peretz A, Attali B: External barium affects the gating of KCNQ1 potassium channels and produces a pore block via two discrete sites. J Gen Physiol. 2004 Jul;124(1):83-102. [15226366 ]
General Function:
Voltage-gated potassium channel activity
Specific Function:
Probably important in the regulation of neuronal excitability. Associates with KCNQ3 to form a potassium channel which contributes to M-type current, a slowly activating and deactivating potassium conductance which plays a critical role in determining the subthreshold electrical excitability of neurons. May contribute, with other potassium channels, to the molecular diversity of a heterogeneous population of M-channels, varying in kinetic and pharmacological properties, which underlie this physiologically important current. Insensitive to tetraethylammonium, but inhibited by barium, linopirdine and XE991. Activated by niflumic acid and the anticonvulsant retigabine. Muscarine suppresses KCNQ5 current in Xenopus oocytes in which cloned KCNQ5 channels were coexpressed with M(1) muscarinic receptors.
Gene Name:
KCNQ5
Uniprot ID:
Q9NR82
Molecular Weight:
102178.015 Da
References
  1. Gibor G, Yakubovich D, Peretz A, Attali B: External barium affects the gating of KCNQ1 potassium channels and produces a pore block via two discrete sites. J Gen Physiol. 2004 Jul;124(1):83-102. [15226366 ]