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Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2009-06-19 21:58:21 UTC
Update Date2014-12-24 20:23:12 UTC
Accession NumberT3D1135
Identification
Common NameManganese dioxide
ClassSmall Molecule
DescriptionManganese dioxide is an oxide of manganese that occurs naturally as the mineral pyrolusite, the main ore of manganese. It is used primarily for dry-cell batteries, but is also used as an oxidant in organic synthesis. Manganese is a naturally occurring metal with the symbol Mn and the atomic number 25. It does not occur naturally in its pure form, but is found in many types of rocks in combination with other substances such as oxygen, sulfur, or chlorine. Manganese occurs naturally in most foods and small amounts are needed to stay healthy, as manganese ions act as cofactors for a number of enzymes. (2, 3, 4)
Compound Type
  • Food Toxin
  • Household Toxin
  • Inorganic Compound
  • Manganese Compound
  • Natural Compound
  • Pollutant
Chemical Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Synonym
Black manganese oxide
Bog manganese
Braunstein
Cement black
Glass-maker's soap
KM manganese dioxide
Manganese binoxide
Manganese black
Manganese(IV) oxide
Mangoxe
Pyrolusite brown
Chemical FormulaMnO2
Average Molecular Mass86.937 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass86.928 g/mol
CAS Registry Number1313-13-9
IUPAC Namedioxomanganese
Traditional Namemanganese dioxide
SMILESO=[Mn]=O
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/Mn.2O
InChI KeyInChIKey=NUJOXMJBOLGQSY-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of chemical entities known as transition metal oxides. These are inorganic compounds containing an oxygen atom of an oxidation state of -2, in which the heaviest atom bonded to the oxygen is a transition metal.
KingdomChemical entities
Super ClassInorganic compounds
ClassMixed metal/non-metal compounds
Sub ClassTransition metal organides
Direct ParentTransition metal oxides
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Transition metal oxide
  • Inorganic oxide
  • Inorganic salt
Molecular FrameworkNot Available
External DescriptorsNot Available
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
OriginExogenous
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationsNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
ApplicationsNot Available
Biological RolesNot Available
Chemical RolesNot Available
Physical Properties
StateSolid
AppearanceBlack solid.
Experimental Properties
PropertyValue
Melting Point535°C decomp
Boiling PointNot Available
SolubilityNot Available
LogPNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP-1.2ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-6ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area34.14 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity2.89 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability4.19 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
SpectraNot Available
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureOral (2) ; inhalation (2)
Mechanism of ToxicityManganese is a cellular toxicant that can impair transport systems, enzyme activities, and receptor functions. It primarily targets the central nervous system, particularily the globus pallidus of the basal ganglia. It is believed that the manganese ion, Mn(II), enhances the autoxidation or turnover of various intracellular catecholamines, leading to increased production of free radicals, reactive oxygen species, and other cytotoxic metabolites, along with a depletion of cellular antioxidant defense mechanisms, leading to oxidative damage and selective destruction of dopaminergic neurons. In addition to dopamine, manganese is thought to perturbations other neurotransmitters, such as GABA and glutamate. In order to produce oxidative damage, manganese must first overwhelm the antioxidant enzyme manganese superoxide dismutase. The neurotoxicity of Mn(II) has also been linked to its ability to substitute for Ca(II) under physiological conditions. It can enter mitochondria via the calcium uniporter and inhibit mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. It may also inhibit the efflux of Ca(II), which can result in a loss of mitochondrial membrane integrity. Mn(II) has been shown to inhibit mitochondrial aconitase activity to a significant level, altering amino acid metabolism and cellular iron homeostasis. (2)
MetabolismManganese is absorbed mainly via ingestion, but can also be inhaled. It binds to alpha-2-macroglobulin, albumin, or transferrin in the plasma and is distributed to the brain and all other mammalian tissues, though it tends to accumulate more in the liver, pancreas, and kidney. Manganese is capable of existing in a number of oxidation states and is believed to undergo changes in oxidation state within the body. Manganese oxidation state can influence tissue toxicokinetic behavior, and possibly toxicity. Manganese is excreted primarily in the faeces. (2)
Toxicity ValuesLD50: >3478 mg/kg (Oral, Rat) (5)
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)No indication of carcinogenicity to humans (not listed by IARC).
Uses/SourcesManganese dioxide is used primarily for dry-cell batteries, but is also used as an oxidant in organic synthesis. (4)
Minimum Risk LevelChronic Inhalation: 0.0003 mg/m3 (1)
Health EffectsManganese mainly affects the nervous system and may cause behavioral changes and other nervous system effects, which include movements that may become slow and clumsy. This combination of symptoms when sufficiently severe is referred to as “manganism”. (2)
SymptomsManganese mainly affects the nervous system and may cause behavioral changes and other nervous system effects, which include movements that may become slow and clumsy. This combination of symptoms when sufficiently severe is referred to as “manganism”. (2)
TreatmentEYES: irrigate opened eyes for several minutes under running water. INGESTION: do not induce vomiting. Rinse mouth with water (never give anything by mouth to an unconscious person). Seek immediate medical advice. SKIN: should be treated immediately by rinsing the affected parts in cold running water for at least 15 minutes, followed by thorough washing with soap and water. If necessary, the person should shower and change contaminated clothing and shoes, and then must seek medical attention. INHALATION: supply fresh air. If required provide artificial respiration.
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDNot Available
HMDB IDNot Available
PubChem Compound ID14801
ChEMBL IDNot Available
ChemSpider ID14117
KEGG IDNot Available
UniProt IDNot Available
OMIM ID
ChEBI IDNot Available
BioCyc IDNot Available
CTD IDC016552
Stitch IDManganese dioxide
PDB IDNot Available
ACToR ID10632
Wikipedia LinkNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
MSDST3D1135.pdf
General References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2001). Minimal Risk Levels (MRLs) for Hazardous Substances. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
  2. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2008). Toxicological profile for manganese. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
  3. Wikipedia. Manganese. Last Updated 26 May 2009. [Link]
  4. Wikipedia. Manganese dioxide. Last Updated 26 May 2009. [Link]
  5. The Physical and Theoretical Chemistry Laboratory of Oxford University (2005). Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) for manganese (IV) oxide. [Link]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated GenesNot Available
Down-Regulated GenesNot Available

Targets

General Function:
Iron ion binding
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the isomerization of citrate to isocitrate via cis-aconitate.
Gene Name:
ACO2
Uniprot ID:
Q99798
Molecular Weight:
85424.745 Da
References
  1. Crooks DR, Ghosh MC, Braun-Sommargren M, Rouault TA, Smith DR: Manganese targets m-aconitase and activates iron regulatory protein 2 in AF5 GABAergic cells. J Neurosci Res. 2007 Jun;85(8):1797-809. [17469137 ]
General Function:
Rna binding
Specific Function:
Iron sensor. Binds a 4Fe-4S cluster and functions as aconitase when cellular iron levels are high. Functions as mRNA binding protein that regulates uptake, sequestration and utilization of iron when cellular iron levels are low. Binds to iron-responsive elements (IRES) in target mRNA species when iron levels are low. Binding of a 4Fe-4S cluster precludes RNA binding.Catalyzes the isomerization of citrate to isocitrate via cis-aconitate.
Gene Name:
ACO1
Uniprot ID:
P21399
Molecular Weight:
98398.14 Da
References
  1. Crooks DR, Ghosh MC, Braun-Sommargren M, Rouault TA, Smith DR: Manganese targets m-aconitase and activates iron regulatory protein 2 in AF5 GABAergic cells. J Neurosci Res. 2007 Jun;85(8):1797-809. [17469137 ]
General Function:
Translation repressor activity
Specific Function:
RNA-binding protein that binds to iron-responsive elements (IRES), which are stem-loop structures found in the 5'-UTR of ferritin, and delta aminolevulinic acid synthase mRNAs, and in the 3'-UTR of transferrin receptor mRNA. Binding to the IRE element in ferritin results in the repression of its mRNA translation. Binding of the protein to the transferrin receptor mRNA inhibits the degradation of this otherwise rapidly degraded mRNA.
Gene Name:
IREB2
Uniprot ID:
P48200
Molecular Weight:
105043.65 Da
References
  1. Crooks DR, Ghosh MC, Braun-Sommargren M, Rouault TA, Smith DR: Manganese targets m-aconitase and activates iron regulatory protein 2 in AF5 GABAergic cells. J Neurosci Res. 2007 Jun;85(8):1797-809. [17469137 ]
General Function:
Tubulin binding
Specific Function:
Its primary physiological function is unclear. Has cytoprotective activity against internal or environmental stresses. May play a role in neuronal development and synaptic plasticity. May be required for neuronal myelin sheath maintenance. May play a role in iron uptake and iron homeostasis. Soluble oligomers are toxic to cultured neuroblastoma cells and induce apoptosis (in vitro) (PubMed:12732622, PubMed:19936054, PubMed:20564047). Association with GPC1 (via its heparan sulfate chains) targets PRNP to lipid rafts. Also provides Cu(2+) or ZN(2+) for the ascorbate-mediated GPC1 deaminase degradation of its heparan sulfate side chains (By similarity).
Gene Name:
PRNP
Uniprot ID:
P04156
Molecular Weight:
27661.21 Da
References
  1. Brazier MW, Davies P, Player E, Marken F, Viles JH, Brown DR: Manganese binding to the prion protein. J Biol Chem. 2008 May 9;283(19):12831-9. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M709820200. Epub 2008 Mar 10. [18332141 ]
General Function:
Not Available
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
PRNT
Uniprot ID:
Q86SH4
Molecular Weight:
10755.655 Da
References
  1. Brazier MW, Davies P, Player E, Marken F, Viles JH, Brown DR: Manganese binding to the prion protein. J Biol Chem. 2008 May 9;283(19):12831-9. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M709820200. Epub 2008 Mar 10. [18332141 ]