Tmic
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Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2009-06-22 16:08:30 UTC
Update Date2014-12-24 20:24:31 UTC
Accession NumberT3D1718
Identification
Common NameSodium bromate
ClassSmall Molecule
DescriptionSodium bromate is a chemical compound of sodium and bromine. It is a strong oxidant and is mainly used in continuous or batch dyeing processes involving sulfur or vat dyes and as a hair-permagent, chemical agent, or gold solvent in gold mines when used with sodium bromide. Bromine is a halogen element with the symbol Br and atomic number 35. Diatomic bromine does not occur naturally, but bromine salts can be found in crustal rock. (5, 8)
Compound Type
  • Bromate Compound
  • Industrial/Workplace Toxin
  • Inorganic Compound
  • Synthetic Compound
Chemical Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Synonym
Bromate de sodium
Bromic acid (acd/name 4.0)
Bromic acid, sodium salt
Dyetone
NaBrO3
Neutralizer K-126
Neutralizer K-140
Neutralizer K-938
Sodium bromate (NaBrO3)
Sodium bromate(dot)
Sodium bromic acid
Water disinfection model (sodium bromate)
Chemical FormulaBrNaO3
Average Molecular Mass150.892 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass149.893 g/mol
CAS Registry Number7789-38-0
IUPAC Namesodium bromate
Traditional Namesodium bromate
SMILES[Na+].[O-][Br](=O)=O
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/BrHO3.Na/c2-1(3)4;/h(H,2,3,4);/q;+1/p-1
InChI KeyInChIKey=XUXNAKZDHHEHPC-UHFFFAOYSA-M
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of inorganic compounds known as alkali metal bromates. These are inorganic compounds in which the largest oxoanion is bromate, and in which the heaviest atom not in an oxoanion is an alkali metal.
KingdomInorganic compounds
Super ClassMixed metal/non-metal compounds
ClassAlkali metal oxoanionic compounds
Sub ClassAlkali metal bromates
Direct ParentAlkali metal bromates
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Alkali metal bromate
  • Inorganic sodium salt
  • Inorganic oxide
  • Inorganic salt
Molecular FrameworkNot Available
External Descriptors
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
OriginExogenous
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationsNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
ApplicationsNot Available
Biological Roles
Chemical Roles
Physical Properties
StateSolid
AppearanceWhite powder.
Experimental Properties
PropertyValue
Melting Point381°C
Boiling PointNot Available
Solubility364 mg/mL at 20°C [DAGANI,MJ et al. (1985)]
LogPNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP0.19ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Acidic)-30ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area57.2 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity13.06 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability5.75 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
SpectraNot Available
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureOral (6) ; inhalation (6) ; dermal (6)
Mechanism of ToxicityBromine is a powerful oxidizing agent and is able to release oxygen free radicals from the water in mucous membranes. These free radicals are also potent oxidizers and produce tissue damage. In additon, the formation of hydrobromic and bromic acids will result in secondary irritation. The bromide ion is also known to affect the central nervous system, causing bromism. This is believed to be a result of bromide ions substituting for chloride ions in the in actions of neurotransmitters and transport systems, thus affecting numerous synaptic processes. (6, 7, 1)
MetabolismBromine is mainly absorbed via inhalation, but may also enter the body through dermal contact. Bromine salts can be ingested. Due to its reactivity, bromine quickly forms bromide and may be deposited in the tissues, displacing other halogens. (6)
Toxicity ValuesLD50: 140 mg/kg (Intraperitoneal, Mouse) (2)
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)Potassium bromate: 2B, possibly carcinogenic to humans. (4)
Uses/SourcesSodium bromate is mainly used in continuous or batch dyeing processes involving sulfur or vat dyes and as a hair-permagent, chemical agent, or gold solvent in gold mines when used with sodium bromide. (8)
Minimum Risk LevelNot Available
Health EffectsBromine vapour causes irritation and direct damage to the mucous membranes. Elemental bromine also burns the skin. The bromide ion is a central nervous system depressant and chronic exposure produces neuronal effects. This is called bromism and can result in central reactions reaching from somnolence to coma, cachexia, exicosis, loss of reflexes or pathologic reflexes, clonic seizures, tremor, ataxia, loss of neural sensitivity, paresis, papillar edema of the eyes, abnormal speech, cerebral edema, delirium, aggressiveness, and psychoses. Bromate is also a potential carcinogen. (5, 6, 7, 9)
SymptomsBromine vapour causes irritation and direct damage to the mucous membranes. Symptoms include lacrimation, rhinorrhoea, eye irritation with mucous secretions from the oropharyngeal and upper airways, coughing, dyspnoea, choking, wheezing, epistaxis, and headache. The bromide ion is a central nervous system depressant producing ataxia, slurred speech, tremor, nausea, vomiting, lethargy, dizziness, visual disturbances, unsteadiness, headaches, impaired memory and concentration, disorientation and hallucinations. This is called bromism. (6, 7)
TreatmentEYES: irrigate opened eyes for several minutes under running water. INGESTION: do not induce vomiting. Rinse mouth with water (never give anything by mouth to an unconscious person). Seek immediate medical advice. SKIN: should be treated immediately by rinsing the affected parts in cold running water for at least 15 minutes, followed by thorough washing with soap and water. If necessary, the person should shower and change contaminated clothing and shoes, and then must seek medical attention. INHALATION: supply fresh air. If required provide artificial respiration.
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDNot Available
HMDB IDNot Available
PubChem Compound ID23668195
ChEMBL IDCHEMBL1348453
ChemSpider ID23009
KEGG IDNot Available
UniProt IDNot Available
OMIM ID
ChEBI ID75229
BioCyc IDNot Available
CTD IDC060553
Stitch IDSodium bromate
PDB IDNot Available
ACToR ID7514
Wikipedia LinkNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
MSDST3D1718.pdf
General References
  1. Ziouzenkova O, Orasanu G, Sharlach M, Akiyama TE, Berger JP, Viereck J, Hamilton JA, Tang G, Dolnikowski GG, Vogel S, Duester G, Plutzky J: Retinaldehyde represses adipogenesis and diet-induced obesity. Nat Med. 2007 Jun;13(6):695-702. Epub 2007 May 27. [17529981 ]
  2. Lewis RJ (1996). Sax's Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials. 9th ed. Volumes 1-3. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold.
  3. Golomb, BA (1999). A Review of the Scientific Literature As It Pertains to Gulf War Illnesses. Volume 2: Pyridostigmine Bromide. Washington, DC: RAND.
  4. International Agency for Research on Cancer (2014). IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. [Link]
  5. Wikipedia. Bromine. Last Updated 9 June 2009. [Link]
  6. International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS) INCHEM (1992). Poison Information Monograph for Bromine. [Link]
  7. Wikipedia. Potassium bromide. Last Updated 9 June 2009. [Link]
  8. Wikipedia. Sodium bromate. Last Updated 25 May 2009. [Link]
  9. Wikipedia. Bromate. Last Updated 26 May 2009. [Link]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated GenesNot Available
Down-Regulated GenesNot Available

Targets

General Function:
Voltage-gated chloride channel activity
Specific Function:
Voltage-gated chloride channel. Chloride channels have several functions including the regulation of cell volume; membrane potential stabilization, signal transduction and transepithelial transport.
Gene Name:
CLCN1
Uniprot ID:
P35523
Molecular Weight:
108625.435 Da
References
  1. Simchowitz L: Interactions of bromide, iodide, and fluoride with the pathways of chloride transport and diffusion in human neutrophils. J Gen Physiol. 1988 Jun;91(6):835-60. [3047312 ]
  2. Pusch M, Jordt SE, Stein V, Jentsch TJ: Chloride dependence of hyperpolarization-activated chloride channel gates. J Physiol. 1999 Mar 1;515 ( Pt 2):341-53. [10050002 ]
General Function:
Voltage-gated chloride channel activity
Specific Function:
Voltage-gated chloride channel. Chloride channels have several functions including the regulation of cell volume; membrane potential stabilization, signal transduction and transepithelial transport. May be important in urinary concentrating mechanisms.
Gene Name:
CLCNKA
Uniprot ID:
P51800
Molecular Weight:
75284.08 Da
References
  1. Simchowitz L: Interactions of bromide, iodide, and fluoride with the pathways of chloride transport and diffusion in human neutrophils. J Gen Physiol. 1988 Jun;91(6):835-60. [3047312 ]
  2. Pusch M, Jordt SE, Stein V, Jentsch TJ: Chloride dependence of hyperpolarization-activated chloride channel gates. J Physiol. 1999 Mar 1;515 ( Pt 2):341-53. [10050002 ]
General Function:
Voltage-gated chloride channel activity
Specific Function:
Voltage-gated chloride channel. Chloride channels have several functions including the regulation of cell volume; membrane potential stabilization, signal transduction and transepithelial transport. May be important in urinary concentrating mechanisms.
Gene Name:
CLCNKB
Uniprot ID:
P51801
Molecular Weight:
75445.3 Da
References
  1. Simchowitz L: Interactions of bromide, iodide, and fluoride with the pathways of chloride transport and diffusion in human neutrophils. J Gen Physiol. 1988 Jun;91(6):835-60. [3047312 ]
  2. Pusch M, Jordt SE, Stein V, Jentsch TJ: Chloride dependence of hyperpolarization-activated chloride channel gates. J Physiol. 1999 Mar 1;515 ( Pt 2):341-53. [10050002 ]
General Function:
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
Component of the heteropentameric receptor for GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain. Functions also as histamine receptor and mediates cellular responses to histamine. Functions as receptor for diazepines and various anesthetics, such as pentobarbital; these are bound at a separate allosteric effector binding site. Functions as ligand-gated chloride channel (By similarity).
Gene Name:
GABRA1
Uniprot ID:
P14867
Molecular Weight:
51801.395 Da
References
  1. Suzuki S, Kawakami K, Nakamura F, Nishimura S, Yagi K, Seino M: Bromide, in the therapeutic concentration, enhances GABA-activated currents in cultured neurons of rat cerebral cortex. Epilepsy Res. 1994 Oct;19(2):89-97. [7843172 ]
General Function:
Gaba-gated chloride ion channel activity
Specific Function:
Component of the heteropentameric receptor for GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain. Functions also as histamine receptor and mediates cellular responses to histamine. Functions as receptor for diazepines and various anesthetics, such as pentobarbital; these are bound at a separate allosteric effector binding site. Functions as ligand-gated chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRB3
Uniprot ID:
P28472
Molecular Weight:
54115.04 Da
References
  1. Suzuki S, Kawakami K, Nakamura F, Nishimura S, Yagi K, Seino M: Bromide, in the therapeutic concentration, enhances GABA-activated currents in cultured neurons of rat cerebral cortex. Epilepsy Res. 1994 Oct;19(2):89-97. [7843172 ]
General Function:
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
Component of the heteropentameric receptor for GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain. Functions also as histamine receptor and mediates cellular responses to histamine. Functions as receptor for diazepines and various anesthetics, such as pentobarbital; these are bound at a separate allosteric effector binding site. Functions as ligand-gated chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRG2
Uniprot ID:
P18507
Molecular Weight:
54161.78 Da
References
  1. Suzuki S, Kawakami K, Nakamura F, Nishimura S, Yagi K, Seino M: Bromide, in the therapeutic concentration, enhances GABA-activated currents in cultured neurons of rat cerebral cortex. Epilepsy Res. 1994 Oct;19(2):89-97. [7843172 ]