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Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2009-06-22 16:08:24 UTC
Update Date2014-12-24 20:24:24 UTC
Accession NumberT3D1662
Identification
Common NameIsophorone diisocyanate
ClassSmall Molecule
DescriptionIsophorone diisocyanate, also known as IPDI, is a chemical compound of cyanide and an aliphatic diisocyanate. Aliphatic diisocyanates are used in special applications, such as enamel coatings which are resistant to abrasion and degradation from ultraviolet light. These properties are particularly desirable in, for instance, the exterior paint applied to aircraft. (6)
Compound Type
  • Cyanide Compound
  • Household Toxin
  • Industrial/Workplace Toxin
  • Organic Compound
  • Pollutant
  • Synthetic Compound
Chemical Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Synonym
3-Isocyanatomethyl-3,5,5-trimethylcyclohexyl isocyanate
3-Isocyanatomethyl-3,5,5-trimethylcyclohexylisocyanate
IPDI
Isocyanic acid, methylene(3,5,5-trimethyl-3,1-cyclohexylene) ester
Isophorone diamine dIIsocyanate
Isophorone diisocyanic acid
Chemical FormulaC12H18N2O2
Average Molecular Mass222.284 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass222.137 g/mol
CAS Registry Number4098-71-9
IUPAC Name5-isocyanato-1-(isocyanatomethyl)-1,3,3-trimethylcyclohexane
Traditional Nameisophorone diisocyanate
SMILESCC1(C)CC(CC(C)(CN=C=O)C1)N=C=O
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/C12H18N2O2/c1-11(2)4-10(14-9-16)5-12(3,6-11)7-13-8-15/h10H,4-7H2,1-3H3
InChI KeyInChIKey=NIMLQBUJDJZYEJ-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as isocyanates. These are organic compounds containing the isocyanic acid tautomer, HN=C=O, of cyanic acid, HOC#N or its hydrocarbyl derivatives RN=C=O.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic nitrogen compounds
ClassOrganonitrogen compounds
Sub ClassIsocyanates
Direct ParentIsocyanates
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Isocyanate
  • Organic 1,3-dipolar compound
  • Propargyl-type 1,3-dipolar organic compound
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Aliphatic homomonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic homomonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
OriginExogenous
Cellular Locations
  • Membrane
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationsNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
ApplicationsNot Available
Biological RolesNot Available
Chemical RolesNot Available
Physical Properties
StateLiquid
AppearanceColorless liquid.
Experimental Properties
PropertyValue
Melting PointNot Available
Boiling Point158-159°C at 1.50E+01 mm Hg
SolubilityNot Available
LogPNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.06 g/LALOGPS
logP2.41ALOGPS
logP2.13ChemAxon
logS-3.6ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Basic)-4.2ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area58.86 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count3ChemAxon
Refractivity59.25 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability23.73 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0a4i-5910000000-c19afc76593fa47648d7JSpectraViewer
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, PositiveNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-00e9-0980000000-42c7c2fdf96137f312f0JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-001i-0910000000-4bbecbf9713e6585a049JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-01x0-5900000000-4b64defed855560bd0a3JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-00di-2190000000-0de30ae86d208722f0e2JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-006x-9250000000-6156d7e07d2bd9b7d94eJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0006-9000000000-1bb6b7de2c6d6e055362JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-0019-0900000000-432861dca6d6eb8c2889JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-074i-2900000000-aa9fcdf85289714eaa27JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-05fr-4900000000-9320709b371f2ef9bbbdJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-006x-2960000000-5b2662cf43d5eeb7882dJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-0006-9600000000-fa1943750a1b1b783a5cJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0006-9000000000-51d283be4237ed8ab376JSpectraViewer
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureOral (4) ; inhalation (4) ; dermal (4)
Mechanism of ToxicityCyanide is an inhibitor of cytochrome c oxidase in the fourth complex of the electron transport chain (found in the membrane of the mitochondria of eukaryotic cells). It complexes with the ferric iron atom in this enzyme. The binding of cyanide to this cytochrome prevents transport of electrons from cytochrome c oxidase to oxygen. As a result, the electron transport chain is disrupted and the cell can no longer aerobically produce ATP for energy. Tissues that mainly depend on aerobic respiration, such as the central nervous system and the heart, are particularly affected. Cyanide is also known produce some of its toxic effects by binding to catalase, glutathione peroxidase, methemoglobin, hydroxocobalamin, phosphatase, tyrosinase, ascorbic acid oxidase, xanthine oxidase, succinic dehydrogenase, and Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase. Cyanide binds to the ferric ion of methemoglobin to form inactive cyanmethemoglobin. (5)
MetabolismCyanide is rapidly alsorbed through oral, inhalation, and dermal routes and distributed throughout the body. Cyanide is mainly metabolized into thiocyanate by either rhodanese or 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfur transferase. Cyanide metabolites are excreted in the urine. (4)
Toxicity ValuesLD50: 1060 mg/kg (Dermal, Rabbit) (1) LD50: >1000 mg/kg (Oral, Rat) (2) LC50: 123 mg/m3 over 4 hours (Inhalation, Rat) (2)
Lethal Dose200 to 300 milligrams for an adult human (cyanide salts). (3)
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)No indication of carcinogenicity to humans (not listed by IARC).
Uses/SourcesAliphatic diisocyanates are used in special applications, such as enamel coatings which are resistant to abrasion and degradation from ultraviolet light. These properties are particularly desirable in, for instance, the exterior paint applied to aircraft. (6)
Minimum Risk LevelNot Available
Health EffectsExposure to high levels of cyanide for a short time harms the brain and heart and can even cause coma, seizures, apnea, cardiac arrest and death. Chronic inhalation of cyanide causes breathing difficulties, chest pain, vomiting, blood changes, headaches, and enlargement of the thyroid gland. Skin contact with cyanide salts can irritate and produce sores. (4, 5)
SymptomsCyanide poisoning is identified by rapid, deep breathing and shortness of breath, general weakness, giddiness, headaches, vertigo, confusion, convulsions/seizures and eventually loss of consciousness. (4, 5)
TreatmentAntidotes to cyanide poisoning include hydroxocobalamin and sodium nitrite, which release the cyanide from the cytochrome system, and rhodanase, which is an enzyme occurring naturally in mammals that combines serum cyanide with thiosulfate, producing comparatively harmless thiocyanate. Oxygen therapy can also be administered. (5)
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDNot Available
HMDB IDNot Available
PubChem Compound ID169132
ChEMBL IDCHEMBL1509442
ChemSpider ID147926
KEGG IDNot Available
UniProt IDNot Available
OMIM ID
ChEBI ID53214
BioCyc IDNot Available
CTD IDC015301
Stitch IDIsophorone diisocyanate
PDB IDNot Available
ACToR ID4098
Wikipedia LinkNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
MSDST3D1662.pdf
General References
  1. Lewis RJ (1996). Sax's Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials. 9th ed. Volumes 1-3. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold.
  2. American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, Inc. (1991). Documentation of the Threshold Limit Values and Biological Exposure Indices. 6th ed. Volumes I, II, III. Cincinnati, OH: American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists.
  3. Baselt RC and Cravey RH (1989). Disposition of Toxic Drugs and Chemicals in Man. 3rd ed. Chicago, IL.: Year Book Medical Publishers.
  4. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2006). Toxicological profile for cyanide. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
  5. Wikipedia. Cyanide poisoning. Last Updated 30 March 2009. [Link]
  6. Wikipedia. Hexamethylene diisocyanate. Last Updated 22 January 2009. [Link]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated GenesNot Available
Down-Regulated GenesNot Available

Targets

General Function:
Metal ion binding
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ALPPL2
Uniprot ID:
P10696
Molecular Weight:
57376.515 Da
References
  1. Gerbitz KD: Human alkaline phosphatases. II. Metalloenzyme properties of the enzyme from human liver. Hoppe Seylers Z Physiol Chem. 1977 Nov;358(11):1491-7. [924371 ]
General Function:
Pyrophosphatase activity
Specific Function:
This isozyme may play a role in skeletal mineralization.
Gene Name:
ALPL
Uniprot ID:
P05186
Molecular Weight:
57304.435 Da
References
  1. Gerbitz KD: Human alkaline phosphatases. II. Metalloenzyme properties of the enzyme from human liver. Hoppe Seylers Z Physiol Chem. 1977 Nov;358(11):1491-7. [924371 ]
General Function:
Receptor binding
Specific Function:
Occurs in almost all aerobically respiring organisms and serves to protect cells from the toxic effects of hydrogen peroxide. Promotes growth of cells including T-cells, B-cells, myeloid leukemia cells, melanoma cells, mastocytoma cells and normal and transformed fibroblast cells.
Gene Name:
CAT
Uniprot ID:
P04040
Molecular Weight:
59755.82 Da
References
  1. Kang YS, Lee DH, Yoon BJ, Oh DC: Purification and characterization of a catalase from photosynthetic bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum S1 grown under anaerobic conditions. J Microbiol. 2006 Apr;44(2):185-91. [16728955 ]
General Function:
Iron ion binding
Specific Function:
Cytochrome c oxidase is the component of the respiratory chain that catalyzes the reduction of oxygen to water. Subunits 1-3 form the functional core of the enzyme complex. CO I is the catalytic subunit of the enzyme. Electrons originating in cytochrome c are transferred via the copper A center of subunit 2 and heme A of subunit 1 to the bimetallic center formed by heme A3 and copper B.
Gene Name:
MT-CO1
Uniprot ID:
P00395
Molecular Weight:
57040.91 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Cyanide poisoning. Last Updated 30 March 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Cytochrome-c oxidase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochrome c oxidase is the component of the respiratory chain that catalyzes the reduction of oxygen to water. Subunits 1-3 form the functional core of the enzyme complex. Subunit 2 transfers the electrons from cytochrome c via its binuclear copper A center to the bimetallic center of the catalytic subunit 1.
Gene Name:
MT-CO2
Uniprot ID:
P00403
Molecular Weight:
25564.73 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Cyanide poisoning. Last Updated 30 March 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Cytochrome-c oxidase activity
Specific Function:
Subunits I, II and III form the functional core of the enzyme complex.
Gene Name:
MT-CO3
Uniprot ID:
P00414
Molecular Weight:
29950.6 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Cyanide poisoning. Last Updated 30 March 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Cytochrome-c oxidase activity
Specific Function:
This protein is one of the nuclear-coded polypeptide chains of cytochrome c oxidase, the terminal oxidase in mitochondrial electron transport.
Gene Name:
COX4I1
Uniprot ID:
P13073
Molecular Weight:
19576.6 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Cyanide poisoning. Last Updated 30 March 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Cytochrome-c oxidase activity
Specific Function:
This protein is one of the nuclear-coded polypeptide chains of cytochrome c oxidase, the terminal oxidase in mitochondrial electron transport.
Gene Name:
COX4I2
Uniprot ID:
Q96KJ9
Molecular Weight:
20010.02 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Cyanide poisoning. Last Updated 30 March 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Metal ion binding
Specific Function:
This is the heme A-containing chain of cytochrome c oxidase, the terminal oxidase in mitochondrial electron transport.
Gene Name:
COX5A
Uniprot ID:
P20674
Molecular Weight:
16761.985 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Cyanide poisoning. Last Updated 30 March 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Metal ion binding
Specific Function:
This protein is one of the nuclear-coded polypeptide chains of cytochrome c oxidase, the terminal oxidase in mitochondrial electron transport.
Gene Name:
COX5B
Uniprot ID:
P10606
Molecular Weight:
13695.57 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Cyanide poisoning. Last Updated 30 March 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Cytochrome-c oxidase activity
Specific Function:
This protein is one of the nuclear-coded polypeptide chains of cytochrome c oxidase, the terminal oxidase in mitochondrial electron transport.
Gene Name:
COX6A1
Uniprot ID:
P12074
Molecular Weight:
12154.8 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Cyanide poisoning. Last Updated 30 March 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Cytochrome-c oxidase activity
Specific Function:
This protein is one of the nuclear-coded polypeptide chains of cytochrome c oxidase, the terminal oxidase in mitochondrial electron transport.
Gene Name:
COX6A2
Uniprot ID:
Q02221
Molecular Weight:
10815.32 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Cyanide poisoning. Last Updated 30 March 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Cytochrome-c oxidase activity
Specific Function:
Connects the two COX monomers into the physiological dimeric form.
Gene Name:
COX6B1
Uniprot ID:
P14854
Molecular Weight:
10192.345 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Cyanide poisoning. Last Updated 30 March 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Cytochrome-c oxidase activity
Specific Function:
Connects the two COX monomers into the physiological dimeric form.
Gene Name:
COX6B2
Uniprot ID:
Q6YFQ2
Molecular Weight:
10528.905 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Cyanide poisoning. Last Updated 30 March 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Cytochrome-c oxidase activity
Specific Function:
This protein is one of the nuclear-coded polypeptide chains of cytochrome c oxidase, the terminal oxidase in mitochondrial electron transport.
Gene Name:
COX6C
Uniprot ID:
P09669
Molecular Weight:
8781.36 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Cyanide poisoning. Last Updated 30 March 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Cytochrome-c oxidase activity
Specific Function:
This protein is one of the nuclear-coded polypeptide chains of cytochrome c oxidase, the terminal oxidase in mitochondrial electron transport.
Gene Name:
COX7A1
Uniprot ID:
P24310
Molecular Weight:
9117.44 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Cyanide poisoning. Last Updated 30 March 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Cytochrome-c oxidase activity
Specific Function:
This protein is one of the nuclear-coded polypeptide chains of cytochrome c oxidase, the terminal oxidase in mitochondrial electron transport.
Gene Name:
COX7A2
Uniprot ID:
P14406
Molecular Weight:
9395.89 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Cyanide poisoning. Last Updated 30 March 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Cytochrome-c oxidase activity
Specific Function:
This protein is one of the nuclear-coded polypeptide chains of cytochrome c oxidase, the terminal oxidase in mitochondrial electron transport. Plays a role in proper central nervous system (CNS) development in vertebrates.
Gene Name:
COX7B
Uniprot ID:
P24311
Molecular Weight:
9160.485 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Cyanide poisoning. Last Updated 30 March 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Cytochrome-c oxidase activity
Specific Function:
This protein is one of the nuclear-coded polypeptide chains of cytochrome c oxidase, the terminal oxidase in mitochondrial electron transport.
Gene Name:
COX7B2
Uniprot ID:
Q8TF08
Molecular Weight:
9077.43 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Cyanide poisoning. Last Updated 30 March 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Cytochrome-c oxidase activity
Specific Function:
This protein is one of the nuclear-coded polypeptide chains of cytochrome c oxidase, the terminal oxidase in mitochondrial electron transport.
Gene Name:
COX7C
Uniprot ID:
P15954
Molecular Weight:
7245.45 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Cyanide poisoning. Last Updated 30 March 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Cytochrome-c oxidase activity
Specific Function:
This protein is one of the nuclear-coded polypeptide chains of cytochrome c oxidase, the terminal oxidase in mitochondrial electron transport.
Gene Name:
COX8A
Uniprot ID:
P10176
Molecular Weight:
7579.0 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Cyanide poisoning. Last Updated 30 March 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Cytochrome-c oxidase activity
Specific Function:
This protein is one of the nuclear-coded polypeptide chains of cytochrome c oxidase, the terminal oxidase in mitochondrial electron transport.
Gene Name:
COX8C
Uniprot ID:
Q7Z4L0
Molecular Weight:
8128.575 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Cyanide poisoning. Last Updated 30 March 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Glutathione peroxidase activity
Specific Function:
Protects cells and enzymes from oxidative damage, by catalyzing the reduction of hydrogen peroxide, lipid peroxides and organic hydroperoxide, by glutathione. May constitute a glutathione peroxidase-like protective system against peroxide damage in sperm membrane lipids.
Gene Name:
GPX5
Uniprot ID:
O75715
Molecular Weight:
25202.14 Da
References
  1. Kraus RJ, Ganther HE: Reaction of cyanide with glutathione peroxidase. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1980 Oct 16;96(3):1116-22. [7437059 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Protect the extracellular space from toxic effect of reactive oxygen intermediates by converting superoxide radicals into hydrogen peroxide and oxygen.
Gene Name:
SOD3
Uniprot ID:
P08294
Molecular Weight:
25850.675 Da
References
  1. Lee WG, Hwang JH, Na BK, Cho JH, Lee HW, Cho SH, Kong Y, Song CY, Kim TS: Functional expression of a recombinant copper/zinc superoxide dismutase of filarial nematode, Brugia malayi. J Parasitol. 2005 Feb;91(1):205-8. [15856906 ]
General Function:
Sh3 domain binding
Specific Function:
Protects the hemoglobin in erythrocytes from oxidative breakdown.
Gene Name:
GPX1
Uniprot ID:
P07203
Molecular Weight:
22087.94 Da
References
  1. Kraus RJ, Ganther HE: Reaction of cyanide with glutathione peroxidase. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1980 Oct 16;96(3):1116-22. [7437059 ]
General Function:
Glutathione peroxidase activity
Specific Function:
Could play a major role in protecting mammals from the toxicity of ingested organic hydroperoxides. Tert-butyl hydroperoxide, cumene hydroperoxide and linoleic acid hydroperoxide but not phosphatidycholine hydroperoxide, can act as acceptors.
Gene Name:
GPX2
Uniprot ID:
P18283
Molecular Weight:
21953.835 Da
References
  1. Kraus RJ, Ganther HE: Reaction of cyanide with glutathione peroxidase. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1980 Oct 16;96(3):1116-22. [7437059 ]
General Function:
Transcription factor binding
Specific Function:
Protects cells and enzymes from oxidative damage, by catalyzing the reduction of hydrogen peroxide, lipid peroxides and organic hydroperoxide, by glutathione.
Gene Name:
GPX3
Uniprot ID:
P22352
Molecular Weight:
25552.185 Da
References
  1. Kraus RJ, Ganther HE: Reaction of cyanide with glutathione peroxidase. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1980 Oct 16;96(3):1116-22. [7437059 ]
General Function:
Glutathione peroxidase activity
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
GPX6
Uniprot ID:
P59796
Molecular Weight:
24970.46 Da
References
  1. Kraus RJ, Ganther HE: Reaction of cyanide with glutathione peroxidase. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1980 Oct 16;96(3):1116-22. [7437059 ]
General Function:
Peroxidase activity
Specific Function:
It protects esophageal epithelia from hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress. It suppresses acidic bile acid-induced reactive oxigen species (ROS) and protects against oxidative DNA damage and double-strand breaks.
Gene Name:
GPX7
Uniprot ID:
Q96SL4
Molecular Weight:
20995.88 Da
References
  1. Kraus RJ, Ganther HE: Reaction of cyanide with glutathione peroxidase. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1980 Oct 16;96(3):1116-22. [7437059 ]
General Function:
Nadp binding
Specific Function:
Maintains high levels of reduced glutathione in the cytosol.
Gene Name:
GSR
Uniprot ID:
P00390
Molecular Weight:
56256.565 Da
References
  1. Ardelt BK, Borowitz JL, Isom GE: Brain lipid peroxidation and antioxidant protectant mechanisms following acute cyanide intoxication. Toxicology. 1989 Jun 1;56(2):147-54. [2734799 ]
General Function:
Phospholipid-hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase activity
Specific Function:
Protects cells against membrane lipid peroxidation and cell death. Required for normal sperm development and male fertility. Could play a major role in protecting mammals from the toxicity of ingested lipid hydroperoxides. Essential for embryonic development. Protects from radiation and oxidative damage.
Gene Name:
GPX4
Uniprot ID:
P36969
Molecular Weight:
22174.52 Da
References
  1. Kraus RJ, Ganther HE: Reaction of cyanide with glutathione peroxidase. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1980 Oct 16;96(3):1116-22. [7437059 ]
General Function:
Peroxidase activity
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
GPX8
Uniprot ID:
Q8TED1
Molecular Weight:
23880.83 Da
References
  1. Kraus RJ, Ganther HE: Reaction of cyanide with glutathione peroxidase. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1980 Oct 16;96(3):1116-22. [7437059 ]
General Function:
Cytochrome-c oxidase activity
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
COX7A2P2
Uniprot ID:
O60397
Molecular Weight:
11840.715 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Cyanide poisoning. Last Updated 30 March 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Ubiquinone binding
Specific Function:
Membrane-anchoring subunit of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) that is involved in complex II of the mitochondrial electron transport chain and is responsible for transferring electrons from succinate to ubiquinone (coenzyme Q).
Gene Name:
SDHD
Uniprot ID:
O14521
Molecular Weight:
17042.82 Da
References
  1. Ardelt BK, Borowitz JL, Isom GE: Brain lipid peroxidation and antioxidant protectant mechanisms following acute cyanide intoxication. Toxicology. 1989 Jun 1;56(2):147-54. [2734799 ]
General Function:
Succinate dehydrogenase activity
Specific Function:
Flavoprotein (FP) subunit of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) that is involved in complex II of the mitochondrial electron transport chain and is responsible for transferring electrons from succinate to ubiquinone (coenzyme Q). Can act as a tumor suppressor.
Gene Name:
SDHA
Uniprot ID:
P31040
Molecular Weight:
72690.975 Da
References
  1. Ardelt BK, Borowitz JL, Isom GE: Brain lipid peroxidation and antioxidant protectant mechanisms following acute cyanide intoxication. Toxicology. 1989 Jun 1;56(2):147-54. [2734799 ]
General Function:
Ubiquinone binding
Specific Function:
Iron-sulfur protein (IP) subunit of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) that is involved in complex II of the mitochondrial electron transport chain and is responsible for transferring electrons from succinate to ubiquinone (coenzyme Q).
Gene Name:
SDHB
Uniprot ID:
P21912
Molecular Weight:
31629.365 Da
References
  1. Ardelt BK, Borowitz JL, Isom GE: Brain lipid peroxidation and antioxidant protectant mechanisms following acute cyanide intoxication. Toxicology. 1989 Jun 1;56(2):147-54. [2734799 ]
General Function:
Succinate dehydrogenase activity
Specific Function:
Membrane-anchoring subunit of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) that is involved in complex II of the mitochondrial electron transport chain and is responsible for transferring electrons from succinate to ubiquinone (coenzyme Q).
Gene Name:
SDHC
Uniprot ID:
Q99643
Molecular Weight:
18610.03 Da
References
  1. Ardelt BK, Borowitz JL, Isom GE: Brain lipid peroxidation and antioxidant protectant mechanisms following acute cyanide intoxication. Toxicology. 1989 Jun 1;56(2):147-54. [2734799 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Destroys radicals which are normally produced within the cells and which are toxic to biological systems.
Gene Name:
SOD1
Uniprot ID:
P00441
Molecular Weight:
15935.685 Da
References
  1. Lee WG, Hwang JH, Na BK, Cho JH, Lee HW, Cho SH, Kong Y, Song CY, Kim TS: Functional expression of a recombinant copper/zinc superoxide dismutase of filarial nematode, Brugia malayi. J Parasitol. 2005 Feb;91(1):205-8. [15856906 ]
General Function:
Protein homodimerization activity
Specific Function:
This is a copper-containing oxidase that functions in the formation of pigments such as melanins and other polyphenolic compounds. Catalyzes the rate-limiting conversions of tyrosine to DOPA, DOPA to DOPA-quinone and possibly 5,6-dihydroxyindole to indole-5,6 quinone.
Gene Name:
TYR
Uniprot ID:
P14679
Molecular Weight:
60392.69 Da
References
  1. Laufer Z, Beckett RP, Minibayeva FV: Co-occurrence of the multicopper oxidases tyrosinase and laccase in lichens in sub-order peltigerineae. Ann Bot. 2006 Nov;98(5):1035-42. Epub 2006 Sep 1. [16950829 ]
General Function:
G-protein coupled acetylcholine receptor activity
Specific Function:
The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor mediates various cellular responses, including inhibition of adenylate cyclase, breakdown of phosphoinositides and modulation of potassium channels through the action of G proteins. Primary transducing effect is adenylate cyclase inhibition. Signaling promotes phospholipase C activity, leading to the release of inositol trisphosphate (IP3); this then triggers calcium ion release into the cytosol.
Gene Name:
CHRM2
Uniprot ID:
P08172
Molecular Weight:
51714.605 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC500.15 uMNVS_GPCR_hM2Novascreen
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Nuclear receptor that binds DNA as a monomer to ROR response elements (RORE) containing a single core motif half-site 5'-AGGTCA-3' preceded by a short A-T-rich sequence. Considered to have intrinsic transcriptional activity, have some natural ligands such as all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and other retinoids which act as inverse agonists repressing the transcriptional activity. Required for normal postnatal development of rod and cone photoreceptor cells. Modulates rod photoreceptors differentiation at least by inducing the transcription factor NRL-mediated pathway. In cone photoreceptor cells, regulates transcription of OPN1SW. Involved in the regulation of the period length and stability of the circadian rhythm. May control cytoarchitectural patterning of neocortical neurons during development. May act in a dose-dependent manner to regulate barrel formation upon innervation of layer IV neurons by thalamocortical axons. May play a role in the suppression of osteoblastic differentiation through the inhibition of RUNX2 transcriptional activity (By similarity).Isoform 1 is critical for hindlimb motor control and for the differentiation of amacrine and horizontal cells in the retina. Regulates the expression of PTF1A synergistically with FOXN4 (By similarity).
Gene Name:
RORB
Uniprot ID:
Q92753
Molecular Weight:
53219.385 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC501.26 uMATG_RORb_TRANSAttagene
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Guanyl-nucleotide exchange factor activity
Specific Function:
The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor mediates various cellular responses, including inhibition of adenylate cyclase, breakdown of phosphoinositides and modulation of potassium channels through the action of G proteins. Primary transducing effect is inhibition of adenylate cyclase.
Gene Name:
CHRM4
Uniprot ID:
P08173
Molecular Weight:
53048.65 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC503.11 uMNVS_GPCR_hM4Novascreen
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]