Tmic
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Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2009-06-22 16:08:30 UTC
Update Date2014-12-24 20:24:31 UTC
Accession NumberT3D1720
Identification
Common NameAluminium bromide
ClassSmall Molecule
DescriptionAluminium bromide is a chemical compound of aluminum and bromine. It is used as a catalyst for the Friedel-Crafts alkylation reaction. Bromine is a halogen element with the symbol Br and atomic number 35. Diatomic bromine does not occur naturally, but bromine salts can be found in crustal rock. Aluminum is the most abundant metal in the earth’s crust and is always found combined with other elements such as oxygen, silicon, and fluorine. (12, 13, 8, 11)
Compound Type
  • Aluminum Compound
  • Bromide Compound
  • Industrial/Workplace Toxin
  • Inorganic Compound
  • Synthetic Compound
Chemical Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Synonym
AlBr3
Aluminum bromide
Aluminum bromide (AlBr3)
Aluminum bromide (anhydrous)
Aluminum bromide solution
Aluminum bromide, anhydrous
Aluminum bromide, anhydrous(dot)
Aluminum bromide, solution
Tribromoaluminium
Tribromoaluminum
Chemical FormulaAlBr3
Average Molecular Mass266.694 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass263.737 g/mol
CAS Registry Number7727-15-3
IUPAC Nametribromoalumane
Traditional Namealuminium bromide
SMILESBr[Al](Br)Br
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/Al.3BrH/h;3*1H/q+3;;;/p-3
InChI KeyInChIKey=PQLAYKMGZDUDLQ-UHFFFAOYSA-K
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of chemical entities known as post-transition metal bromides. These are inorganic compounds in which the largest halogen atom is Bromine, and the heaviest metal atom a post-transition metal.
KingdomChemical entities
Super ClassInorganic compounds
ClassMixed metal/non-metal compounds
Sub ClassPost-transition metal salts
Direct ParentPost-transition metal bromides
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Post-transition metal bromide
  • Inorganic salt
Molecular FrameworkNot Available
External DescriptorsNot Available
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
OriginExogenous
Cellular Locations
  • Membrane
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationsNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
ApplicationsNot Available
Biological RolesNot Available
Chemical RolesNot Available
Physical Properties
StateSolid
AppearanceWhite to pale yellow crystals.
Experimental Properties
PropertyValue
Melting Point97.8°C
Boiling PointNot Available
SolubilityNot Available
LogPNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP2.56ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area0 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity26.21 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability13 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-014i-0090000000-0ba3c8a0c9c86192d9c8View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-014i-0090000000-0ba3c8a0c9c86192d9c8View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-014i-0090000000-0ba3c8a0c9c86192d9c8View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-014i-0090000000-800bfe6279b91fb062ccView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-014i-0090000000-800bfe6279b91fb062ccView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-014i-0090000000-800bfe6279b91fb062ccView in MoNA
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureOral (9) ; inhalation (9) ; dermal (9)
Mechanism of ToxicityBromine is a powerful oxidizing agent and is able to release oxygen free radicals from the water in mucous membranes. These free radicals are also potent oxidizers and produce tissue damage. In additon, the formation of hydrobromic and bromic acids will result in secondary irritation. The bromide ion is also known to affect the central nervous system, causing bromism. This is believed to be a result of bromide ions substituting for chloride ions in the in actions of neurotransmitters and transport systems, thus affecting numerous synaptic processes. The main target organs of aluminum are the central nervous system and bone. Aluminum binds with dietary phosphorus and impairs gastrointestinal absorption of phosphorus. The decreased phosphate body burden results in osteomalacia (softening of the bones due to defective bone mineralization) and rickets. Aluminum's neurotoxicity is believed to involve several mechanisms. Changes in cytoskeletal protein functions as a results of altered phosphorylation, proteolysis, transport, and synthesis are believed to be one cause. Aluminum may induce neurobehavioral effects by affecting permeability of the blood-brain barrier, cholinergic activity, signal transduction pathways, lipid peroxidation, and impair neuronal glutamate nitric oxide-cyclic GMP pathway, as well as interfere with metabolism of essential trace elements because of similar coordination chemistries and consequent competitive interactions. It has been suggested that aluminum's interaction with estrogen receptors increases the expression of estrogen-related genes and thereby contributes to the progression of breast cancer (1), but studies have not been able to establish a clear link between aluminum and increased risk of breast cancer (4). Certain aluminum salts induce immune responses by activating inflammasomes. (12, 1, 2, 9, 10, 3)
MetabolismBromine is mainly absorbed via inhalation, but may also enter the body through dermal contact. Bromine salts can be ingested. Due to its reactivity, bromine quickly forms bromide and may be deposited in the tissues, displacing other halogens. Aluminum is poorly absorbed following either oral or inhalation exposure and is essentially not absorbed dermally. The bioavailability of aluminum is strongly influenced by the aluminum compound and the presence of dietary constituents which can complex with aluminum and enhance or inhibit its absorption. Aluminum binds to various ligands in the blood and distributes to every organ, with highest concentrations found in bone and lung tissues. In living organisms, aluminum is believed to exist in four different forms: as free ions, as low-molecular-weight complexes, as physically bound macromolecular complexes, and as covalently bound macromolecular complexes. Absorbed aluminum is excreted principally in the urine and, to a lesser extent, in the bile, while unabsorbed aluminum is excreted in the faeces. (12, 9)
Toxicity ValuesLD50: 1068 mg/kg (Intraperitoneal, Mouse) (5) LD50: 1623 mg/kg (Oral, Mouse) (5)
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)Not listed by IARC. IARC classified aluminum production as carcinogenic to humans (Group 1), but did not implicate aluminum itself as a human carcinogen. (14) A link between use of aluminum-containing antiperspirants and increased risk of breast cancer has been proposed (1), but studies have not been able to establish a clear link (4).
Uses/SourcesAluminium bromide is used as a catalyst for the Friedel-Crafts alkylation reaction. (11)
Minimum Risk LevelIntermediate Oral: 1.0 mg/kg/day (Aluminum) (7) Chronic Oral: 1.0 mg/kg/day (Aluminum) (7)
Health EffectsBromine vapour causes irritation and direct damage to the mucous membranes. Elemental bromine also burns the skin. The bromide ion is a central nervous system depressant and chronic exposure produces neuronal effects. This is called bromism and can result in central reactions reaching from somnolence to coma, cachexia, exicosis, loss of reflexes or pathologic reflexes, clonic seizures, tremor, ataxia, loss of neural sensitivity, paresis, papillar edema of the eyes, abnormal speech, cerebral edema, delirium, aggressiveness, and psychoses. Aluminum targets the nervous system and causes decreased nervous system performance and is associated with altered function of the blood-brain barrier. The accumulation of aluminum in the body may cause bone or brain diseases. High levels of aluminum have been linked to Alzheimer’s disease. A small percentage of people are allergic to aluminium and experience contact dermatitis, digestive disorders, vomiting or other symptoms upon contact or ingestion of products containing aluminium. (12, 13, 8, 9, 10)
SymptomsBromine vapour causes irritation and direct damage to the mucous membranes. Symptoms include lacrimation, rhinorrhoea, eye irritation with mucous secretions from the oropharyngeal and upper airways, coughing, dyspnoea, choking, wheezing, epistaxis, and headache. The bromide ion is a central nervous system depressant producing ataxia, slurred speech, tremor, nausea, vomiting, lethargy, dizziness, visual disturbances, unsteadiness, headaches, impaired memory and concentration, disorientation and hallucinations. This is called bromism. Inhalating aluminum dust causes coughing and abnormal chest X-rays. A small percentage of people are allergic to aluminium and experience contact dermatitis, digestive disorders, vomiting or other symptoms upon contact or ingestion of products containing aluminium. (12, 13, 9, 10)
TreatmentEYES: irrigate opened eyes for several minutes under running water. INGESTION: do not induce vomiting. Rinse mouth with water (never give anything by mouth to an unconscious person). Seek immediate medical advice. SKIN: should be treated immediately by rinsing the affected parts in cold running water for at least 15 minutes, followed by thorough washing with soap and water. If necessary, the person should shower and change contaminated clothing and shoes, and then must seek medical attention. INHALATION: supply fresh air. If required provide artificial respiration.
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDNot Available
HMDB IDNot Available
PubChem Compound ID24409
ChEMBL IDNot Available
ChemSpider ID22818
KEGG IDNot Available
UniProt IDNot Available
OMIM ID
ChEBI IDNot Available
BioCyc IDNot Available
CTD IDNot Available
Stitch IDAluminium bromide
PDB IDNot Available
ACToR IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
MSDST3D1720.pdf
General References
  1. Darbre PD: Metalloestrogens: an emerging class of inorganic xenoestrogens with potential to add to the oestrogenic burden of the human breast. J Appl Toxicol. 2006 May-Jun;26(3):191-7. [16489580 ]
  2. Aimanianda V, Haensler J, Lacroix-Desmazes S, Kaveri SV, Bayry J: Novel cellular and molecular mechanisms of induction of immune responses by aluminum adjuvants. Trends Pharmacol Sci. 2009 Jun;30(6):287-95. doi: 10.1016/j.tips.2009.03.005. Epub 2009 May 11. [19439372 ]
  3. Ziouzenkova O, Orasanu G, Sharlach M, Akiyama TE, Berger JP, Viereck J, Hamilton JA, Tang G, Dolnikowski GG, Vogel S, Duester G, Plutzky J: Retinaldehyde represses adipogenesis and diet-induced obesity. Nat Med. 2007 Jun;13(6):695-702. Epub 2007 May 27. [17529981 ]
  4. Willhite CC, Karyakina NA, Yokel RA, Yenugadhati N, Wisniewski TM, Arnold IM, Momoli F, Krewski D: Systematic review of potential health risks posed by pharmaceutical, occupational and consumer exposures to metallic and nanoscale aluminum, aluminum oxides, aluminum hydroxide and its soluble salts. Crit Rev Toxicol. 2014 Oct;44 Suppl 4:1-80. doi: 10.3109/10408444.2014.934439. [25233067 ]
  5. Lewis RJ (1996). Sax's Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials. 9th ed. Volumes 1-3. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold.
  6. Golomb, BA (1999). A Review of the Scientific Literature As It Pertains to Gulf War Illnesses. Volume 2: Pyridostigmine Bromide. Washington, DC: RAND.
  7. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2001). Minimal Risk Levels (MRLs) for Hazardous Substances. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
  8. Wikipedia. Bromine. Last Updated 9 June 2009. [Link]
  9. International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS) INCHEM (1992). Poison Information Monograph for Bromine. [Link]
  10. Wikipedia. Potassium bromide. Last Updated 9 June 2009. [Link]
  11. Wikipedia. Aluminium bromide. Last Updated 3 June 2009. [Link]
  12. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2008). Toxicological profile for aluminum. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
  13. Wikipedia. Aluminium. Last Updated 16 June 2009. [Link]
  14. International Agency for Research on Cancer (2014). IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. [Link]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated GenesNot Available
Down-Regulated GenesNot Available

Targets

General Function:
Voltage-gated chloride channel activity
Specific Function:
Voltage-gated chloride channel. Chloride channels have several functions including the regulation of cell volume; membrane potential stabilization, signal transduction and transepithelial transport.
Gene Name:
CLCN1
Uniprot ID:
P35523
Molecular Weight:
108625.435 Da
References
  1. Simchowitz L: Interactions of bromide, iodide, and fluoride with the pathways of chloride transport and diffusion in human neutrophils. J Gen Physiol. 1988 Jun;91(6):835-60. [3047312 ]
  2. Pusch M, Jordt SE, Stein V, Jentsch TJ: Chloride dependence of hyperpolarization-activated chloride channel gates. J Physiol. 1999 Mar 1;515 ( Pt 2):341-53. [10050002 ]
General Function:
Voltage-gated chloride channel activity
Specific Function:
Voltage-gated chloride channel. Chloride channels have several functions including the regulation of cell volume; membrane potential stabilization, signal transduction and transepithelial transport. May be important in urinary concentrating mechanisms.
Gene Name:
CLCNKA
Uniprot ID:
P51800
Molecular Weight:
75284.08 Da
References
  1. Simchowitz L: Interactions of bromide, iodide, and fluoride with the pathways of chloride transport and diffusion in human neutrophils. J Gen Physiol. 1988 Jun;91(6):835-60. [3047312 ]
  2. Pusch M, Jordt SE, Stein V, Jentsch TJ: Chloride dependence of hyperpolarization-activated chloride channel gates. J Physiol. 1999 Mar 1;515 ( Pt 2):341-53. [10050002 ]
General Function:
Voltage-gated chloride channel activity
Specific Function:
Voltage-gated chloride channel. Chloride channels have several functions including the regulation of cell volume; membrane potential stabilization, signal transduction and transepithelial transport. May be important in urinary concentrating mechanisms.
Gene Name:
CLCNKB
Uniprot ID:
P51801
Molecular Weight:
75445.3 Da
References
  1. Simchowitz L: Interactions of bromide, iodide, and fluoride with the pathways of chloride transport and diffusion in human neutrophils. J Gen Physiol. 1988 Jun;91(6):835-60. [3047312 ]
  2. Pusch M, Jordt SE, Stein V, Jentsch TJ: Chloride dependence of hyperpolarization-activated chloride channel gates. J Physiol. 1999 Mar 1;515 ( Pt 2):341-53. [10050002 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Nuclear hormone receptor. The steroid hormones and their receptors are involved in the regulation of eukaryotic gene expression and affect cellular proliferation and differentiation in target tissues. Ligand-dependent nuclear transactivation involves either direct homodimer binding to a palindromic estrogen response element (ERE) sequence or association with other DNA-binding transcription factors, such as AP-1/c-Jun, c-Fos, ATF-2, Sp1 and Sp3, to mediate ERE-independent signaling. Ligand binding induces a conformational change allowing subsequent or combinatorial association with multiprotein coactivator complexes through LXXLL motifs of their respective components. Mutual transrepression occurs between the estrogen receptor (ER) and NF-kappa-B in a cell-type specific manner. Decreases NF-kappa-B DNA-binding activity and inhibits NF-kappa-B-mediated transcription from the IL6 promoter and displace RELA/p65 and associated coregulators from the promoter. Recruited to the NF-kappa-B response element of the CCL2 and IL8 promoters and can displace CREBBP. Present with NF-kappa-B components RELA/p65 and NFKB1/p50 on ERE sequences. Can also act synergistically with NF-kappa-B to activate transcription involving respective recruitment adjacent response elements; the function involves CREBBP. Can activate the transcriptional activity of TFF1. Also mediates membrane-initiated estrogen signaling involving various kinase cascades. Isoform 3 is involved in activation of NOS3 and endothelial nitric oxide production. Isoforms lacking one or several functional domains are thought to modulate transcriptional activity by competitive ligand or DNA binding and/or heterodimerization with the full length receptor. Essential for MTA1-mediated transcriptional regulation of BRCA1 and BCAS3. Isoform 3 can bind to ERE and inhibit isoform 1.
Gene Name:
ESR1
Uniprot ID:
P03372
Molecular Weight:
66215.45 Da
References
  1. Darbre PD: Metalloestrogens: an emerging class of inorganic xenoestrogens with potential to add to the oestrogenic burden of the human breast. J Appl Toxicol. 2006 May-Jun;26(3):191-7. [16489580 ]
General Function:
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
Component of the heteropentameric receptor for GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain. Functions also as histamine receptor and mediates cellular responses to histamine. Functions as receptor for diazepines and various anesthetics, such as pentobarbital; these are bound at a separate allosteric effector binding site. Functions as ligand-gated chloride channel (By similarity).
Gene Name:
GABRA1
Uniprot ID:
P14867
Molecular Weight:
51801.395 Da
References
  1. Suzuki S, Kawakami K, Nakamura F, Nishimura S, Yagi K, Seino M: Bromide, in the therapeutic concentration, enhances GABA-activated currents in cultured neurons of rat cerebral cortex. Epilepsy Res. 1994 Oct;19(2):89-97. [7843172 ]
General Function:
Gaba-gated chloride ion channel activity
Specific Function:
Component of the heteropentameric receptor for GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain. Functions also as histamine receptor and mediates cellular responses to histamine. Functions as receptor for diazepines and various anesthetics, such as pentobarbital; these are bound at a separate allosteric effector binding site. Functions as ligand-gated chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRB3
Uniprot ID:
P28472
Molecular Weight:
54115.04 Da
References
  1. Suzuki S, Kawakami K, Nakamura F, Nishimura S, Yagi K, Seino M: Bromide, in the therapeutic concentration, enhances GABA-activated currents in cultured neurons of rat cerebral cortex. Epilepsy Res. 1994 Oct;19(2):89-97. [7843172 ]
General Function:
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
Component of the heteropentameric receptor for GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain. Functions also as histamine receptor and mediates cellular responses to histamine. Functions as receptor for diazepines and various anesthetics, such as pentobarbital; these are bound at a separate allosteric effector binding site. Functions as ligand-gated chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRG2
Uniprot ID:
P18507
Molecular Weight:
54161.78 Da
References
  1. Suzuki S, Kawakami K, Nakamura F, Nishimura S, Yagi K, Seino M: Bromide, in the therapeutic concentration, enhances GABA-activated currents in cultured neurons of rat cerebral cortex. Epilepsy Res. 1994 Oct;19(2):89-97. [7843172 ]
General Function:
Transcription factor binding
Specific Function:
As the sensor component of the NLRP3 inflammasome, plays a crucial role in innate immunity and inflammation. In response to pathogens and other damage-associated signals, initiates the formation of the inflammasome polymeric complex, made of NLRP3, PYCARD and CASP1 (and possibly CASP4 and CASP5). Recruitement of proCASP1 to the inflammasome promotes its activation and CASP1-catalyzed IL1B and IL18 maturation and secretion in the extracellular milieu. Activation of NLRP3 inflammasome is also required for HMGB1 secretion (PubMed:22801494). The active cytokines and HMGB1 stimulate inflammatory responses. Inflammasomes can also induce pyroptosis, an inflammatory form of programmed cell death. Under resting conditions, NLRP3 is autoinhibited. NLRP3 activation stimuli include extracellular ATP, reactive oxygen species, K(+) efflux, crystals of monosodium urate or cholesterol, beta-amyloid fibers, environmental or industrial particles and nanoparticles, etc. However, it is unclear what constitutes the direct NLRP3 activator. Independently of inflammasome activation, regulates the differentiation of T helper 2 (Th2) cells and has a role in Th2 cell-dependent asthma and tumor growth (By similarity). During Th2 differentiation, required for optimal IRF4 binding to IL4 promoter and for IRF4-dependent IL4 transcription. Binds to the consensus DNA sequence 5'-GRRGGNRGAG-3'. May also participate in the transcription of IL5, IL13, GATA3, CCR3, CCR4 and MAF (By similarity).
Gene Name:
NLRP3
Uniprot ID:
Q96P20
Molecular Weight:
118171.375 Da
References
  1. Aimanianda V, Haensler J, Lacroix-Desmazes S, Kaveri SV, Bayry J: Novel cellular and molecular mechanisms of induction of immune responses by aluminum adjuvants. Trends Pharmacol Sci. 2009 Jun;30(6):287-95. doi: 10.1016/j.tips.2009.03.005. Epub 2009 May 11. [19439372 ]
References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2008). Toxicological profile for aluminum. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]