You are using an unsupported browser. Please upgrade your browser to a newer version to get the best experience on Toxin, Toxin Target Database.
Record Information
Creation Date2009-06-24 15:20:02 UTC
Update Date2014-12-24 20:24:52 UTC
Accession NumberT3D1910
Common Name2,3-Dichloropropene
ClassSmall Molecule
Description2,3-dichloropropene is a straw-colored liquid form of dichloropropene (6).
Compound Type
  • Chloropropene
  • Food Toxin
  • Lachrymator
  • Organic Compound
  • Organochloride
  • Pesticide
  • Synthetic Compound
Chemical Structure
2-Chloroallyl chloride
Propylene, 2,3-dichloro
Chemical FormulaC3H4Cl2
Average Molecular Mass110.970 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass109.969 g/mol
CAS Registry Number78-88-6
IUPAC Name2,3-dichloroprop-1-ene
Traditional Name2,3-dichloropropene
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/C3H4Cl2/c1-3(5)2-4/h1-2H2
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as vinyl chlorides. These are vinyl halides in which a chlorine atom is bonded to an sp2-hybridised carbon atom.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganohalogen compounds
ClassVinyl halides
Sub ClassVinyl chlorides
Direct ParentVinyl chlorides
Alternative Parents
  • Chloroalkene
  • Haloalkene
  • Vinyl chloride
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organochloride
  • Alkyl halide
  • Alkyl chloride
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External DescriptorsNot Available
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationsNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
ApplicationsNot Available
Biological RolesNot Available
Chemical RolesNot Available
Physical Properties
AppearanceStraw-colored liquid (6).
Experimental Properties
Melting Point10°C
Boiling PointNot Available
Solubility2.15 mg/mL at 25°C [MACKAY,D & SHIU,WY (1981)]
LogPNot Available
Predicted Properties
Water Solubility2.45 g/LALOGPS
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area0 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count1ChemAxon
Refractivity25.19 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability9.49 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-03di-0900000000-eb2d73fbb8c162bd6f17JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-03di-0900000000-e72857adbeb1f13bb9a5JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-004l-9000000000-41bc9baf5ac4bb15d3efJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-0a4i-0900000000-e2678442c752a1d457a3JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-0a4i-1900000000-0cfd092dc3b04e67654fJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-05fr-9500000000-717061a020942a8e2428JSpectraViewer
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-004r-9100000000-6ac4dac13cef5369d270JSpectraViewer | MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureInhalation (6) ; oral (6) ; dermal (6) ; eye contact (6).
Mechanism of ToxicityThe primary toxic effects of 2,3-dichloropropene are portal-of-entry effects resulting from the chemical reactivity of the compound and its physicochemical properties. Repeated irritation results in a hyperplastic response in the target tissues. It is likely that depletion of glutathione would block the major detoxification pathway for 2,3-dichloropropene, resulting in increased toxicity of organs such as the liver and kidney because of binding of reactive intermediates to macromolecules in cells (6).
MetabolismThe major pathway is a detoxifying conjugation to glutathione, leading to the elimination of mercapturic acid metabolites in the urine. Two secondary pathways result in the formation of mutagenic metabolites. One involves cytochrome P450-induced formation of an epoxide that undergoes spontaneous rearrangement to form the mutagen 1,3-dichloroacetone. The other involves hydrolysis and dechlorination to form an intermediate (2-chloroallyl alcohol) that can either be detoxified by conjugation to glucuronic acid or bioactivated by alcohol dehydrogenase to form the mutagen 2-chloroacrolein. It is evident that depletion of glutathione stores, more likely to occur under bolus exposure conditions, would result in the formation of proportionally more mutagenic metabolites (6).
Toxicity ValuesLD50: 285 mg/kg (Oral, Rat) (6) LD50: 1913 mg/kg (Dermal, Rat) (6)
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)No indication of carcinogenicity (not listed by IARC). (5)
Uses/SourcesBreathing in contaminated air; drinking contaminated water; eating contaminated food; dermal and eye exposure (6).
Minimum Risk LevelAcute Inhalation: 0.002 ppm (Rabbit) (6)
Health EffectsIngestion of 2,3-D can lead to developed gastrointestinal distress, adult respiratory distress syndrome, hematological and hepatorenal functional impairment, acute gastrointestinal distress with pulmonary congestion and edema, central nervous depression, perhaps even in the absence of impaired oxygen uptake. Moreover, this can lead to death. Coma may occur rapidly after inhalation. Severe skin irritation with marked inflammatory response of epidermis can underlying tissues can follow dermal exposure. By any route, possible late injuries to liver, kidneys and heart (3).
SymptomsSymptoms occuring after inhalation include gasping, refusal to breathe, coughing, substernal pain; lacrimation and headache are prominant. After inhalation exposures, malaise, headache, chest and abdominal discomfort and irritability can persist during weeks or years. Moreover, Irritation of eyes and upper respiratory mucosa appears promptly after exposure to concentrated vapors. Ingestion can cause cough, sore throat, headache, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, unconsciousness, and laboured breathing (3, 6).
TreatmentFollowing oral exposure, administer charcoal as a slurry. Monitor liver and kidney function; elevations may not be seen for several days. Following eye exposure, irrigate exposed eyes with copious amounts of room temperature water for at least 15 minutes. If irritation, pain, swelling, lacrimation, or photophobia persist, the patient should be seen in a health care facility. Following dermal exposure, remove contaminated clothing and wash exposed area thoroughly with soap and water. Following inhalation, move patient to fresh air, even though initial symptoms and signs are mild; keep the victim quiet, in a semi-reclining position. Minimum physical activity limits the likehood of pulmonary edema. If victim is not breathing, clear the airway of secretions and resuscitate with positive pressure oxygen apparatus. If this is not available, use chest compression to sustain respiration. (2, 1)
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDNot Available
HMDB IDNot Available
PubChem Compound ID6565
ChemSpider ID6317
KEGG IDNot Available
UniProt IDNot Available
ChEBI IDNot Available
BioCyc IDCPD-9112
CTD IDC043065
Stitch ID2,3-Dichloropropene
PDB IDNot Available
ACToR ID6801
Wikipedia LinkNot Available
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
General References
  1. Dalfo D, Marques N, Albalat R: Analysis of the NADH-dependent retinaldehyde reductase activity of amphioxus retinol dehydrogenase enzymes enhances our understanding of the evolution of the retinol dehydrogenase family. FEBS J. 2007 Jul;274(14):3739-52. Epub 2007 Jul 2. [17608724 ]
  2. Rumack BH (2009). POISINDEX(R) Information System. Englewood, CO: Micromedex, Inc. CCIS Volume 141, edition expires Aug, 2009.
  3. Gosselin RE, Smith RP, and Hodge HC (1984). Clinical Toxicology of Commercial Products. 5th ed. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins.
  4. Sullivan JB Jr. and Krieger GR (eds) (1999). Hazardous Materials Toxicology-Clinical Principles of Environmental Health. Baltimore, MD: Williams and Wilkins.
  5. International Agency for Research on Cancer (2014). IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. [Link]
  6. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2008). Toxicological profile for dichloropropenes. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated GenesNot Available
Down-Regulated GenesNot Available


General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Nuclear hormone receptor. The steroid hormones and their receptors are involved in the regulation of eukaryotic gene expression and affect cellular proliferation and differentiation in target tissues. Ligand-dependent nuclear transactivation involves either direct homodimer binding to a palindromic estrogen response element (ERE) sequence or association with other DNA-binding transcription factors, such as AP-1/c-Jun, c-Fos, ATF-2, Sp1 and Sp3, to mediate ERE-independent signaling. Ligand binding induces a conformational change allowing subsequent or combinatorial association with multiprotein coactivator complexes through LXXLL motifs of their respective components. Mutual transrepression occurs between the estrogen receptor (ER) and NF-kappa-B in a cell-type specific manner. Decreases NF-kappa-B DNA-binding activity and inhibits NF-kappa-B-mediated transcription from the IL6 promoter and displace RELA/p65 and associated coregulators from the promoter. Recruited to the NF-kappa-B response element of the CCL2 and IL8 promoters and can displace CREBBP. Present with NF-kappa-B components RELA/p65 and NFKB1/p50 on ERE sequences. Can also act synergistically with NF-kappa-B to activate transcription involving respective recruitment adjacent response elements; the function involves CREBBP. Can activate the transcriptional activity of TFF1. Also mediates membrane-initiated estrogen signaling involving various kinase cascades. Isoform 3 is involved in activation of NOS3 and endothelial nitric oxide production. Isoforms lacking one or several functional domains are thought to modulate transcriptional activity by competitive ligand or DNA binding and/or heterodimerization with the full length receptor. Essential for MTA1-mediated transcriptional regulation of BRCA1 and BCAS3. Isoform 3 can bind to ERE and inhibit isoform 1.
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular Weight:
66215.45 Da
  1. Taccone-Gallucci M, Manca-di-Villahermosa S, Battistini L, Stuffler RG, Tedesco M, Maccarrone M: N-3 PUFAs reduce oxidative stress in ESRD patients on maintenance HD by inhibiting 5-lipoxygenase activity. Kidney Int. 2006 Apr;69(8):1450-4. [16531984 ]
  2. Luft S, Milki E, Glustrom E, Ampiah-Bonney R, O'Hara P. Binding of Organochloride and Pyrethroid Pesticides To Estrogen Receptors α and β: A Fluorescence Polarization Assay. Biophysical Journal 2009;96(3):444a.
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Nuclear hormone receptor. Binds estrogens with an affinity similar to that of ESR1, and activates expression of reporter genes containing estrogen response elements (ERE) in an estrogen-dependent manner (PubMed:20074560). Isoform beta-cx lacks ligand binding ability and has no or only very low ere binding activity resulting in the loss of ligand-dependent transactivation ability. DNA-binding by ESR1 and ESR2 is rapidly lost at 37 degrees Celsius in the absence of ligand while in the presence of 17 beta-estradiol and 4-hydroxy-tamoxifen loss in DNA-binding at elevated temperature is more gradual.
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular Weight:
59215.765 Da
  1. Taccone-Gallucci M, Manca-di-Villahermosa S, Battistini L, Stuffler RG, Tedesco M, Maccarrone M: N-3 PUFAs reduce oxidative stress in ESRD patients on maintenance HD by inhibiting 5-lipoxygenase activity. Kidney Int. 2006 Apr;69(8):1450-4. [16531984 ]
  2. Luft S, Milki E, Glustrom E, Ampiah-Bonney R, O'Hara P. Binding of Organochloride and Pyrethroid Pesticides To Estrogen Receptors α and β: A Fluorescence Polarization Assay. Biophysical Journal 2009;96(3):444a.
General Function:
Temperature-gated cation channel activity
Specific Function:
Receptor-activated non-selective cation channel involved in detection of pain and possibly also in cold perception and inner ear function (PubMed:25389312, PubMed:25855297). Has a central role in the pain response to endogenous inflammatory mediators and to a diverse array of volatile irritants, such as mustard oil, cinnamaldehyde, garlic and acrolein, an irritant from tears gas and vehicule exhaust fumes (PubMed:25389312, PubMed:20547126). Is also activated by menthol (in vitro)(PubMed:25389312). Acts also as a ionotropic cannabinoid receptor by being activated by delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the psychoactive component of marijuana (PubMed:25389312). May be a component for the mechanosensitive transduction channel of hair cells in inner ear, thereby participating in the perception of sounds. Probably operated by a phosphatidylinositol second messenger system (By similarity).
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular Weight:
127499.88 Da
  1. Nilius B, Prenen J, Owsianik G: Irritating channels: the case of TRPA1. J Physiol. 2011 Apr 1;589(Pt 7):1543-9. doi: 10.1113/jphysiol.2010.200717. Epub 2010 Nov 15. [21078588 ]