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Record Information
Creation Date2009-06-24 15:20:01 UTC
Update Date2014-12-24 20:24:52 UTC
Accession NumberT3D1908
Common Name1,1-Dichloropropene
ClassSmall Molecule
Description1,1-Dichloropropene is a industrial solvent; no information on specific uses is available in standard government and industry sources (6).
Compound Type
  • Chloropropene
  • Food Toxin
  • Industrial/Workplace Toxin
  • Lachrymator
  • Organic Compound
  • Organochloride
  • Pesticide
  • Synthetic Compound
Chemical Structure
1, 1-Dichloro-1-propene
1-Propene, 1,1-dichloro- (9CI)
Chemical FormulaC3H4Cl2
Average Molecular Mass110.970 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass109.969 g/mol
CAS Registry Number563-58-6
IUPAC Name1,1-dichloroprop-1-ene
Traditional Name1,1-dichloropropene
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/C3H4Cl2/c1-2-3(4)5/h2H,1H3
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as ketene acetals. These are organic compounds comprising the ketene acetal functional group, with the general structure XC(Y)=C(R3)R4 (R1,R2=H, alkyl, aryl; X,Y=any hetero atom).
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic oxygen compounds
ClassOrganooxygen compounds
Sub ClassKetene acetals
Direct ParentKetene acetals
Alternative Parents
  • Ketene acetal or derivatives
  • Chloroalkene
  • Haloalkene
  • Vinyl halide
  • Vinyl chloride
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organochloride
  • Organohalogen compound
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External DescriptorsNot Available
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
Cellular Locations
  • Membrane
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationsNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
ApplicationsNot Available
Biological RolesNot Available
Chemical RolesNot Available
Physical Properties
AppearanceLiquid (6).
Experimental Properties
Melting PointNot Available
Boiling Point76.5°C
SolubilityNot Available
LogPNot Available
Predicted Properties
Water Solubility3.42 g/LALOGPS
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area0 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity36.05 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability9.57 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-03di-0900000000-e090242adc574fac3b9bJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-03di-1900000000-1f3aa063cb0c25f74ff3JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-004i-9100000000-a2a4fff98d19f0dfa553JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-0a4i-0900000000-d16aa30891cbdb19a0c2JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-0a4i-3900000000-28c7159e009e6d127fabJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-00di-9000000000-d40fb7b588b7345e8a76JSpectraViewer
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-004r-9200000000-69fa062186d4aae1e7abJSpectraViewer | MoNA
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureInhalation (6) ; oral (6) ; dermal (6) ; eye contact (6).
Mechanism of ToxicityThe primary toxic effects of 1,1-dichloropropene are portal-of-entry effects resulting from the chemical reactivity of the compound and its physicochemical properties. Repeated irritation results in a hyperplastic response in the target tissues. The mutagenicity of 1,1-dichloropropene has been related to its glutathione transferase-dependent bioactivation by the thiolate ion of glutathione and the resulting episulfonium ion (6).
MetabolismGlutathione transferase catalyzes the bioactivation of 1,1-dichloropropene by glutathione to a single unsaturated S-conjugate retaining one chlorine atom. It was postulated that the thiolate ion of glutathione could attack 1,1-dichloropropene at either the C1 or C2 position, with attack at the C2 position resulting in the formation of a mutagenic episulfonium ion (6).
Toxicity ValuesNot Available
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)No indication of carcinogenicity (not listed by IARC). (5)
Uses/SourcesBreathing in contaminated air; drinking contaminated water; eating contaminated food; dermal and eye exposure (6).
Minimum Risk LevelNot Available
Health EffectsIngestion of 1,1-D can lead to developed gastrointestinal distress, adult respiratory distress syndrome, hematological and hepatorenal functional impairment, acute gastrointestinal distress with pulmonary congestion and edema, central nervous depression, perhaps even in the absence of impaired oxygen uptake. Moreover, this can lead to death. Coma may occur rapidly after inhalation. Severe skin irritation with marked inflammatory response of epidermis can underlying tissues can follow dermal exposure. By any route, possible late injuries to liver, kidneys and heart (3).
SymptomsSymptoms occuring after inhalation include gasping, refusal to breathe, coughing, substernal pain; lacrimation and headache are prominant. After inhalation exposures, malaise, headache, chest and abdominal discomfort and irritability can persist during weeks or years. Moreover, Irritation of eyes and upper respiratory mucosa appears promptly after exposure to concentrated vapors. Ingestion can cause cough, sore throat, headache, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, unconsciousness, and laboured breathing (3, 6).
TreatmentFollowing oral exposure, administer charcoal as a slurry. Monitor liver and kidney function; elevations may not be seen for several days. Following eye exposure, irrigate exposed eyes with copious amounts of room temperature water for at least 15 minutes. If irritation, pain, swelling, lacrimation, or photophobia persist, the patient should be seen in a health care facility. Following dermal exposure, remove contaminated clothing and wash exposed area thoroughly with soap and water. Following inhalation, move patient to fresh air, even though initial symptoms and signs are mild; keep the victim quiet, in a semi-reclining position. Minimum physical activity limits the likehood of pulmonary edema. If victim is not breathing, clear the airway of secretions and resuscitate with positive pressure oxygen apparatus. If this is not available, use chest compression to sustain respiration. (2, 1)
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDNot Available
HMDB IDNot Available
PubChem Compound ID11245
ChemSpider ID10771
KEGG IDNot Available
UniProt IDNot Available
ChEBI IDNot Available
CTD IDNot Available
Stitch ID1,1-Dichloropropene
PDB IDNot Available
ACToR ID6713
Wikipedia LinkNot Available
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
MSDSNot Available
General References
  1. Dalfo D, Marques N, Albalat R: Analysis of the NADH-dependent retinaldehyde reductase activity of amphioxus retinol dehydrogenase enzymes enhances our understanding of the evolution of the retinol dehydrogenase family. FEBS J. 2007 Jul;274(14):3739-52. Epub 2007 Jul 2. [17608724 ]
  2. Rumack BH (2009). POISINDEX(R) Information System. Englewood, CO: Micromedex, Inc. CCIS Volume 141, edition expires Aug, 2009.
  3. Gosselin RE, Smith RP, and Hodge HC (1984). Clinical Toxicology of Commercial Products. 5th ed. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins.
  4. Sullivan JB Jr. and Krieger GR (eds) (1999). Hazardous Materials Toxicology-Clinical Principles of Environmental Health. Baltimore, MD: Williams and Wilkins.
  5. International Agency for Research on Cancer (2014). IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. [Link]
  6. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2008). Toxicological profile for dichloropropenes. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated GenesNot Available
Down-Regulated GenesNot Available


General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Nuclear hormone receptor. The steroid hormones and their receptors are involved in the regulation of eukaryotic gene expression and affect cellular proliferation and differentiation in target tissues. Ligand-dependent nuclear transactivation involves either direct homodimer binding to a palindromic estrogen response element (ERE) sequence or association with other DNA-binding transcription factors, such as AP-1/c-Jun, c-Fos, ATF-2, Sp1 and Sp3, to mediate ERE-independent signaling. Ligand binding induces a conformational change allowing subsequent or combinatorial association with multiprotein coactivator complexes through LXXLL motifs of their respective components. Mutual transrepression occurs between the estrogen receptor (ER) and NF-kappa-B in a cell-type specific manner. Decreases NF-kappa-B DNA-binding activity and inhibits NF-kappa-B-mediated transcription from the IL6 promoter and displace RELA/p65 and associated coregulators from the promoter. Recruited to the NF-kappa-B response element of the CCL2 and IL8 promoters and can displace CREBBP. Present with NF-kappa-B components RELA/p65 and NFKB1/p50 on ERE sequences. Can also act synergistically with NF-kappa-B to activate transcription involving respective recruitment adjacent response elements; the function involves CREBBP. Can activate the transcriptional activity of TFF1. Also mediates membrane-initiated estrogen signaling involving various kinase cascades. Isoform 3 is involved in activation of NOS3 and endothelial nitric oxide production. Isoforms lacking one or several functional domains are thought to modulate transcriptional activity by competitive ligand or DNA binding and/or heterodimerization with the full length receptor. Essential for MTA1-mediated transcriptional regulation of BRCA1 and BCAS3. Isoform 3 can bind to ERE and inhibit isoform 1.
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular Weight:
66215.45 Da
  1. Taccone-Gallucci M, Manca-di-Villahermosa S, Battistini L, Stuffler RG, Tedesco M, Maccarrone M: N-3 PUFAs reduce oxidative stress in ESRD patients on maintenance HD by inhibiting 5-lipoxygenase activity. Kidney Int. 2006 Apr;69(8):1450-4. [16531984 ]
  2. Luft S, Milki E, Glustrom E, Ampiah-Bonney R, O'Hara P. Binding of Organochloride and Pyrethroid Pesticides To Estrogen Receptors α and β: A Fluorescence Polarization Assay. Biophysical Journal 2009;96(3):444a.
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Nuclear hormone receptor. Binds estrogens with an affinity similar to that of ESR1, and activates expression of reporter genes containing estrogen response elements (ERE) in an estrogen-dependent manner (PubMed:20074560). Isoform beta-cx lacks ligand binding ability and has no or only very low ere binding activity resulting in the loss of ligand-dependent transactivation ability. DNA-binding by ESR1 and ESR2 is rapidly lost at 37 degrees Celsius in the absence of ligand while in the presence of 17 beta-estradiol and 4-hydroxy-tamoxifen loss in DNA-binding at elevated temperature is more gradual.
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular Weight:
59215.765 Da
  1. Taccone-Gallucci M, Manca-di-Villahermosa S, Battistini L, Stuffler RG, Tedesco M, Maccarrone M: N-3 PUFAs reduce oxidative stress in ESRD patients on maintenance HD by inhibiting 5-lipoxygenase activity. Kidney Int. 2006 Apr;69(8):1450-4. [16531984 ]
  2. Luft S, Milki E, Glustrom E, Ampiah-Bonney R, O'Hara P. Binding of Organochloride and Pyrethroid Pesticides To Estrogen Receptors α and β: A Fluorescence Polarization Assay. Biophysical Journal 2009;96(3):444a.
General Function:
Temperature-gated cation channel activity
Specific Function:
Receptor-activated non-selective cation channel involved in detection of pain and possibly also in cold perception and inner ear function (PubMed:25389312, PubMed:25855297). Has a central role in the pain response to endogenous inflammatory mediators and to a diverse array of volatile irritants, such as mustard oil, cinnamaldehyde, garlic and acrolein, an irritant from tears gas and vehicule exhaust fumes (PubMed:25389312, PubMed:20547126). Is also activated by menthol (in vitro)(PubMed:25389312). Acts also as a ionotropic cannabinoid receptor by being activated by delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the psychoactive component of marijuana (PubMed:25389312). May be a component for the mechanosensitive transduction channel of hair cells in inner ear, thereby participating in the perception of sounds. Probably operated by a phosphatidylinositol second messenger system (By similarity).
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular Weight:
127499.88 Da
  1. Nilius B, Prenen J, Owsianik G: Irritating channels: the case of TRPA1. J Physiol. 2011 Apr 1;589(Pt 7):1543-9. doi: 10.1113/jphysiol.2010.200717. Epub 2010 Nov 15. [21078588 ]