Tmic
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Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2009-06-22 16:08:36 UTC
Update Date2014-12-24 20:24:38 UTC
Accession NumberT3D1785
Identification
Common NameBromoform
ClassSmall Molecule
DescriptionBromoform (CHBr3) is a brominated organic solvent, pale yellow liquid at room temperature, with a high refractive index, very high density, and sweet odor is similar to that of chloroform. It is a trihalomethane, and is one of the four haloforms, the others being fluoroform, chloroform, and iodoform. Bromoform can be prepared by the haloform reaction using acetone and sodium hypobromite, by the electrolysis of potassium bromide in ethanol, or by treating chloroform with aluminum bromide. Most of the bromoform that enters the environment is formed as disinfection byproducts known as the trihalomethanes when chlorine is added to drinking water or swimming pools to kill bacteria. In the past, it was used as a solvent, sedative and flame retardant, but now it is mainly used as a laboratory reagent. Bromine is a halogen element with the symbol Br and atomic number 35. Diatomic bromine does not occur naturally, but bromine salts can be found in crustal rock. (4, 7)
Compound Type
  • Bromide Compound
  • Industrial/Workplace Toxin
  • Organic Compound
  • Organobromide
  • Pollutant
  • Synthetic Compound
Chemical Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Synonym
Bromoforme
Bromoformio
CHBr3
MBR
Methenyl tribromide
Methyl tribromide
Tribrommethaan
Tribrommethan
Tribromometan
Tribromomethane
Tribromomethane; methyl tribromide
Tribromomethyl radical
Chemical FormulaCHBr3
Average Molecular Mass252.731 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass249.763 g/mol
CAS Registry Number75-25-2
IUPAC Nametribromomethane
Traditional Nametribromomethane
SMILESBrC(Br)Br
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/CHBr3/c2-1(3)4/h1H
InChI KeyInChIKey=DIKBFYAXUHHXCS-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as trihalomethanes. These are organic compounds in which exactly three of the four hydrogen atoms of methane (CH4) are replaced by halogen atoms.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganohalogen compounds
ClassAlkyl halides
Sub ClassHalomethanes
Direct ParentTrihalomethanes
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Trihalomethane
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organobromide
  • Alkyl bromide
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
OriginExogenous
Cellular Locations
  • Membrane
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationsNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
ApplicationsNot Available
Biological RolesNot Available
Chemical RolesNot Available
Physical Properties
StateLiquid
AppearanceColorless to pale yellow liquid.
Experimental Properties
PropertyValue
Melting Point8.0°C
Boiling PointNot Available
Solubility3.1 mg/mL at 25°C [HORVATH,AL (1982)]
LogPNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility1.88 g/LALOGPS
logP2.5ALOGPS
logP2.28ChemAxon
logS-2.1ALOGPS
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area0 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity29.79 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability11.76 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0uk9-0690000000-cf918f4ef5ff0fffbc1cView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-0udi-0090000000-dd030734cf7764ec810cView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-0udi-0090000000-dd030734cf7764ec810cView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0udi-0090000000-dd030734cf7764ec810cView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-0002-0090000000-1cb844658b3e1f33d0cbView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-0002-0090000000-1cb844658b3e1f33d0cbView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0002-0090000000-1cb844658b3e1f33d0cbView in MoNA
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-00di-3910000000-f32fccd20ffca8d20545View in MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureOral (5) ; inhalation (5) ; dermal (5)
Mechanism of ToxicityBromine is a powerful oxidizing agent and is able to release oxygen free radicals from the water in mucous membranes. These free radicals are also potent oxidizers and produce tissue damage. In additon, the formation of hydrobromic and bromic acids will result in secondary irritation. The bromide ion is also known to affect the central nervous system, causing bromism. This is believed to be a result of bromide ions substituting for chloride ions in the in actions of neurotransmitters and transport systems, thus affecting numerous synaptic processes. (5, 6, 1)
MetabolismBromine is mainly absorbed via inhalation, but may also enter the body through dermal contact. Bromine salts can be ingested. Due to its reactivity, bromine quickly forms bromide and may be deposited in the tissues, displacing other halogens. (5)
Toxicity ValuesLD50: 414 mg/kg (Intraperitoneal, Rat) (2) LD50: 1400 mg/kg (Oral, Mouse) (2) LD50: 1820 mg/kg (Subcutaneous, Mouse) (2)
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)3, not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans. (8)
Uses/SourcesNot Available
Minimum Risk LevelNot Available
Health EffectsBromine vapour causes irritation and direct damage to the mucous membranes. Elemental bromine also burns the skin. The bromide ion is a central nervous system depressant and chronic exposure produces neuronal effects. This is called bromism and can result in central reactions reaching from somnolence to coma, cachexia, exicosis, loss of reflexes or pathologic reflexes, clonic seizures, tremor, ataxia, loss of neural sensitivity, paresis, papillar edema of the eyes, abnormal speech, cerebral edema, delirium, aggressiveness, and psychoses. (4, 5, 6)
SymptomsBromine vapour causes irritation and direct damage to the mucous membranes. Symptoms include lacrimation, rhinorrhoea, eye irritation with mucous secretions from the oropharyngeal and upper airways, coughing, dyspnoea, choking, wheezing, epistaxis, and headache. The bromide ion is a central nervous system depressant producing ataxia, slurred speech, tremor, nausea, vomiting, lethargy, dizziness, visual disturbances, unsteadiness, headaches, impaired memory and concentration, disorientation and hallucinations. This is called bromism. (5, 6)
TreatmentEYES: irrigate opened eyes for several minutes under running water. INGESTION: do not induce vomiting. Rinse mouth with water (never give anything by mouth to an unconscious person). Seek immediate medical advice. SKIN: should be treated immediately by rinsing the affected parts in cold running water for at least 15 minutes, followed by thorough washing with soap and water. If necessary, the person should shower and change contaminated clothing and shoes, and then must seek medical attention. INHALATION: supply fresh air. If required provide artificial respiration.
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDDB03054
HMDB IDNot Available
PubChem Compound ID5558
ChEMBL IDNot Available
ChemSpider ID4937685
KEGG IDC14707
UniProt IDNot Available
OMIM ID
ChEBI ID38682
BioCyc IDNot Available
CTD IDC015044
Stitch IDBromoform
PDB IDNot Available
ACToR ID1405
Wikipedia LinkBromoform
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
MSDST3D1785.pdf
General References
  1. Ziouzenkova O, Orasanu G, Sharlach M, Akiyama TE, Berger JP, Viereck J, Hamilton JA, Tang G, Dolnikowski GG, Vogel S, Duester G, Plutzky J: Retinaldehyde represses adipogenesis and diet-induced obesity. Nat Med. 2007 Jun;13(6):695-702. Epub 2007 May 27. [17529981 ]
  2. Lewis RJ (1996). Sax's Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials. 9th ed. Volumes 1-3. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold.
  3. Golomb, BA (1999). A Review of the Scientific Literature As It Pertains to Gulf War Illnesses. Volume 2: Pyridostigmine Bromide. Washington, DC: RAND.
  4. Wikipedia. Bromine. Last Updated 9 June 2009. [Link]
  5. International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS) INCHEM (1992). Poison Information Monograph for Bromine. [Link]
  6. Wikipedia. Potassium bromide. Last Updated 9 June 2009. [Link]
  7. Wikipedia. Bromoform. Last Updated 16 April 2009. [Link]
  8. International Agency for Research on Cancer (2014). IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. [Link]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated GenesNot Available
Down-Regulated GenesNot Available