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Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2009-06-23 17:19:25 UTC
Update Date2014-12-24 20:24:43 UTC
Accession NumberT3D1842
Identification
Common Namem-Cresol
ClassSmall Molecule
Descriptionm-Cresol is an isomer of p-cresol and o-cresol. Cresols are organic compounds which are methylphenols. They are a widely occurring natural and manufactured group of aromatic organic compounds which are categorized as phenols (sometimes called phenolics). Depending on the temperature, cresols can be solid or liquid because they have melting points not far from room temperature. Like other types of phenols, they are slowly oxidized by long exposure to air and the impurities often give cresols a yellowish to brownish red tint. Cresols have an odor characteristic to that of other simple phenols, reminiscent to some of a medicine smell. Cresol solutions are used as household cleaners and disinfectants, perhaps most famously under the trade name Lysol. In the past, cresol solutions have been used as antiseptics in surgery, but they have been largely displaced in this role by less toxic compounds. Lysol was also advertised as a disinfecting vaginal douche in mid-twentieth century America. Cresols are found in many foods and in wood and tobacco smoke, crude oil, coal tar, and in brown mixtures such as creosote and cresylic acids, which are wood preservatives. Small organisms in soil and water produce cresols when they break down materials in the environment. Most exposures to cresols are at very low levels that are not harmful. When cresols are breathed, ingested, or applied to the skin at very high levels, they can be very harmful. Effects observed in people include irritation and burning of skin, eyes, mouth, and throat; abdominal pain and vomiting; heart damage; anemia; liver and kidney damage; facial paralysis; coma; and death. Breathing high levels of cresols for a short time results in irritation of the nose and throat. Aside from these effects, very little is known about the effects of breathing cresols, for example, at lower levels over longer times. Ingesting high levels results in kidney problems, mouth and throat burns, abdominal pain, vomiting, and effects on the blood and nervous system. Skin contact with high levels of cresols can burn the skin and damage the kidneys, liver, blood, brain, and lungs. (wikipedia).
Compound Type
  • Aromatic Hydrocarbon
  • Disinfectant
  • Food Toxin
  • Household Toxin
  • Industrial/Workplace Toxin
  • Lachrymator
  • Metabolite
  • Natural Compound
  • Organic Compound
  • Pollutant
  • Solvent
Chemical Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Synonym
1-Hydroxy-3-methylbenzene
3-Hydroxytoluene
3-Methylphenol
m-Cresylic acid
m-Hydroxytoluene
m-Kresol
m-Methylphenol
m-Oxytoluene
m-Toluol
Meta-Cresol
Chemical FormulaC7H8O
Average Molecular Mass108.138 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass108.058 g/mol
CAS Registry Number108-39-4
IUPAC Name3-methylphenol
Traditional NameM-cresol
SMILESCC1=CC(O)=CC=C1
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/C7H8O/c1-6-3-2-4-7(8)5-6/h2-5,8H,1H3
InChI KeyInChIKey=RLSSMJSEOOYNOY-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as meta cresols. These are aromatic compounds containing a meta-cresol moiety, which consists of a benzene ring bearing a methyl group and a hydroxyl group at ring positions 1 and 3, respectively.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassBenzenoids
ClassPhenols
Sub ClassCresols
Direct ParentMeta cresols
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • M-cresol
  • 1-hydroxy-4-unsubstituted benzenoid
  • 1-hydroxy-2-unsubstituted benzenoid
  • Toluene
  • Monocyclic benzene moiety
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Aromatic homomonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
OriginEndogenous
Cellular Locations
  • Membrane
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationsNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
ApplicationsNot Available
Biological Roles
Chemical RolesNot Available
Physical Properties
StateLiquid
AppearanceColorless solids or liquids.
Experimental Properties
PropertyValue
Melting Point11.8°C
Boiling PointNot Available
Solubility22.7 mg/mL at 25°C [YALKOWSKY,SH & HE,Y (2003)]
LogP1.96
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility25.1 g/LALOGPS
logP1.93ALOGPS
logP2.18ChemAxon
logS-0.63ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)10.13ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-5.5ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area20.23 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity33.08 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability11.91 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-0a4i-6900000000-f2082b2d78602454887cJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-0a4i-9700000000-987a7fd82a03c828f2f6JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-0a4i-5900000000-80356192ec6d2f2cce17JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-014l-3900000000-5be628cfaed43892ecb6JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-0a4i-6900000000-f2082b2d78602454887cJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-0a4i-9700000000-987a7fd82a03c828f2f6JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-0a4i-5900000000-80356192ec6d2f2cce17JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-014l-3900000000-5be628cfaed43892ecb6JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0a4i-6900000000-b8ad5789d64b1436f653JSpectraViewer
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-01b9-7900000000-bea1778da40d4c1353e5JSpectraViewer
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0a4i-4900000000-ff165ee98ef540125c4fJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-00kf-9000000000-606fcb6bc90a29dd8728JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-014i-9000000000-dcdf60701ebd4f253affJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - EI-B (VARIAN MAT-44) , Positivesplash10-0a4i-6900000000-8a57217dc9acf65664ceJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - EI-B (HITACHI RMU-6L) , Positivesplash10-0a4i-9700000000-987a7fd82a03c828f2f6JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - EI-B (HITACHI RMU-7M) , Positivesplash10-0a4i-5900000000-80356192ec6d2f2cce17JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-0a4i-0900000000-50eeee8ccda679df8336JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-0a4i-1900000000-8d97f02d4ffa2f7ea5d7JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0gb9-9100000000-5118914f1ab03a16ca6eJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-0a4i-0900000000-a61d3231658626b2b393JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-0a4i-0900000000-373e69629866322cc176JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0a4i-9700000000-c3be74dad978cee7d152JSpectraViewer
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-0a4i-9800000000-f9433af649d30cc0e317JSpectraViewer | MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureOral (24) ; inhalation (24) ; dermal (24)
Mechanism of Toxicitym-Cresol is a cholinesterase or acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor. A cholinesterase inhibitor (or 'anticholinesterase') suppresses the action of acetylcholinesterase. Because of its essential function, chemicals that interfere with the action of acetylcholinesterase are potent neurotoxins, causing excessive salivation and eye-watering in low doses, followed by muscle spasms and ultimately death. Nerve gases and many substances used in insecticides have been shown to act by binding a serine in the active site of acetylcholine esterase, inhibiting the enzyme completely. Acetylcholine esterase breaks down the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, which is released at nerve and muscle junctions, in order to allow the muscle or organ to relax. The result of acetylcholine esterase inhibition is that acetylcholine builds up and continues to act so that any nerve impulses are continually transmitted and muscle contractions do not stop. Among the most common acetylcholinesterase inhibitors are phosphorus-based compounds, which are designed to bind to the active site of the enzyme. The structural requirements are a phosphorus atom bearing two lipophilic groups, a leaving group (such as a halide or thiocyanate), and a terminal oxygen.
MetabolismCresols can be absorbed following inhalation, oral, and dermal exposure. Once in the body they can distribute rapidly into many organs and tissues. Cresols undergo oxidative metabolism in the liver and are rapidly eliminated, mostly in the urine, as sulfate or glucuronide conjugates. The activation of cresols by oxidation involves tyrosinase and thyroid peroxidase, forming a reactive quinone methide. Experiments with recombinant P-450s demonstrated cresol metabolism was mediated by several P-450s including CYP2D6, 2C19, 1A2, 1A1, and 2E1. (24, 1, 25, 2)
Toxicity ValuesLD50: 242 mg/kg (Oral, Rat) (20) LD50: 168 mg/kg (Intraperitoneal, Mouse) (20) LD50: 2050 mg/kg (Dermal, Rabbit) (20)
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)No indication of carcinogenicity to humans (not listed by IARC).
Uses/SourcesCresols are used to as solvents, disinfectants and deodorizers, as well as to make other chemicals. They may be formed normally in the body from other compounds. Cresols are found in many foods and in wood and tobacco smoke, crude oil, coal tar, and in chemical mixtures used as wood preservatives. Small organisms in soil and water produce cresols when they break down materials in the environment. Breathing air containing cresols is the primary source of exposure. Exposure may also result from drinking contaminated water, eating contaminated food and coming into contact with liquids containing cresols. (24)
Minimum Risk LevelIntermediate Oral: 0.1 mg/kg/day (22) Chronic Oral: 0.1 mg/kg/day (22)
Health EffectsAcute exposure to cholinesterase inhibitors can cause a cholinergic crisis characterized by severe nausea/vomiting, salivation, sweating, bradycardia, hypotension, collapse, and convulsions. Increasing muscle weakness is a possibility and may result in death if respiratory muscles are involved. Accumulation of ACh at motor nerves causes overstimulation of nicotinic expression at the neuromuscular junction. When this occurs symptoms such as muscle weakness, fatigue, muscle cramps, fasciculation, and paralysis can be seen. When there is an accumulation of ACh at autonomic ganglia this causes overstimulation of nicotinic expression in the sympathetic system. Symptoms associated with this are hypertension, and hypoglycemia. Overstimulation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the central nervous system, due to accumulation of ACh, results in anxiety, headache, convulsions, ataxia, depression of respiration and circulation, tremor, general weakness, and potentially coma. When there is expression of muscarinic overstimulation due to excess acetylcholine at muscarinic acetylcholine receptors symptoms of visual disturbances, tightness in chest, wheezing due to bronchoconstriction, increased bronchial secretions, increased salivation, lacrimation, sweating, peristalsis, and urination can occur. Certain reproductive effects in fertility, growth, and development for males and females have been linked specifically to organophosphate pesticide exposure. Most of the research on reproductive effects has been conducted on farmers working with pesticides and insecticdes in rural areas. In females menstrual cycle disturbances, longer pregnancies, spontaneous abortions, stillbirths, and some developmental effects in offspring have been linked to organophosphate pesticide exposure. Prenatal exposure has been linked to impaired fetal growth and development. Neurotoxic effects have also been linked to poisoning with OP pesticides causing four neurotoxic effects in humans: cholinergic syndrome, intermediate syndrome, organophosphate-induced delayed polyneuropathy (OPIDP), and chronic organophosphate-induced neuropsychiatric disorder (COPIND). These syndromes result after acute and chronic exposure to OP pesticides.
SymptomsIngestion of cresols results in burning of the mouth and throat, abdominal pain, and vomiting. Inhalation or dermal exposure to cresols can produce irritation and corrosion at the site of contact. (23)
TreatmentIf the compound has been ingested, rapid gastric lavage should be performed using 5% sodium bicarbonate. For skin contact, the skin should be washed with soap and water. If the compound has entered the eyes, they should be washed with large quantities of isotonic saline or water. In serious cases, atropine and/or pralidoxime should be administered. Anti-cholinergic drugs work to counteract the effects of excess acetylcholine and reactivate AChE. Atropine can be used as an antidote in conjunction with pralidoxime or other pyridinium oximes (such as trimedoxime or obidoxime), though the use of '-oximes' has been found to be of no benefit, or possibly harmful, in at least two meta-analyses. Atropine is a muscarinic antagonist, and thus blocks the action of acetylcholine peripherally.
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDDB01776
HMDB IDHMDB02048
PubChem Compound ID342
ChEMBL IDCHEMBL298312
ChemSpider ID21105871
KEGG IDC01467
UniProt IDNot Available
OMIM ID
ChEBI ID17231
BioCyc IDCPD-112
CTD IDC042041
Stitch IDCresol, Meta-
PDB IDCRS
ACToR ID3506
Wikipedia Linkm-Cresol
References
Synthesis Reference

Gerd Leston, “Preparation of 5-sec-alkyl-m-cresol.” U.S. Patent US3992455, issued September, 1963.

MSDSLink
General References
  1. Yan Z, Zhong HM, Maher N, Torres R, Leo GC, Caldwell GW, Huebert N: Bioactivation of 4-methylphenol (p-cresol) via cytochrome P450-mediated aromatic oxidation in human liver microsomes. Drug Metab Dispos. 2005 Dec;33(12):1867-76. Epub 2005 Sep 20. [16174805 ]
  2. Yokoi H, Belfort G: High-rate membrane supported aqueous-phase enzymatic conversion in organic solvent. Bioseparation. 1994 Jun;4(3):213-20. [7765181 ]
  3. Oxford JS, Lambkin R, Gibb I, Balasingam S, Chan C, Catchpole A: A throat lozenge containing amyl meta cresol and dichlorobenzyl alcohol has a direct virucidal effect on respiratory syncytial virus, influenza A and SARS-CoV. Antivir Chem Chemother. 2005;16(2):129-34. [15889535 ]
  4. Koetsawang A, Koetsawang S: The use of a condensation product of metacresol sulfonic acid with methanal in the treatment of cervical erosion. J Med Assoc Thai. 1980 Nov;63(11):608-10. [7205102 ]
  5. Malaise J, Leonet J, Goffin E, Lefebvre C, Tennstedt D, Vandeleene B, Buysschaert M, Squifflet JP: Pancreas transplantation for treatment of generalized allergy to human insulin in type 1 diabetes. Transplant Proc. 2005 Jul-Aug;37(6):2839. [16182826 ]
  6. Perez de Salazar JL, Diaz Loya FJ, Garcia Mendoza M: [The trichomonacidal, fungicidal and bactericidal effects of metacresol sulfonic acid polymer with methanal in cervico-vaginitis]. Ginecol Obstet Mex. 1983 Feb;51(310):43-8. [6681370 ]
  7. Hussain K, Campagnolo ER: Suspected cresol poisoning in cattle presented for slaughter. Vet Hum Toxicol. 2002 Feb;44(1):11-4. [11824764 ]
  8. Wang G, Jing F, Su S: [An experimental study of metacresol burn]. Zhonghua Zheng Xing Shao Shang Wai Ke Za Zhi. 1999 Jul;15(4):305-8. [11593614 ]
  9. Jorgensen JT: Improvement of patient convenience in treatment with growth hormone. J Pediatr Endocrinol. 1994 Apr-Jun;7(2):175-80. [8061763 ]
  10. Rasmussen LH, Zachmann M, Nilsson P: Authentic recombinant human growth hormone. Results of a multicenter clinical trial in patients with growth hormone deficiency. Helv Paediatr Acta. 1989 Jun;43(5-6):443-8. [2663792 ]
  11. Wheeler BJ, Taylor BJ: Successful management of allergy to the insulin excipient metacresol in a child with type 1 diabetes: a case report. J Med Case Rep. 2012 Aug 31;6:263. doi: 10.1186/1752-1947-6-263. [22937994 ]
  12. Morfin de Madrigal A, Lopez Amado G: [500 cases of cervicitis treated with metacresol sulfonic acid]. Ginecol Obstet Mex. 1972 Jan;31(183):83-9. [5007546 ]
  13. Phares KR, Weiser WE, Miller SP, Myers MA, Wade M: Stability and preservative effectiveness of treprostinil sodium after dilution in common intravenous diluents. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2003 May 1;60(9):916-22. [12756943 ]
  14. Leonet J, Malaise J, Goffin E, Lefebvre C, Tennstedt D, Vandeleene B, Buysschaert M, Squifflet JP: Solitary pancreas transplantation for life-threatening allergy to human insulin. Transpl Int. 2006 Jun;19(6):474-7. [16771868 ]
  15. Clerx V, Van Den Keybus C, Kochuyt A, Goossens A: Drug intolerance reaction to insulin therapy caused by metacresol. Contact Dermatitis. 2003 Mar;48(3):162-3. [12755733 ]
  16. Plantin P, Sassolas B, Guillet MH, Tater D, Guillet G: [Cutaneous allergic accidents caused by insulin. Current aspects apropos of 2 cases]. Ann Dermatol Venereol. 1988;115(8):813-7. [2974269 ]
  17. McSherry TJ: Incompatibility between chlorpromazine and metacresol. Am J Hosp Pharm. 1987 Jul;44(7):1574. [3631086 ]
  18. Gloge A, Langer B, Poppe L, Retey J: The behavior of substrate analogues and secondary deuterium isotope effects in the phenylalanine ammonia-lyase reaction. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1998 Nov 1;359(1):1-7. [9799553 ]
  19. Das Gupta V: Quantitation of meperidine hydrochloride in pharmaceutical dosage forms by high-performance liquid chromatography. J Pharm Sci. 1983 Jun;72(6):695-7. [6875832 ]
  20. Lewis RJ Sr. (ed) (2004). Sax's Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials. 11th Edition. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Interscience, Wiley & Sons, Inc.
  21. Rumack BH (2009). POISINDEX(R) Information System. Englewood, CO: Micromedex, Inc. CCIS Volume 141, edition expires Aug, 2009.
  22. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2001). Minimal Risk Levels (MRLs) for Hazardous Substances. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
  23. International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS) INCHEM (1996). Poison Information Monograph for Cresols. [Link]
  24. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2008). Toxicological profile for cresols. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
  25. Wikipedia. Sodium dichromate. Last Updated 25 May 2009. [Link]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated GenesNot Available
Down-Regulated GenesNot Available

Targets

General Function:
Protease binding
Specific Function:
Insulin decreases blood glucose concentration. It increases cell permeability to monosaccharides, amino acids and fatty acids. It accelerates glycolysis, the pentose phosphate cycle, and glycogen synthesis in liver.
Gene Name:
INS
Uniprot ID:
P01308
Molecular Weight:
11980.795 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
  3. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [10592235 ]
General Function:
Serine hydrolase activity
Specific Function:
Terminates signal transduction at the neuromuscular junction by rapid hydrolysis of the acetylcholine released into the synaptic cleft. Role in neuronal apoptosis.
Gene Name:
ACHE
Uniprot ID:
P22303
Molecular Weight:
67795.525 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
IC504.9 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50008548
References
  1. Cardozo MG, Iimura Y, Sugimoto H, Yamanishi Y, Hopfinger AJ: QSAR analyses of the substituted indanone and benzylpiperidine rings of a series of indanone-benzylpiperidine inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase. J Med Chem. 1992 Feb 7;35(3):584-9. [1738151 ]
General Function:
Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase activity
Specific Function:
Converts arachidonate to prostaglandin H2 (PGH2), a committed step in prostanoid synthesis. Involved in the constitutive production of prostanoids in particular in the stomach and platelets. In gastric epithelial cells, it is a key step in the generation of prostaglandins, such as prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), which plays an important role in cytoprotection. In platelets, it is involved in the generation of thromboxane A2 (TXA2), which promotes platelet activation and aggregation, vasoconstriction and proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells.
Gene Name:
PTGS1
Uniprot ID:
P23219
Molecular Weight:
68685.82 Da
References
  1. Chan CP, Yuan-Soon H, Wang YJ, Lan WH, Chen LI, Chen YJ, Lin BR, Chang MC, Jeng JH: Inhibition of cyclooxygenase activity, platelet aggregation and thromboxane B2 production by two environmental toxicants: m- and o-cresol. Toxicology. 2005 Mar 1;208(1):95-104. [15664436 ]
General Function:
Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase activity
Specific Function:
Converts arachidonate to prostaglandin H2 (PGH2), a committed step in prostanoid synthesis. Constitutively expressed in some tissues in physiological conditions, such as the endothelium, kidney and brain, and in pathological conditions, such as in cancer. PTGS2 is responsible for production of inflammatory prostaglandins. Up-regulation of PTGS2 is also associated with increased cell adhesion, phenotypic changes, resistance to apoptosis and tumor angiogenesis. In cancer cells, PTGS2 is a key step in the production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), which plays important roles in modulating motility, proliferation and resistance to apoptosis.
Gene Name:
PTGS2
Uniprot ID:
P35354
Molecular Weight:
68995.625 Da
References
  1. Chan CP, Yuan-Soon H, Wang YJ, Lan WH, Chen LI, Chen YJ, Lin BR, Chang MC, Jeng JH: Inhibition of cyclooxygenase activity, platelet aggregation and thromboxane B2 production by two environmental toxicants: m- and o-cresol. Toxicology. 2005 Mar 1;208(1):95-104. [15664436 ]
General Function:
Temperature-gated cation channel activity
Specific Function:
Receptor-activated non-selective cation channel involved in detection of pain and possibly also in cold perception and inner ear function (PubMed:25389312, PubMed:25855297). Has a central role in the pain response to endogenous inflammatory mediators and to a diverse array of volatile irritants, such as mustard oil, cinnamaldehyde, garlic and acrolein, an irritant from tears gas and vehicule exhaust fumes (PubMed:25389312, PubMed:20547126). Is also activated by menthol (in vitro)(PubMed:25389312). Acts also as a ionotropic cannabinoid receptor by being activated by delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the psychoactive component of marijuana (PubMed:25389312). May be a component for the mechanosensitive transduction channel of hair cells in inner ear, thereby participating in the perception of sounds. Probably operated by a phosphatidylinositol second messenger system (By similarity).
Gene Name:
TRPA1
Uniprot ID:
O75762
Molecular Weight:
127499.88 Da
References
  1. Nilius B, Prenen J, Owsianik G: Irritating channels: the case of TRPA1. J Physiol. 2011 Apr 1;589(Pt 7):1543-9. doi: 10.1113/jphysiol.2010.200717. Epub 2010 Nov 15. [21078588 ]