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Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2009-07-03 21:16:06 UTC
Update Date2014-12-24 20:25:32 UTC
Accession NumberT3D2464
Identification
Common NameCiguatoxin 2
ClassSmall Molecule
DescriptionCiguatoxin is a fish toxin consisting of apolycyclic ethers produced by Gambierdiscus (dinoflagellates) from gambiertoxins. It is ingested by fish and in turn may be ingested by humans, causing ciguatera poisoning. (5, 7)
Compound Type
  • Animal Toxin
  • Ether
  • Food Toxin
  • Marine Toxin
  • Natural Compound
  • Organic Compound
Chemical Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Synonym
52-Epiciguatoxin 3
Ciguatoxin 3
Ciguatoxin CTX 2
Ciguatoxin-2
CTX 2
Chemical FormulaC60H86O18
Average Molecular Mass1095.314 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass1094.581 g/mol
CAS Registry Number142185-85-1
IUPAC Name(1R,3S,6R,8S,10R,12S,16R,18R,19R,20S,22R,25S,27R,29E,32S,34R,36S,38R,40S,42R,43S,44S,45S,47S,48S,49S,50R,52S,54R,56R,58S,59R)-16-[(1E,3S)-3,4-dihydroxybut-1-en-1-yl]-43,44,49,54,58-pentamethyl-2,7,11,17,21,26,33,37,41,46,51,57-dodecaoxaspiro[dodecacyclo[30.28.0.0³,²⁷.0⁶,²⁵.0⁸,²².0¹⁰,²⁰.0¹²,¹⁸.0³⁴,⁵⁸.0³⁶,⁵⁶.0³⁸,⁵².0⁴⁰,⁵⁰.0⁴²,⁴⁷]hexacontane-45,2'-oxolane]-4,14,23,29-tetraene-19,48,59-triol
Traditional Name(1R,3S,6R,8S,10R,12S,16R,18R,19R,20S,22R,25S,27R,29E,32S,34R,36S,38R,40S,42R,43S,44S,45S,47S,48S,49S,50R,52S,54R,56R,58S,59R)-16-[(1E,3S)-3,4-dihydroxybut-1-en-1-yl]-43,44,49,54,58-pentamethyl-2,7,11,17,21,26,33,37,41,46,51,57-dodecaoxaspiro[dodecacyclo[30.28.0.0³,²⁷.0⁶,²⁵.0⁸,²².0¹⁰,²⁰.0¹²,¹⁸.0³⁴,⁵⁸.0³⁶,⁵⁶.0³⁸,⁵².0⁴⁰,⁵⁰.0⁴²,⁴⁷]hexacontane-45,2'-oxolane]-4,14,23,29-tetraene-19,48,59-triol
SMILES[H]\C(=C(\[H])[C@]1([H])O[C@@]2([H])[C@]([H])(CC=C1)O[C@]1([H])C[C@]3([H])O[C@]4([H])C=C[C@]5([H])O[C@]6([H])C[C@@]([H])(O)[C@]7(C)O[C@]8([H])C[C@]([H])(C)C[C@]9([H])O[C@@]%10([H])[C@]([H])(C[C@@]9([H])O[C@@]8([H])C[C@@]7([H])O[C@@]6([H])C\C([H])=C([H])\C[C@@]5([H])O[C@@]4([H])C=C[C@@]3([H])O[C@@]1([H])[C@]2([H])O)O[C@]1([H])[C@@]([H])(C)[C@]([H])(C)[C@]2(CCCO2)O[C@@]1([H])[C@@]([H])(O)[C@]%10([H])C)[C@]([H])(O)CO
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/C60H86O18/c1-29-22-42-44(25-48-54(75-42)31(3)52(64)58-55(76-48)30(2)32(4)60(78-58)20-9-21-66-60)72-46-27-51-59(5,77-47(46)23-29)50(63)26-45-36(73-51)12-7-6-11-35-37(70-45)16-17-39-38(68-35)18-19-40-43(69-39)24-49-57(74-40)53(65)56-41(71-49)13-8-10-34(67-56)15-14-33(62)28-61/h6-8,10,14-19,29-58,61-65H,9,11-13,20-28H2,1-5H3/b7-6+,15-14+/t29-,30+,31+,32+,33+,34-,35-,36+,37+,38+,39-,40-,41+,42+,43+,44-,45-,46+,47-,48+,49-,50-,51-,52+,53-,54-,55-,56+,57-,58+,59+,60+/m1/s1
InChI KeyInChIKey=RWSYPPRKMNWNII-BICHWBIRSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as ciguatera toxins. These are lipid-soluble polyether compounds consisting of 13 to 14 rings fused by ether linkages into a most rigid ladder-like structure.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassPhenylpropanoids and polyketides
ClassCiguatera toxins
Sub ClassNot Available
Direct ParentCiguatera toxins
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Ciguatera toxin fragment
  • Ketal
  • Oxepane
  • Oxane
  • Monosaccharide
  • Tetrahydrofuran
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Oxacycle
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Polyol
  • Ether
  • Dialkyl ether
  • Acetal
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Primary alcohol
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Alcohol
  • Aliphatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External DescriptorsNot Available
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
OriginExogenous
Cellular Locations
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane
  • Plasma Membrane
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationsNot Available
Pathways
NameSMPDB LinkKEGG Link
Long-term potentiationNot Availablemap04720
ApplicationsNot Available
Biological RolesNot Available
Chemical RolesNot Available
Physical Properties
StateSolid
AppearanceWhite powder (4).
Experimental Properties
PropertyValue
Melting PointNot Available
Boiling PointNot Available
SolubilityNot Available
LogPNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.011 g/LALOGPS
logP2.38ALOGPS
logP3.47ChemAxon
logS-5ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)12.88ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-3ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count18ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count5ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area221.14 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count3ChemAxon
Refractivity283.37 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability123.55 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings13ChemAxon
Bioavailability0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-056s-9000000000-db8635a62ee6f946ea55JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-0ar0-9202040213-2ad7c85d43a3ba1a0aafJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0a4l-9011100110-7120179a78d0c543402dJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-0006-9200000021-e11bdcb0fda0af3787d8JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-0kdl-8092117052-4f567440af9299a28c27JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0uxr-4947575330-182f91d5b5da13fcf999JSpectraViewer
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureOral (1)
Mechanism of ToxicityCiguatoxin lowers the threshold for opening voltage-gated sodium channels in synapses of the nervous system. The effect of opening a sodium channel will cause depolarization, which could sequentially cause paralysis, heart contraction, and changing the senses of hearing and cold. Because it does not cross the blood brain barrier (BBB), ciguatoxins solely affect the peripheral nervous system (PNS). (5, 2)
MetabolismNot Available
Toxicity ValuesNot Available
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)No indication of carcinogenicity to humans (not listed by IARC).
Uses/SourcesIt is a marine toxin, found in reef fish (5).
Minimum Risk LevelNot Available
Health EffectsCiguatoxin poisoning can cause paralysis, heart contraction, and changing the senses of hearing and cold. Because it does not cross the blood brain barrier (BBB), ciguatoxins solely affect the peripheral nervous system (PNS) (5).
SymptomsThe major symptoms will develop just a few hours of toxin ingestion: vomiting, diarrhea, numbness of extremities, mouth and lips, reversal of hot and cold sensation, muscle and joint aches. The symptoms may last from days to weeks or even months depending on each individual situation (3).
TreatmentThere is no effective treatment or antidote for ciguatera poisoning. The mainstay of treatment is supportive care. Some medications such as Amitriptyline may reduce some symptoms of ciguatera, such as fatigue and parenthesis, although benefit does not occur in every case. Also used are steroids and vitamin supplements, but these merely support the body's recovery rather than directly reducing the toxic effects. (6)
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDNot Available
HMDB IDNot Available
PubChem Compound ID6441260
ChEMBL IDNot Available
ChemSpider ID4945449
KEGG IDNot Available
UniProt IDNot Available
OMIM ID
ChEBI IDNot Available
BioCyc IDNot Available
CTD IDNot Available
Stitch IDCiguatoxin 2
PDB IDNot Available
ACToR IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
MSDSNot Available
General References
  1. Hamilton B, Whittle N, Shaw G, Eaglesham G, Moore MR, Lewis RJ: Human fatality associated with Pacific ciguatoxin contaminated fish. Toxicon. 2010 Oct;56(5):668-73. doi: 10.1016/j.toxicon.2009.06.007. Epub 2009 Jun 16. [19538985 ]
  2. Lombet A, Bidard JN, Lazdunski M: Ciguatoxin and brevetoxins share a common receptor site on the neuronal voltage-dependent Na+ channel. FEBS Lett. 1987 Jul 27;219(2):355-9. [2440718 ]
  3. Doroshyenko O, Fuhr U, Kunz D, Frank D, Kinzig M, Jetter A, Reith Y, Lazar A, Taubert D, Kirchheiner J, Baum M, Eisenbrand G, Berger FI, Bertow D, Berkessel A, Sorgel F, Schomig E, Tomalik-Scharte D: In vivo role of cytochrome P450 2E1 and glutathione-S-transferase activity for acrylamide toxicokinetics in humans. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2009 Feb;18(2):433-43. doi: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-08-0832. Epub 2009 Feb 3. [19190172 ]
  4. O'Neil MJ (ed) (2001). The Merck Index - An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. 13th ed. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc.
  5. Wikipedia. Ciguatoxin. Last Updated 18 February 2009. [Link]
  6. Wikipedia. Ciguatera. Last Updated 3 August 2009. [Link]
  7. National Library of Medicine - Medical Subject Headings (2009). Ciguatoxins. [Link]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated GenesNot Available
Down-Regulated GenesNot Available

Targets

General Function:
Voltage-gated sodium channel activity
Specific Function:
Mediates the voltage-dependent sodium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Assuming opened or closed conformations in response to the voltage difference across the membrane, the protein forms a sodium-selective channel through which Na(+) ions may pass in accordance with their electrochemical gradient.
Gene Name:
SCN1A
Uniprot ID:
P35498
Molecular Weight:
228969.49 Da
References
  1. Lombet A, Bidard JN, Lazdunski M: Ciguatoxin and brevetoxins share a common receptor site on the neuronal voltage-dependent Na+ channel. FEBS Lett. 1987 Jul 27;219(2):355-9. [2440718 ]
  2. Wikipedia. Ciguatoxin. Last Updated 18 February 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Voltage-gated sodium channel activity
Specific Function:
Tetrodotoxin-resistant channel that mediates the voltage-dependent sodium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Assuming opened or closed conformations in response to the voltage difference across the membrane, the protein forms a sodium-selective channel through which sodium ions may pass in accordance with their electrochemical gradient. Plays a role in neuropathic pain mechanisms.
Gene Name:
SCN10A
Uniprot ID:
Q9Y5Y9
Molecular Weight:
220623.605 Da
References
  1. Lombet A, Bidard JN, Lazdunski M: Ciguatoxin and brevetoxins share a common receptor site on the neuronal voltage-dependent Na+ channel. FEBS Lett. 1987 Jul 27;219(2):355-9. [2440718 ]
  2. Wikipedia. Ciguatoxin. Last Updated 18 February 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Voltage-gated sodium channel activity
Specific Function:
This protein mediates the voltage-dependent sodium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Assuming opened or closed conformations in response to the voltage difference across the membrane, the protein forms a sodium-selective channel through which sodium ions may pass in accordance with their electrochemical gradient. It is a tetrodotoxin-resistant sodium channel isoform. Also involved, with the contribution of the receptor tyrosine kinase NTRK2, in rapid BDNF-evoked neuronal depolarization.
Gene Name:
SCN11A
Uniprot ID:
Q9UI33
Molecular Weight:
204919.66 Da
References
  1. Lombet A, Bidard JN, Lazdunski M: Ciguatoxin and brevetoxins share a common receptor site on the neuronal voltage-dependent Na+ channel. FEBS Lett. 1987 Jul 27;219(2):355-9. [2440718 ]
  2. Wikipedia. Ciguatoxin. Last Updated 18 February 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Voltage-gated sodium channel activity
Specific Function:
Mediates the voltage-dependent sodium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Assuming opened or closed conformations in response to the voltage difference across the membrane, the protein forms a sodium-selective channel through which Na(+) ions may pass in accordance with their electrochemical gradient.
Gene Name:
SCN2A
Uniprot ID:
Q99250
Molecular Weight:
227972.64 Da
References
  1. Lombet A, Bidard JN, Lazdunski M: Ciguatoxin and brevetoxins share a common receptor site on the neuronal voltage-dependent Na+ channel. FEBS Lett. 1987 Jul 27;219(2):355-9. [2440718 ]
  2. Wikipedia. Ciguatoxin. Last Updated 18 February 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Voltage-gated sodium channel activity
Specific Function:
Mediates the voltage-dependent sodium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Assuming opened or closed conformations in response to the voltage difference across the membrane, the protein forms a sodium-selective channel through which Na(+) ions may pass in accordance with their electrochemical gradient.
Gene Name:
SCN3A
Uniprot ID:
Q9NY46
Molecular Weight:
226291.905 Da
References
  1. Lombet A, Bidard JN, Lazdunski M: Ciguatoxin and brevetoxins share a common receptor site on the neuronal voltage-dependent Na+ channel. FEBS Lett. 1987 Jul 27;219(2):355-9. [2440718 ]
  2. Wikipedia. Ciguatoxin. Last Updated 18 February 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Voltage-gated sodium channel activity
Specific Function:
This protein mediates the voltage-dependent sodium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Assuming opened or closed conformations in response to the voltage difference across the membrane, the protein forms a sodium-selective channel through which Na(+) ions may pass in accordance with their electrochemical gradient. This sodium channel may be present in both denervated and innervated skeletal muscle.
Gene Name:
SCN4A
Uniprot ID:
P35499
Molecular Weight:
208059.175 Da
References
  1. Lombet A, Bidard JN, Lazdunski M: Ciguatoxin and brevetoxins share a common receptor site on the neuronal voltage-dependent Na+ channel. FEBS Lett. 1987 Jul 27;219(2):355-9. [2440718 ]
  2. Wikipedia. Ciguatoxin. Last Updated 18 February 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Voltage-gated sodium channel activity involved in sa node cell action potential
Specific Function:
This protein mediates the voltage-dependent sodium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Assuming opened or closed conformations in response to the voltage difference across the membrane, the protein forms a sodium-selective channel through which Na(+) ions may pass in accordance with their electrochemical gradient. It is a tetrodotoxin-resistant Na(+) channel isoform. This channel is responsible for the initial upstroke of the action potential. Channel inactivation is regulated by intracellular calcium levels.
Gene Name:
SCN5A
Uniprot ID:
Q14524
Molecular Weight:
226937.475 Da
References
  1. Lombet A, Bidard JN, Lazdunski M: Ciguatoxin and brevetoxins share a common receptor site on the neuronal voltage-dependent Na+ channel. FEBS Lett. 1987 Jul 27;219(2):355-9. [2440718 ]
  2. Wikipedia. Ciguatoxin. Last Updated 18 February 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Voltage-gated sodium channel activity
Specific Function:
Mediates the voltage-dependent sodium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Assuming opened or closed conformations in response to the voltage difference across the membrane, the protein forms a sodium-selective channel through which Na(+) ions may pass in accordance with their electrochemical gradient.
Gene Name:
SCN7A
Uniprot ID:
Q01118
Molecular Weight:
193491.605 Da
References
  1. Lombet A, Bidard JN, Lazdunski M: Ciguatoxin and brevetoxins share a common receptor site on the neuronal voltage-dependent Na+ channel. FEBS Lett. 1987 Jul 27;219(2):355-9. [2440718 ]
  2. Wikipedia. Ciguatoxin. Last Updated 18 February 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Voltage-gated sodium channel activity
Specific Function:
Mediates the voltage-dependent sodium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Assuming opened or closed conformations in response to the voltage difference across the membrane, the protein forms a sodium-selective channel through which Na(+) ions may pass in accordance with their electrochemical gradient. In macrophages and melanoma cells, isoform 5 may participate in the control of podosome and invadopodia formation.
Gene Name:
SCN8A
Uniprot ID:
Q9UQD0
Molecular Weight:
225278.005 Da
References
  1. Lombet A, Bidard JN, Lazdunski M: Ciguatoxin and brevetoxins share a common receptor site on the neuronal voltage-dependent Na+ channel. FEBS Lett. 1987 Jul 27;219(2):355-9. [2440718 ]
  2. Wikipedia. Ciguatoxin. Last Updated 18 February 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Voltage-gated sodium channel activity
Specific Function:
Mediates the voltage-dependent sodium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Assuming opened or closed conformations in response to the voltage difference across the membrane, the protein forms a sodium-selective channel through which Na(+) ions may pass in accordance with their electrochemical gradient. It is a tetrodotoxin-sensitive Na(+) channel isoform. Plays a role in pain mechanisms, especially in the development of inflammatory pain (By similarity).
Gene Name:
SCN9A
Uniprot ID:
Q15858
Molecular Weight:
226370.175 Da
References
  1. Lombet A, Bidard JN, Lazdunski M: Ciguatoxin and brevetoxins share a common receptor site on the neuronal voltage-dependent Na+ channel. FEBS Lett. 1987 Jul 27;219(2):355-9. [2440718 ]
  2. Wikipedia. Ciguatoxin. Last Updated 18 February 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Voltage-gated sodium channel activity involved in purkinje myocyte action potential
Specific Function:
Crucial in the assembly, expression, and functional modulation of the heterotrimeric complex of the sodium channel. The subunit beta-1 can modulate multiple alpha subunit isoforms from brain, skeletal muscle, and heart. Its association with neurofascin may target the sodium channels to the nodes of Ranvier of developing axons and retain these channels at the nodes in mature myelinated axons.Isoform 2: Cell adhesion molecule that plays a critical role in neuronal migration and pathfinding during brain development. Stimulates neurite outgrowth.
Gene Name:
SCN1B
Uniprot ID:
Q07699
Molecular Weight:
24706.955 Da
References
  1. Lombet A, Bidard JN, Lazdunski M: Ciguatoxin and brevetoxins share a common receptor site on the neuronal voltage-dependent Na+ channel. FEBS Lett. 1987 Jul 27;219(2):355-9. [2440718 ]
  2. Wikipedia. Ciguatoxin. Last Updated 18 February 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Voltage-gated sodium channel activity involved in cardiac muscle cell action potential
Specific Function:
Crucial in the assembly, expression, and functional modulation of the heterotrimeric complex of the sodium channel. The subunit beta-2 causes an increase in the plasma membrane surface area and in its folding into microvilli. Interacts with TNR may play a crucial role in clustering and regulation of activity of sodium channels at nodes of Ranvier (By similarity).
Gene Name:
SCN2B
Uniprot ID:
O60939
Molecular Weight:
24325.69 Da
References
  1. Lombet A, Bidard JN, Lazdunski M: Ciguatoxin and brevetoxins share a common receptor site on the neuronal voltage-dependent Na+ channel. FEBS Lett. 1987 Jul 27;219(2):355-9. [2440718 ]
  2. Wikipedia. Ciguatoxin. Last Updated 18 February 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Voltage-gated sodium channel activity involved in cardiac muscle cell action potential
Specific Function:
Modulates channel gating kinetics. Causes unique persistent sodium currents. Inactivates the sodium channel opening more slowly than the subunit beta-1. Its association with neurofascin may target the sodium channels to the nodes of Ranvier of developing axons and retain these channels at the nodes in mature myelinated axons (By similarity).
Gene Name:
SCN3B
Uniprot ID:
Q9NY72
Molecular Weight:
24702.08 Da
References
  1. Lombet A, Bidard JN, Lazdunski M: Ciguatoxin and brevetoxins share a common receptor site on the neuronal voltage-dependent Na+ channel. FEBS Lett. 1987 Jul 27;219(2):355-9. [2440718 ]
  2. Wikipedia. Ciguatoxin. Last Updated 18 February 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Voltage-gated sodium channel activity involved in cardiac muscle cell action potential
Specific Function:
Modulates channel gating kinetics. Causes negative shifts in the voltage dependence of activation of certain alpha sodium channels, but does not affect the voltage dependence of inactivation. Modulates the suceptibility of the sodium channel to inhibition by toxic peptides from spider, scorpion, wasp and sea anemone venom.
Gene Name:
SCN4B
Uniprot ID:
Q8IWT1
Molecular Weight:
24968.755 Da
References
  1. Lombet A, Bidard JN, Lazdunski M: Ciguatoxin and brevetoxins share a common receptor site on the neuronal voltage-dependent Na+ channel. FEBS Lett. 1987 Jul 27;219(2):355-9. [2440718 ]
  2. Wikipedia. Ciguatoxin. Last Updated 18 February 2009. [Link]