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Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2009-07-03 21:46:56 UTC
Update Date2014-12-24 20:25:33 UTC
Accession NumberT3D2471
Identification
Common NamePhallacidin
ClassProtein
DescriptionPhallacidin is one of a group of toxins from the death cap (Amanita phalloides) known as phallotoxins. The phallotoxins consist of at least seven compounds, all of which have seven similar peptide rings, isolated from the death cap (Amanita phalloides). (6)
Compound Type
  • Amide
  • Amine
  • Fungal Toxin
  • Mycotoxin
  • Natural Compound
  • Organic Compound
  • Phallotoxin
  • Protein
Protein StructureT3d2471
Synonyms
Synonym
[28-(2,3-Dihydroxy-2-methylpropyl)-18-hydroxy-31-isopropyl-23-methyl-15,21,24,26,29,32,35-heptaoxo-12-thia-10,16,22,25,27,30,33,36-octaazapentacyclo[12.11.11.03,11.04,9.016,20]hexatriaconta-3(11 ),4,6,8-tetraen-34-yl](hydroxy)acetic acid
Chemical FormulaNot Available
Average Molecular Mass2570.930 g/mol
CAS Registry Number26645-35-2
SequenceNot Available
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionNot Available
KingdomOrganic Compounds
Super ClassOrganic Acids
ClassCarboxylic Acids and Derivatives
Sub ClassAmino Acids, Peptides, and Analogues
Direct ParentPeptides
Alternative ParentsNot Available
SubstituentsNot Available
Molecular FrameworkNot Available
External DescriptorsNot Available
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
OriginExogenous
Cellular Locations
  • Acrosome
  • Actin Cytoskeleton
  • Actin Filament
  • Axoneme
  • Caveolae
  • Cell junction
  • Cell surface
  • Cytoskeleton
  • Cytosol
  • Endoplasmic reticulum
  • Extracellular
  • Extracellular matrix
  • Focal adhesion
  • Golgi apparatus
  • Intermediate Filament
  • Kinetochore
  • Microtubule
  • Mitochondrion
  • Nerve Fiber
  • Nucleolus
  • Perinuclear region
  • Plasma Membrane
  • Ribosome
  • Sarcoplasm
  • Secretory Granule
  • Secretory vesicle
  • Tubulin
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationsNot Available
Pathways
NameSMPDB LinkKEGG Link
Cell cycleNot Availablemap04110
ApoptosisNot Availablemap04210
Insulin secretionNot Availablemap04911
EndocytosisNot Availablemap04144
Dna replicationNot Availablemap03030
ApplicationsNot Available
Biological RolesNot Available
Chemical RolesNot Available
Physical Properties
StateLiquid
AppearanceClear solution.
Experimental Properties
PropertyValue
Melting PointNot Available
Boiling PointNot Available
Solubility>10 mg/mL
LogPNot Available
Predicted PropertiesNot Available
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-01t9-0000000090-834dcff4eafef7906e8aJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-0w29-0000000940-92bb8e4f989481486504JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-03di-6000000790-7f5b1669a08f201a6fb3JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-0f92-0000000970-31f9bda114f8fe58bf53JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-01wk-0000000910-6dcc3fd15dff4e599e7bJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-00yi-3000000900-84d404facd3230321a61JSpectraViewer
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureOral, dermal, inhalation, and parenteral (contaminated drugs). (2)
Mechanism of ToxicityPhallotoxins bind actin, preventing its depolymerization and poisoning the cell. They bind specifically at the interface between F-actin subunits, locking adjacent subunits together. This leads to a decrease in the rate constant for the dissociation of actin subunits from filament ends, which essentially stabilizes actin filaments through the prevention of filament depolymerization. Moreover, they inhibit the ATP hydrolysis activity of F-actin. (8, 1)
MetabolismFree toxin may be removed by opsonization via the reticuloendothelial system (primarily the liver and kidneys) or it may be degraded through cellular internalization via the lysosomes. Lysosomes are membrane-enclosed organelles that contain an array of digestive enzymes, including several proteases.
Toxicity ValuesLD50: 1.5 mg/kg (Mouse) (5)
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)No indication of carcinogenicity to humans (not listed by IARC).
Uses/SourcesPhallisin is one of a group of toxins from the death cap (Amanita phalloides) known as phallotoxins. (6)
Minimum Risk LevelNot Available
Health EffectsLiver lesions, tachycardia, hypoglycemia, hypotension and electrolyte imbalance with acid- base disturbance (7).
SymptomsHypovolemic shock; Gastrointestinal symptoms occur after a latent period and include abdominal pain, vomiting, and watery diarrhea. Neurologic symptoms are related to hepatic failure and may include encephalopathy, somnolence, confusion, coma and seizures (7).
TreatmentConsider gastric lavage and activated charcoal. (3)
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDNot Available
HMDB IDNot Available
PubChem Compound ID44134886
ChEMBL IDNot Available
ChemSpider ID26540893
KEGG IDNot Available
UniProt IDA0A023UBY3
OMIM ID
ChEBI ID52732
BioCyc IDNot Available
CTD IDC017613
Stitch IDPhallacidin
PDB IDNot Available
ACToR IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
MSDST3D2471.pdf
General References
  1. Huang ZJ, Haugland RP, You WM, Haugland RP: Phallotoxin and actin binding assay by fluorescence enhancement. Anal Biochem. 1992 Jan;200(1):199-204. [1595896 ]
  2. Peraica M, Domijan AM: Contamination of food with mycotoxins and human health. Arh Hig Rada Toksikol. 2001 Mar;52(1):23-35. [11370295 ]
  3. Uusi-Oukari M, Korpi ER: Specific alterations in the cerebellar GABA(A) receptors of an alcohol-sensitive ANT rat line. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 1991 Mar;15(2):241-8. [1647706 ]
  4. Rumack BH (2009). POISINDEX(R) Information System. Englewood, CO: Micromedex, Inc. CCIS Volume 142, edition expires Nov, 2009.
  5. Deshpande SS (2002). Handbook of food toxicology. New York, NY: Marcel Dekker Inc.
  6. Wikipedia. Phallotoxin. Last Updated 5 July 2009. [Link]
  7. Wikipedia. Tramadol. Last Updated 8 August 2009. [Link]
  8. Wikipedia. Phalloidin. Last Updated 17 July 2009. [Link]
  9. Wikipedia. Mushroom poisoning. Last Updated 10 August 2009. [Link]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated GenesNot Available
Down-Regulated GenesNot Available

Targets

General Function:
Myosin binding
Specific Function:
Actins are highly conserved proteins that are involved in various types of cell motility and are ubiquitously expressed in all eukaryotic cells.
Gene Name:
ACTC1
Uniprot ID:
P68032
Molecular Weight:
42018.6 Da
References
  1. Huang ZJ, Haugland RP, You WM, Haugland RP: Phallotoxin and actin binding assay by fluorescence enhancement. Anal Biochem. 1992 Jan;200(1):199-204. [1595896 ]
  2. Wikipedia. Phalloidin. Last Updated 17 July 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Structural constituent of cytoskeleton
Specific Function:
Actins are highly conserved proteins that are involved in various types of cell motility and are ubiquitously expressed in all eukaryotic cells.
Gene Name:
ACTA1
Uniprot ID:
P68133
Molecular Weight:
42050.67 Da
References
  1. Huang ZJ, Haugland RP, You WM, Haugland RP: Phallotoxin and actin binding assay by fluorescence enhancement. Anal Biochem. 1992 Jan;200(1):199-204. [1595896 ]
  2. Wikipedia. Phalloidin. Last Updated 17 July 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Protein kinase binding
Specific Function:
Actins are highly conserved proteins that are involved in various types of cell motility and are ubiquitously expressed in all eukaryotic cells.
Gene Name:
ACTA2
Uniprot ID:
P62736
Molecular Weight:
42008.57 Da
References
  1. Huang ZJ, Haugland RP, You WM, Haugland RP: Phallotoxin and actin binding assay by fluorescence enhancement. Anal Biochem. 1992 Jan;200(1):199-204. [1595896 ]
  2. Wikipedia. Phalloidin. Last Updated 17 July 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Tat protein binding
Specific Function:
Actins are highly conserved proteins that are involved in various types of cell motility and are ubiquitously expressed in all eukaryotic cells.
Gene Name:
ACTB
Uniprot ID:
P60709
Molecular Weight:
41736.37 Da
References
  1. Huang ZJ, Haugland RP, You WM, Haugland RP: Phallotoxin and actin binding assay by fluorescence enhancement. Anal Biochem. 1992 Jan;200(1):199-204. [1595896 ]
  2. Wikipedia. Phalloidin. Last Updated 17 July 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Ubiquitin protein ligase binding
Specific Function:
Actins are highly conserved proteins that are involved in various types of cell motility and are ubiquitously expressed in all eukaryotic cells.
Gene Name:
ACTG1
Uniprot ID:
P63261
Molecular Weight:
41792.48 Da
References
  1. Huang ZJ, Haugland RP, You WM, Haugland RP: Phallotoxin and actin binding assay by fluorescence enhancement. Anal Biochem. 1992 Jan;200(1):199-204. [1595896 ]
  2. Wikipedia. Phalloidin. Last Updated 17 July 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Atp binding
Specific Function:
Actins are highly conserved proteins that are involved in various types of cell motility and are ubiquitously expressed in all eukaryotic cells.
Gene Name:
ACTG2
Uniprot ID:
P63267
Molecular Weight:
41876.495 Da
References
  1. Huang ZJ, Haugland RP, You WM, Haugland RP: Phallotoxin and actin binding assay by fluorescence enhancement. Anal Biochem. 1992 Jan;200(1):199-204. [1595896 ]
  2. Wikipedia. Phalloidin. Last Updated 17 July 2009. [Link]