Tmic
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Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2009-06-19 21:58:59 UTC
Update Date2014-12-24 20:24:15 UTC
Accession NumberT3D1577
Identification
Common NamePalladium(II) nitrate
ClassSmall Molecule
DescriptionPalladium(II) nitrate is a nitrate of palladium. Palladium is a chemical element with the chemical symbol Pd and an atomic number of 46. It is found as a free metal alloyed with gold and other platinum group metals and in the rare minerals cooperite and polarite. Nitrite is a toxic compound known to cause methemoglobinemia. (7, 5)
Compound Type
  • Industrial/Workplace Toxin
  • Inorganic Compound
  • Nitrate
  • Palladium Compound
  • Synthetic Compound
Chemical Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Synonym
Hydrogen tetranitropalladate (II)
Palladium dinitrate
Palladium nitrate
Palladium(II) nitrate dihydrate
Palladium(II) nitric acid
Chemical FormulaN2O6Pd
Average Molecular Mass230.430 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass229.879 g/mol
CAS Registry Number10102-05-3
IUPAC Namepalladium(2+) ion dinitrate
Traditional Namepalladium(2+) ion dinitrate
SMILES[Pd++].[O-][N+]([O-])=O.[O-][N+]([O-])=O
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/2NO3.Pd/c2*2-1(3)4;/q2*-1;+2
InChI KeyInChIKey=GPNDARIEYHPYAY-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of inorganic compounds known as transition metal nitrates. These are inorganic compounds in which the largest oxoanion is nitrate, and in which the heaviest atom not in an oxoanion is a transition metal.
KingdomInorganic compounds
Super ClassMixed metal/non-metal compounds
ClassTransition metal oxoanionic compounds
Sub ClassTransition metal nitrates
Direct ParentTransition metal nitrates
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Transition metal nitrate
  • Inorganic oxide
  • Inorganic salt
Molecular FrameworkNot Available
External DescriptorsNot Available
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
OriginExogenous
Cellular Locations
  • Membrane
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationsNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
ApplicationsNot Available
Biological RolesNot Available
Chemical RolesNot Available
Physical Properties
StateSolid
AppearanceRed/brown solid.
Experimental Properties
PropertyValue
Melting PointNot Available
Boiling PointNot Available
SolubilityNot Available
LogPNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP-2.6ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-9.9ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area66.2 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity8.35 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability3.28 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
SpectraNot Available
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureOral (7) ; inhalation (7)
Mechanism of ToxicityDue to their ability to form strong complexes with both inorganic and organic ligands, palladium ions can disturb cellular equilibria, replace other essential ions, and interact with functional groups of macromolecules, such as proteins or DNA. Palladium complexes binding to DNA and RNA leads to strand breakage. Palladium ions are able to inhibit most major cellular functions, including DNA and RNA synthesis. Palladium compounds have been shown to bind to and inhibit various enzymes, including creatine kinase and prolyl hydroxylase. Nitrate's toxicity is a result of it's conversion to nitrite once in the body. Nitrite causes the autocatalytic oxidation of oxyhemoglobin to hydrogen peroxide and methemoglobin. This elevation of methemoglobin levels is a condition known as methemoglobinemia, and is characterized by tissue hypoxia, as methemoglobin cannot bind oxygen. (3, 8, 6)
MetabolismPalladium may be absorbed through oral, dermal, and inhalation exposure. Once in the body it distributes to the kidney, liver, spleen, lymph nodes, adrenal gland, lung and bone. Palladium's ability to form complexes allows it the bind to amino acids, proteins, DNA, and other macromolecules. Palladium and its metabolites are excreted in the urine and faeces. Intake of some amount of nitrates and nitrites is a normal part of the nitrogen cycle in humans. In vivo conversion of nitrates to nitrites can occur in the gastrointestional tract under the right conditions, significantly enhancing nitrates' toxic potency. The major metabolic pathway for nitrate is conversion to nitrite, and then to ammonia. Nitrites, nitrates, and their metabolites are excreted in the urine. (7, 1)
Toxicity ValuesNot Available
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)Ingested nitrate or nitrite under conditions that result in endogenous nitrosation is probably carcinogenic to humans (Group 2A). (4)
Uses/SourcesNot Available
Minimum Risk LevelNot Available
Health EffectsContact with palladium may cause palladium sensitivity and allergy. Animal studies have shown that palladium may damage the liver and kidney. Nitrate and nitrite poisoning causes methemoglobinemia. Nitrites may cause pregnancy complications and developmental effects. They may also be carcinogenic. (7, 6)
SymptomsSkin contact with palladium may cause contact dermatitis, erythema, and oedema. Nitrate and nitrite poisoning causes methemoglobinemia. Symptoms include cyanosis, cardiac dysrhythmias and circulatory failure, and progressive central nervous system (CNS) effects. CNS effects can range from mild dizziness and lethargy to coma and convulsions. (7, 6)
TreatmentMethemoglobinemia can be treated with supplemental oxygen and methylene blue 1% solution administered intravenously slowly over five minutes followed by IV flush with normal saline. Methylene blue restores the iron in hemoglobin to its normal (reduced) oxygen-carrying state. (8)
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDNot Available
HMDB IDNot Available
PubChem Compound ID24932
ChEMBL IDNot Available
ChemSpider IDNot Available
KEGG IDNot Available
UniProt IDNot Available
OMIM ID
ChEBI IDNot Available
BioCyc IDNot Available
CTD IDC090639
Stitch IDPalladium(II) nitrate
PDB IDNot Available
ACToR IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkPalladium(II)_nitrate
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
MSDST3D1577.pdf
General References
  1. Smith DR, Kahng MW, Quintanilla-Vega B, Fowler BA: High-affinity renal lead-binding proteins in environmentally-exposed humans. Chem Biol Interact. 1998 Aug 14;115(1):39-52. [9817074 ]
  2. Sanins SM, Timbrell JA, Elcombe C, Nicholson JK: Proton NMR spectroscopic studies on the metabolism and biochemical effects of hydrazine in vivo. Arch Toxicol. 1992;66(7):489-95. [1332653 ]
  3. Keszler A, Piknova B, Schechter AN, Hogg N: The reaction between nitrite and oxyhemoglobin: a mechanistic study. J Biol Chem. 2008 Apr 11;283(15):9615-22. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M705630200. Epub 2008 Jan 17. [18203719 ]
  4. International Agency for Research on Cancer (2014). IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. [Link]
  5. Wikipedia. Palladium. Last Updated 14 June 2009. [Link]
  6. International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS) INCHEM (2002). Environmental Health Criteria for Palladium. [Link]
  7. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2007). Case Studies in Environmental Medicine. Nitrate/Nitrite Toxicity. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
  8. Wikipedia. Methemoglobinemia. Last Updated 22 July 2009. [Link]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated GenesNot Available
Down-Regulated GenesNot Available

Targets

General Function:
Oxygen transporter activity
Specific Function:
Involved in oxygen transport from the lung to the various peripheral tissues.
Gene Name:
HBA1
Uniprot ID:
P69905
Molecular Weight:
15257.405 Da
References
  1. Keszler A, Piknova B, Schechter AN, Hogg N: The reaction between nitrite and oxyhemoglobin: a mechanistic study. J Biol Chem. 2008 Apr 11;283(15):9615-22. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M705630200. Epub 2008 Jan 17. [18203719 ]
  2. Wikipedia. Methemoglobinemia. Last Updated 22 July 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Oxygen transporter activity
Specific Function:
Involved in oxygen transport from the lung to the various peripheral tissues.LVV-hemorphin-7 potentiates the activity of bradykinin, causing a decrease in blood pressure.Spinorphin: functions as an endogenous inhibitor of enkephalin-degrading enzymes such as DPP3, and as a selective antagonist of the P2RX3 receptor which is involved in pain signaling, these properties implicate it as a regulator of pain and inflammation.
Gene Name:
HBB
Uniprot ID:
P68871
Molecular Weight:
15998.34 Da
References
  1. Keszler A, Piknova B, Schechter AN, Hogg N: The reaction between nitrite and oxyhemoglobin: a mechanistic study. J Biol Chem. 2008 Apr 11;283(15):9615-22. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M705630200. Epub 2008 Jan 17. [18203719 ]
  2. Wikipedia. Methemoglobinemia. Last Updated 22 July 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Oxygen transporter activity
Specific Function:
Involved in oxygen transport from the lung to the various peripheral tissues.
Gene Name:
HBD
Uniprot ID:
P02042
Molecular Weight:
16055.41 Da
References
  1. Keszler A, Piknova B, Schechter AN, Hogg N: The reaction between nitrite and oxyhemoglobin: a mechanistic study. J Biol Chem. 2008 Apr 11;283(15):9615-22. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M705630200. Epub 2008 Jan 17. [18203719 ]
  2. Wikipedia. Methemoglobinemia. Last Updated 22 July 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Oxygen transporter activity
Specific Function:
The epsilon chain is a beta-type chain of early mammalian embryonic hemoglobin.
Gene Name:
HBE1
Uniprot ID:
P02100
Molecular Weight:
16202.71 Da
References
  1. Keszler A, Piknova B, Schechter AN, Hogg N: The reaction between nitrite and oxyhemoglobin: a mechanistic study. J Biol Chem. 2008 Apr 11;283(15):9615-22. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M705630200. Epub 2008 Jan 17. [18203719 ]
  2. Wikipedia. Methemoglobinemia. Last Updated 22 July 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Oxygen transporter activity
Specific Function:
Gamma chains make up the fetal hemoglobin F, in combination with alpha chains.
Gene Name:
HBG1
Uniprot ID:
P69891
Molecular Weight:
16140.37 Da
References
  1. Keszler A, Piknova B, Schechter AN, Hogg N: The reaction between nitrite and oxyhemoglobin: a mechanistic study. J Biol Chem. 2008 Apr 11;283(15):9615-22. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M705630200. Epub 2008 Jan 17. [18203719 ]
  2. Wikipedia. Methemoglobinemia. Last Updated 22 July 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Gamma chains make up the fetal hemoglobin F, in combination with alpha chains.
Specific Function:
Heme binding
Gene Name:
HBG2
Uniprot ID:
P69892
Molecular Weight:
16126.35 Da
References
  1. Keszler A, Piknova B, Schechter AN, Hogg N: The reaction between nitrite and oxyhemoglobin: a mechanistic study. J Biol Chem. 2008 Apr 11;283(15):9615-22. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M705630200. Epub 2008 Jan 17. [18203719 ]
  2. Wikipedia. Methemoglobinemia. Last Updated 22 July 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Oxygen transporter activity
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
HBM
Uniprot ID:
Q6B0K9
Molecular Weight:
15617.97 Da
References
  1. Keszler A, Piknova B, Schechter AN, Hogg N: The reaction between nitrite and oxyhemoglobin: a mechanistic study. J Biol Chem. 2008 Apr 11;283(15):9615-22. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M705630200. Epub 2008 Jan 17. [18203719 ]
  2. Wikipedia. Methemoglobinemia. Last Updated 22 July 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Oxygen transporter activity
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
HBQ1
Uniprot ID:
P09105
Molecular Weight:
15507.575 Da
References
  1. Keszler A, Piknova B, Schechter AN, Hogg N: The reaction between nitrite and oxyhemoglobin: a mechanistic study. J Biol Chem. 2008 Apr 11;283(15):9615-22. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M705630200. Epub 2008 Jan 17. [18203719 ]
  2. Wikipedia. Methemoglobinemia. Last Updated 22 July 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Oxygen transporter activity
Specific Function:
The zeta chain is an alpha-type chain of mammalian embryonic hemoglobin.
Gene Name:
HBZ
Uniprot ID:
P02008
Molecular Weight:
15636.845 Da
References
  1. Keszler A, Piknova B, Schechter AN, Hogg N: The reaction between nitrite and oxyhemoglobin: a mechanistic study. J Biol Chem. 2008 Apr 11;283(15):9615-22. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M705630200. Epub 2008 Jan 17. [18203719 ]
  2. Wikipedia. Methemoglobinemia. Last Updated 22 July 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Creatine kinase activity
Specific Function:
Reversibly catalyzes the transfer of phosphate between ATP and various phosphogens (e.g. creatine phosphate). Creatine kinase isoenzymes play a central role in energy transduction in tissues with large, fluctuating energy demands, such as skeletal muscle, heart, brain and spermatozoa.
Gene Name:
CKM
Uniprot ID:
P06732
Molecular Weight:
43100.91 Da
References
  1. Liu TZ, Khayam-Bashi H, Bhatnagar RS: Inhibition of creatine kinase activity and alterations in electrophoretic mobility by palladium ions. J Environ Pathol Toxicol. 1979 Jan-Feb;2(3):907-16. [422942 ]
General Function:
Procollagen-proline 4-dioxygenase activity
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the post-translational formation of 4-hydroxyproline in -Xaa-Pro-Gly- sequences in collagens and other proteins.
Gene Name:
P4HA1
Uniprot ID:
P13674
Molecular Weight:
61048.775 Da
References
  1. Rapaka RS, Sorensen KR, Lee SD, Bhatnagar RS: Inhibition of hydroxyproline synthesis by palladium ions. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1976 Mar 11;429(1):63-71. [177068 ]
General Function:
Procollagen-proline 4-dioxygenase activity
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the post-translational formation of 4-hydroxyproline in -Xaa-Pro-Gly- sequences in collagens and other proteins.
Gene Name:
P4HA2
Uniprot ID:
O15460
Molecular Weight:
60901.42 Da
References
  1. Rapaka RS, Sorensen KR, Lee SD, Bhatnagar RS: Inhibition of hydroxyproline synthesis by palladium ions. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1976 Mar 11;429(1):63-71. [177068 ]
General Function:
Procollagen-proline 4-dioxygenase activity
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the post-translational formation of 4-hydroxyproline in -Xaa-Pro-Gly- sequences in collagens and other proteins.
Gene Name:
P4HA3
Uniprot ID:
Q7Z4N8
Molecular Weight:
61125.675 Da
References
  1. Rapaka RS, Sorensen KR, Lee SD, Bhatnagar RS: Inhibition of hydroxyproline synthesis by palladium ions. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1976 Mar 11;429(1):63-71. [177068 ]
General Function:
Oxidoreductase activity, acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen, 2-oxoglutarate as one donor, and incorporation of one atom each of oxygen into both donors
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the post-translational formation of 4-hydroxyproline in hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) alpha proteins. Hydroxylates HIF1A at 'Pro-402' and 'Pro-564'. May function as a cellular oxygen sensor and, under normoxic conditions, may target HIF through the hydroxylation for proteasomal degradation via the von Hippel-Lindau ubiquitination complex.
Gene Name:
P4HTM
Uniprot ID:
Q9NXG6
Molecular Weight:
56660.535 Da
References
  1. Rapaka RS, Sorensen KR, Lee SD, Bhatnagar RS: Inhibition of hydroxyproline synthesis by palladium ions. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1976 Mar 11;429(1):63-71. [177068 ]
15. DNA
General Function:
Used for biological information storage.
Specific Function:
DNA contains the instructions needed for an organism to develop, survive and reproduce.
Molecular Weight:
2.15 x 1012 Da