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Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2009-06-19 21:58:51 UTC
Update Date2014-12-24 20:24:00 UTC
Accession NumberT3D1491
Identification
Common NameAluminium antimonide
ClassSmall Molecule
DescriptionAluminium antimonide is a chemical compound of aluminum and antimony. It is used as a a semiconductor. Aluminum is the most abundant metal in the earth's crust and is always found combined with other elements such as oxygen, silicon, and fluorine. Antimony is a metallic element with the chemical symbol Sb and atomic number 51. Small amounts of antimony are found in the earth's crust. (11, 9, 10, 12)
Compound Type
  • Aluminum Compound
  • Antimony Compound
  • Industrial/Workplace Toxin
  • Inorganic Compound
  • Pollutant
  • Synthetic Compound
Chemical Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Synonym
Aluminum antimonide
Chemical FormulaAlSb
Average Molecular Mass148.740 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass147.885 g/mol
CAS Registry Number25152-52-7
IUPAC Namealumanylidynestibane
Traditional Namealuminium antimonide
SMILES[Al]#[Sb]
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/Al.Sb
InChI KeyInChIKey=LVQULNGDVIKLPK-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of inorganic compounds known as inorganic antimony salts. These are inorganic salts of antimony. They usually contain antimony in its ionic form.
KingdomInorganic compounds
Super ClassInorganic salts
ClassInorganic antimony salts
Sub ClassNot Available
Direct ParentInorganic antimony salts
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Intermetallic post-transition metal
  • Inorganic antimony salt
  • Inorganic metalloid salt
Molecular FrameworkNot Available
External DescriptorsNot Available
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
OriginExogenous
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationsNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
ApplicationsNot Available
Biological RolesNot Available
Chemical RolesNot Available
Physical Properties
StateSolid
AppearanceBlack crystals.
Experimental Properties
PropertyValue
Melting PointNot Available
Boiling PointNot Available
SolubilityNot Available
LogPNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP-0.19ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area0 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity0 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability3.67 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
SpectraNot Available
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureOral (11) ; inhalation (11) ; dermal (11)
Mechanism of ToxicityThe main target organs of aluminum are the central nervous system and bone. Aluminum binds with dietary phosphorus and impairs gastrointestinal absorption of phosphorus. The decreased phosphate body burden results in osteomalacia (softening of the bones due to defective bone mineralization) and rickets. Aluminum's neurotoxicity is believed to involve several mechanisms. Changes in cytoskeletal protein functions as a results of altered phosphorylation, proteolysis, transport, and synthesis are believed to be one cause. Aluminum may induce neurobehavioral effects by affecting permeability of the blood-brain barrier, cholinergic activity, signal transduction pathways, lipid peroxidation, and impair neuronal glutamate nitric oxide-cyclic GMP pathway, as well as interfere with metabolism of essential trace elements because of similar coordination chemistries and consequent competitive interactions. Aluminum can also interact with estrogen receptors, increasing the expression of estrogen-related genes and contributing to the progression of breast cancer. Certain aluminum salts induce immune responses by activating inflammasomes. The inhalation data suggest that the myocardium is a target of antimony toxicity. It is possible that antimony affects circulating glucose by interfering with enzymes of the glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis pathways. The mechanism of action of antimony remains unclear. However, some studies suggest that antimony combines with sulfhydryl groups including those in several enzymes important for tissue respiration. The antidotal action of BAL depends on its ability to prevent or break the union between antimony and vital enzymes. Moreover, the The cause of death is believed to be essentially the same as that in acute arsenic poisoning. (4, 11, 3, 9, 1, 2)
MetabolismAluminum is poorly absorbed following either oral or inhalation exposure and is essentially not absorbed dermally. The bioavailability of aluminum is strongly influenced by the aluminum compound and the presence of dietary constituents which can complex with aluminum and enhance or inhibit its absorption. Aluminum binds to various ligands in the blood and distributes to every organ, with highest concentrations found in bone and lung tissues. In living organisms, aluminum is believed to exist in four different forms: as free ions, as low-molecular-weight complexes, as physically bound macromolecular complexes, and as covalently bound macromolecular complexes. Absorbed aluminum is excreted principally in the urine and, to a lesser extent, in the bile, while unabsorbed aluminum is excreted in the faeces. Antimony is widely distributed throughout the body. The hair and skin contain the highest levels of antimony. The adrenal glands, lung, large intestine, trachea, cerebellum, and kidneys also contain relatively high levels of antimony. Blood is the main vehicle for the transport of absorbed antimony to various tissue compartments of the body. Antimony is a metal and, therefore, does not undergo catabolism. Antimony can covalently interact with sulfhydryl groups and phosphate, as well as numerous reversible binding interactions with endogenous ligands (e.g., proteins). It is not known if these interactions are toxicologically significant. Antimony is excreted via the urine and feces. Some of the fecal antimony may represent unabsorbed antimony that is cleared from the lung via mucociliary action into the esophagus to the gastrointestinal tract. (11, 9)
Toxicity ValuesNot Available
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)No indication of carcinogenicity (not listed by IARC). (8)
Uses/SourcesAluminium antimonide is used as a a semiconductor. (12)
Minimum Risk LevelIntermediate Oral: 1.0 mg/kg/day (7) Chronic Oral: 1.0 mg/kg/day (7)
Health EffectsAluminum targets the nervous system and causes decreased nervous system performance and is associated with altered function of the blood-brain barrier. The accumulation of aluminum in the body may cause bone or brain diseases. High levels of aluminum have been linked to Alzheimer's disease. A small percentage of people are allergic to aluminium and experience contact dermatitis, digestive disorders, vomiting or other symptoms upon contact or ingestion of products containing aluminium. Dermal exposure to antimony can cause antimony spots (papules and pustules around sweat and sebaceous glands). Antimony poisoning can also lead to pneumoconiosis. Alterations in pulmonary function and other effects including chronic bronchitis, chronic emphysema, inactive tuberculosis, pleural adhesions, and irritation can result from inhalation of antimony. Increased blood pressure can also result from antimony poisoning. Myocardial depression, vasodilation and fluid loss may cause shock with hypotension, electrolyte disturbances and acute renal failure. Cerebral oedema, coma, convulsions, and death are possible. (11, 9, 10)
SymptomsInhalating aluminum dust causes coughing and abnormal chest X-rays. A small percentage of people are allergic to aluminium and experience contact dermatitis, digestive disorders, vomiting or other symptoms upon contact or ingestion of products containing aluminium. Abdominal pain, vomiting, diarrhea can result from inhalation of antimony. Dyspnea, headache, vomiting,cough, conjunctivitis, and bloody purulent discharge from nose can result from inhalation exposure. Skin or eye contact can cause pain and redness of the exposed surface. (6, 11, 9, 10)
TreatmentFollowing oral exposure to antimony, administer charcoal as a slurry (240 mL water/30 g charcoal). Following inhalation exposure, move patient to fresh air. Monitor for respiratory distress. If cough or difficulty breathing develops, evaluate for respiratory tract irritation, bronchitis, or pneumonitis. Administer oxygen and assist ventilation as required. Treat bronchospasm with inhaled beta2 agonist and oral or parenteral corticosteroids. In case of eye exposure, irrigate exposed eyes with copious amounts of room temperature water for at least 15 minutes. Following dermal exposure, remove contaminated clothing and wash exposed area thoroughly with soap and water. A physician may need to examine the area if irritation or pain persists. (5)
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDNot Available
HMDB IDNot Available
PubChem Compound ID24884164
ChEMBL IDNot Available
ChemSpider IDNot Available
KEGG IDNot Available
UniProt IDNot Available
OMIM ID
ChEBI IDNot Available
BioCyc IDNot Available
CTD IDNot Available
Stitch IDAluminium antimonide
PDB IDNot Available
ACToR IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
MSDSNot Available
General References
  1. Darbre PD: Metalloestrogens: an emerging class of inorganic xenoestrogens with potential to add to the oestrogenic burden of the human breast. J Appl Toxicol. 2006 May-Jun;26(3):191-7. [16489580 ]
  2. Aimanianda V, Haensler J, Lacroix-Desmazes S, Kaveri SV, Bayry J: Novel cellular and molecular mechanisms of induction of immune responses by aluminum adjuvants. Trends Pharmacol Sci. 2009 Jun;30(6):287-95. doi: 10.1016/j.tips.2009.03.005. Epub 2009 May 11. [19439372 ]
  3. Poon R, Chu I, Lecavalier P, Valli VE, Foster W, Gupta S, Thomas B: Effects of antimony on rats following 90-day exposure via drinking water. Food Chem Toxicol. 1998 Jan;36(1):21-35. [9487361 ]
  4. Hayes WJ Jr. and Laws ER Jr. (eds) (1991). Handbook of Pesticide Toxicology. Volume 3. Classes of Pesticides. New York, NY: Academic Press, Inc.
  5. Rumack BH (2009). POISINDEX(R) Information System. Englewood, CO: Micromedex, Inc. CCIS Volume 141, edition expires Aug, 2009.
  6. Hamilton A and Hardy HL (1974). Industrial Toxicology. 3rd ed. Acton, MA: Publishing Sciences Group, Inc.
  7. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2001). Minimal Risk Levels (MRLs) for Hazardous Substances. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
  8. International Agency for Research on Cancer (2014). IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. [Link]
  9. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2008). Toxicological profile for aluminum. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
  10. Wikipedia. Aluminium. Last Updated 16 June 2009. [Link]
  11. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (1992). Toxicological profile for antimony. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
  12. Wikipedia. Aluminium antimonide. Last Updated 25 March 2009. [Link]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated GenesNot Available
Down-Regulated GenesNot Available

Targets

General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Nuclear hormone receptor. The steroid hormones and their receptors are involved in the regulation of eukaryotic gene expression and affect cellular proliferation and differentiation in target tissues. Ligand-dependent nuclear transactivation involves either direct homodimer binding to a palindromic estrogen response element (ERE) sequence or association with other DNA-binding transcription factors, such as AP-1/c-Jun, c-Fos, ATF-2, Sp1 and Sp3, to mediate ERE-independent signaling. Ligand binding induces a conformational change allowing subsequent or combinatorial association with multiprotein coactivator complexes through LXXLL motifs of their respective components. Mutual transrepression occurs between the estrogen receptor (ER) and NF-kappa-B in a cell-type specific manner. Decreases NF-kappa-B DNA-binding activity and inhibits NF-kappa-B-mediated transcription from the IL6 promoter and displace RELA/p65 and associated coregulators from the promoter. Recruited to the NF-kappa-B response element of the CCL2 and IL8 promoters and can displace CREBBP. Present with NF-kappa-B components RELA/p65 and NFKB1/p50 on ERE sequences. Can also act synergistically with NF-kappa-B to activate transcription involving respective recruitment adjacent response elements; the function involves CREBBP. Can activate the transcriptional activity of TFF1. Also mediates membrane-initiated estrogen signaling involving various kinase cascades. Isoform 3 is involved in activation of NOS3 and endothelial nitric oxide production. Isoforms lacking one or several functional domains are thought to modulate transcriptional activity by competitive ligand or DNA binding and/or heterodimerization with the full length receptor. Essential for MTA1-mediated transcriptional regulation of BRCA1 and BCAS3. Isoform 3 can bind to ERE and inhibit isoform 1.
Gene Name:
ESR1
Uniprot ID:
P03372
Molecular Weight:
66215.45 Da
References
  1. Darbre PD: Metalloestrogens: an emerging class of inorganic xenoestrogens with potential to add to the oestrogenic burden of the human breast. J Appl Toxicol. 2006 May-Jun;26(3):191-7. [16489580 ]
General Function:
Glutathione transferase activity
Specific Function:
Conjugation of reduced glutathione to a wide number of exogenous and endogenous hydrophobic electrophiles.
Gene Name:
GSTA1
Uniprot ID:
P08263
Molecular Weight:
25630.785 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Ethanol. Last Updated 15 May 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Glutathione transferase activity
Specific Function:
Conjugation of reduced glutathione to a wide number of exogenous and endogenous hydrophobic electrophiles.
Gene Name:
GSTA2
Uniprot ID:
P09210
Molecular Weight:
25663.675 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Ethanol. Last Updated 15 May 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Glutathione transferase activity
Specific Function:
Conjugation of reduced glutathione to a wide number of exogenous and endogenous hydrophobic electrophiles. Catalyzes isomerization reactions that contribute to the biosynthesis of steroid hormones. Efficiently catalyze obligatory double-bond isomerizations of delta(5)-androstene-3,17-dione and delta(5)-pregnene-3,20-dione, precursors to testosterone and progesterone, respectively.
Gene Name:
GSTA3
Uniprot ID:
Q16772
Molecular Weight:
25301.355 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Ethanol. Last Updated 15 May 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Glutathione transferase activity
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
GSTA5
Uniprot ID:
Q7RTV2
Molecular Weight:
25721.725 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Ethanol. Last Updated 15 May 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Protein homodimerization activity
Specific Function:
Conjugation of reduced glutathione to a wide number of exogenous and endogenous hydrophobic electrophiles.
Gene Name:
GSTM1
Uniprot ID:
P09488
Molecular Weight:
25711.555 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Ethanol. Last Updated 15 May 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Receptor binding
Specific Function:
Conjugation of reduced glutathione to a wide number of exogenous and endogenous hydrophobic electrophiles.
Gene Name:
GSTM2
Uniprot ID:
P28161
Molecular Weight:
25744.395 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Ethanol. Last Updated 15 May 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Protein homodimerization activity
Specific Function:
Conjugation of reduced glutathione to a wide number of exogenous and endogenous hydrophobic electrophiles. May govern uptake and detoxification of both endogenous compounds and xenobiotics at the testis and brain blood barriers.
Gene Name:
GSTM3
Uniprot ID:
P21266
Molecular Weight:
26559.32 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Ethanol. Last Updated 15 May 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Protein homodimerization activity
Specific Function:
Conjugation of reduced glutathione to a wide number of exogenous and endogenous hydrophobic electrophiles. Active on 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene.
Gene Name:
GSTM4
Uniprot ID:
Q03013
Molecular Weight:
25561.095 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Ethanol. Last Updated 15 May 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Glutathione transferase activity
Specific Function:
Conjugation of reduced glutathione to a wide number of exogenous and endogenous hydrophobic electrophiles.
Gene Name:
GSTM5
Uniprot ID:
P46439
Molecular Weight:
25674.455 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Ethanol. Last Updated 15 May 2009. [Link]
General Function:
S-nitrosoglutathione binding
Specific Function:
Conjugation of reduced glutathione to a wide number of exogenous and endogenous hydrophobic electrophiles. Regulates negatively CDK5 activity via p25/p35 translocation to prevent neurodegeneration.
Gene Name:
GSTP1
Uniprot ID:
P09211
Molecular Weight:
23355.625 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Ethanol. Last Updated 15 May 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Receptor binding
Specific Function:
Significant glutathione conjugating activity is found only with the model substrate, 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB).
Gene Name:
GSTK1
Uniprot ID:
Q9Y2Q3
Molecular Weight:
25496.625 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Ethanol. Last Updated 15 May 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Oxidoreductase activity
Specific Function:
Exhibits glutathione-dependent thiol transferase and dehydroascorbate reductase activities. Has S-(phenacyl)glutathione reductase activity. Has also glutathione S-transferase activity. Participates in the biotransformation of inorganic arsenic and reduces monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) and dimethylarsonic acid.
Gene Name:
GSTO1
Uniprot ID:
P78417
Molecular Weight:
27565.6 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Ethanol. Last Updated 15 May 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Oxidoreductase activity
Specific Function:
Exhibits glutathione-dependent thiol transferase activity. Has high dehydroascorbate reductase activity and may contribute to the recycling of ascorbic acid. Participates in the biotransformation of inorganic arsenic and reduces monomethylarsonic acid (MMA).
Gene Name:
GSTO2
Uniprot ID:
Q9H4Y5
Molecular Weight:
28253.52 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Ethanol. Last Updated 15 May 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Glutathione transferase activity
Specific Function:
Conjugation of reduced glutathione to a wide number of exogenous and endogenous hydrophobic electrophiles. Acts on 1,2-epoxy-3-(4-nitrophenoxy)propane, phenethylisothiocyanate 4-nitrobenzyl chloride and 4-nitrophenethyl bromide. Displays glutathione peroxidase activity with cumene hydroperoxide.
Gene Name:
GSTT1
Uniprot ID:
P30711
Molecular Weight:
27334.755 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Ethanol. Last Updated 15 May 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Glutathione transferase activity
Specific Function:
Conjugation of reduced glutathione to a wide number of exogenous and endogenous hydrophobic electrophiles. Has a sulfatase activity.
Gene Name:
GSTT2
Uniprot ID:
P0CG29
Molecular Weight:
27505.775 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Ethanol. Last Updated 15 May 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Not Available
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
Not Available
Uniprot ID:
A8MPT4
Molecular Weight:
Not Available
References
  1. Wikipedia. Ethanol. Last Updated 15 May 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Protein homodimerization activity
Specific Function:
Bifunctional enzyme showing minimal glutathione-conjugating activity with ethacrynic acid and 7-chloro-4-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazole and maleylacetoacetate isomerase activity. Has also low glutathione peroxidase activity with T-butyl and cumene hydroperoxides. Is able to catalyze the glutathione dependent oxygenation of dichloroacetic acid to glyoxylic acid.
Gene Name:
GSTZ1
Uniprot ID:
O43708
Molecular Weight:
24212.005 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Ethanol. Last Updated 15 May 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Glutathione transferase activity
Specific Function:
Conjugation of reduced glutathione to a wide number of exogenous and endogenous hydrophobic electrophiles. Has a wide substrate specificity.
Gene Name:
MGST1
Uniprot ID:
P10620
Molecular Weight:
17598.45 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Ethanol. Last Updated 15 May 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Leukotriene-c4 synthase activity
Specific Function:
Can catalyze the production of LTC4 from LTA4 and reduced glutathione. Can catalyze the conjugation of 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene with reduced glutathione.
Gene Name:
MGST2
Uniprot ID:
Q99735
Molecular Weight:
16620.4 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Ethanol. Last Updated 15 May 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Peroxidase activity
Specific Function:
Also functions as a glutathione peroxidase.
Gene Name:
MGST3
Uniprot ID:
O14880
Molecular Weight:
16516.185 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Ethanol. Last Updated 15 May 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Transcription factor binding
Specific Function:
As the sensor component of the NLRP3 inflammasome, plays a crucial role in innate immunity and inflammation. In response to pathogens and other damage-associated signals, initiates the formation of the inflammasome polymeric complex, made of NLRP3, PYCARD and CASP1 (and possibly CASP4 and CASP5). Recruitement of proCASP1 to the inflammasome promotes its activation and CASP1-catalyzed IL1B and IL18 maturation and secretion in the extracellular milieu. Activation of NLRP3 inflammasome is also required for HMGB1 secretion (PubMed:22801494). The active cytokines and HMGB1 stimulate inflammatory responses. Inflammasomes can also induce pyroptosis, an inflammatory form of programmed cell death. Under resting conditions, NLRP3 is autoinhibited. NLRP3 activation stimuli include extracellular ATP, reactive oxygen species, K(+) efflux, crystals of monosodium urate or cholesterol, beta-amyloid fibers, environmental or industrial particles and nanoparticles, etc. However, it is unclear what constitutes the direct NLRP3 activator. Independently of inflammasome activation, regulates the differentiation of T helper 2 (Th2) cells and has a role in Th2 cell-dependent asthma and tumor growth (By similarity). During Th2 differentiation, required for optimal IRF4 binding to IL4 promoter and for IRF4-dependent IL4 transcription. Binds to the consensus DNA sequence 5'-GRRGGNRGAG-3'. May also participate in the transcription of IL5, IL13, GATA3, CCR3, CCR4 and MAF (By similarity).
Gene Name:
NLRP3
Uniprot ID:
Q96P20
Molecular Weight:
118171.375 Da
References
  1. Aimanianda V, Haensler J, Lacroix-Desmazes S, Kaveri SV, Bayry J: Novel cellular and molecular mechanisms of induction of immune responses by aluminum adjuvants. Trends Pharmacol Sci. 2009 Jun;30(6):287-95. doi: 10.1016/j.tips.2009.03.005. Epub 2009 May 11. [19439372 ]
References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2008). Toxicological profile for aluminum. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]