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Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2009-07-03 21:57:01 UTC
Update Date2014-12-24 20:25:34 UTC
Accession NumberT3D2477
Identification
Common NameInsulin
ClassProtein
DescriptionInsulin is a hormone that has extensive effects on metabolism and other body functions, such as vascular compliance. It is a peptide hormone composed of 51 amino acid residues and has a molecular weight of 5808 Da. It is produced in the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas. When insulin is absent (or low), glucose is not taken up by body cells, and the body begins to use fat as an energy source (5).
Compound Type
  • Amide
  • Amine
  • Animal Toxin
  • Antidiabetic Agent
  • Hormone
  • Natural Compound
  • Organic Compound
  • Protein
Protein StructureT3d2477
Synonyms
Synonym
Humulin R
Insulin human
Novolin R
Chemical FormulaNot Available
Average Molecular Mass11980.795 g/mol
CAS Registry Number11061-68-0
Sequence
>lcl|BSEQ0006763|Insulin
MALWMRLLPLLALLALWGPDPAAAFVNQHLCGSHLVEALYLVCGERGFFYTPKTRREAED
LQVGQVELGGGPGAGSLQPLALEGSLQKRGIVEQCCTSICSLYQLENYCN
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionNot Available
KingdomOrganic Compounds
Super ClassOrganic Acids
ClassCarboxylic Acids and Derivatives
Sub ClassAmino Acids, Peptides, and Analogues
Direct ParentPeptides
Alternative ParentsNot Available
SubstituentsNot Available
Molecular FrameworkNot Available
External DescriptorsNot Available
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
OriginEndogenous
Cellular Locations
  • Caveolae
  • Cell surface
  • Early endosome
  • Endosome
  • Extracellular
  • Extracellular matrix
  • Lysosome
  • Microsome
  • Peroxisome
  • Plasma Membrane
  • Secretory Granule
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationsNot Available
Pathways
NameSMPDB LinkKEGG Link
Insulin secretionNot Availablemap04911
ApoptosisNot Availablemap04210
AntidiabeticsNot AvailableNot Available
Renin-angiotensin systemNot Availablemap04614
Pentose Phosphate PathwaySMP00031 map00030
Insulin signaling pathwayNot Availablemap04910
ApplicationsNot Available
Biological RolesNot Available
Chemical RolesNot Available
Physical Properties
StateLiquid
AppearanceColorless injection or straw colored liquid (6).
Experimental Properties
PropertyValue
Melting Point81°C
Boiling PointNot Available
Solubility>10 mg/mL
LogPNot Available
Predicted PropertiesNot Available
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureInjection (sting/bite) (3). Insulin is generally well absorbed.
Mechanism of ToxicityInsulin has a direct inhibitory effect on the lipase concerned with the mobilization of fattty acids. Insulin binds to a receptor on the surface of the target cell and probably also enters the cell in this state (6, 3).
MetabolismA fraction of exogenous insulin in plasma may be associated with certain proteins, chiefly alpha- and beta-globulins. These associations are of importance for the transport of insulin, which appears to circulate in the blood and the lymph. It is proposed that two systems are involved in the degradation of insulin by liver.(1) The glutathione-insulin transhydrogenase, which utilizes reduced glutathione to reduce disulfide bridges.(2) Proteolic enzymes that cleaves reduced and separated chains to peptides and amino acids. While Insulin is partly excreted in the urine, the kidney filters and reabsorbs the hormone and renal excretion is not the major route of elimination. Liver and kidney are of primary importance in degrading the hormone and each is capable of destroying a large part of the insulin produced daily. (3).
Toxicity ValuesNot Available
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)No indication of carcinogenicity to humans (not listed by IARC).
Uses/SourcesIndicated as an adjunct to diet and exercise to improve glycemic control in adults and children with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Minimum Risk LevelNot Available
Health EffectsThe early symptoms of hypoglycemia are weakness, hunger, giddiness, pallor, sweating, sinking feeling in the stomach, palpitations, irritability, nervousness, headache and tremor. Symptoms resemble those of sympathetic stimulation. Later, symptoms such as depression or euphoria, inability to concentrate, blurring of vision, drowsiness, lack of judgement and self control and amnesia may be present due to neuroglycopenia. Acute insulin overdosage results in hypoglycemia, resultant seizures and coma, as well as permanent neurological damage. Tachycardia, palpitations, and cardiac arrhythmias secondary to hypokalemia may occur. Hypoglycemic coma is common following severe overdose; lack of treatment can result in irreversible brain damage (2, 6).
SymptomsLethargy, lassitude, yawning, and irritability may occur (2).
TreatmentImmediately administer an IV bolus (50 mol) of 50% dextrose over a period of 2 to 3 minutes. Improvement will usually be seen in 3 to 5 minutes. Glucagon may be given to mobilize liver glycogen if no dextrose injection is available. Intravenous potassium (20 to 60 mEq/litre of fluid) can be administer chloride to correct cardiac dysrhythmias, muscle paralysis, or ECG changes secondary to hypokalemia. (2)
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDDB00030
HMDB IDNot Available
PubChem Compound ID70678557
ChEMBL IDNot Available
ChemSpider IDNot Available
KEGG IDC00723
UniProt IDP01308
OMIM ID
ChEBI ID5931
BioCyc IDNot Available
CTD IDNot Available
Stitch IDInsulin
PDB ID1A7F
ACToR IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkInsulin
References
Synthesis Reference

Humulin is synthesized in a special non-disease-producing laboratory strain of Escherichia coli bacteria that has been genetically altered to produce human insulin.

MSDST3D2477.pdf
General References
  1. Herrmann BL, Kasser C, Keuthage W, Huptas M, Dette H, Klute A: Comparison of insulin aspart vs. regular human insulin with or without insulin detemir concerning adipozytokines and metabolic effects in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes. 2013 Apr;121(4):210-3. doi: 10.1055/s-0033-1334905. Epub 2013 Mar 19. [23512415 ]
  2. Rumack BH (2009). POISINDEX(R) Information System. Englewood, CO: Micromedex, Inc. CCIS Volume 141, edition expires Aug, 2009.
  3. Goodman LS, and Gilman A (eds) (1975). The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. 5th ed. New York, NY: Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc.
  4. Wikipedia. Phallotoxin. Last Updated 5 July 2009. [Link]
  5. Wikipedia. Insulin. Last Updated 9 August 2009. [Link]
  6. International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS) INCHEM (1991). Poison Information Monograph for Insulin. [Link]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated GenesNot Available
Down-Regulated GenesNot Available

Targets

General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Removes residual C-terminal Arg or Lys remaining after initial endoprotease cleavage during prohormone processing. Processes proinsulin.
Gene Name:
CPE
Uniprot ID:
P16870
Molecular Weight:
53150.185 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
General Function:
Aspartic-type endopeptidase activity
Specific Function:
Acid protease active in intracellular protein breakdown. Involved in the pathogenesis of several diseases such as breast cancer and possibly Alzheimer disease.
Gene Name:
CTSD
Uniprot ID:
P07339
Molecular Weight:
44551.845 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
General Function:
Receptor signaling protein tyrosine kinase activity
Specific Function:
Receptor tyrosine kinase which mediates the pleiotropic actions of insulin. Binding of insulin leads to phosphorylation of several intracellular substrates, including, insulin receptor substrates (IRS1, 2, 3, 4), SHC, GAB1, CBL and other signaling intermediates. Each of these phosphorylated proteins serve as docking proteins for other signaling proteins that contain Src-homology-2 domains (SH2 domain) that specifically recognize different phosphotyrosines residues, including the p85 regulatory subunit of PI3K and SHP2. Phosphorylation of IRSs proteins lead to the activation of two main signaling pathways: the PI3K-AKT/PKB pathway, which is responsible for most of the metabolic actions of insulin, and the Ras-MAPK pathway, which regulates expression of some genes and cooperates with the PI3K pathway to control cell growth and differentiation. Binding of the SH2 domains of PI3K to phosphotyrosines on IRS1 leads to the activation of PI3K and the generation of phosphatidylinositol-(3, 4, 5)-triphosphate (PIP3), a lipid second messenger, which activates several PIP3-dependent serine/threonine kinases, such as PDPK1 and subsequently AKT/PKB. The net effect of this pathway is to produce a translocation of the glucose transporter SLC2A4/GLUT4 from cytoplasmic vesicles to the cell membrane to facilitate glucose transport. Moreover, upon insulin stimulation, activated AKT/PKB is responsible for: anti-apoptotic effect of insulin by inducing phosphorylation of BAD; regulates the expression of gluconeogenic and lipogenic enzymes by controlling the activity of the winged helix or forkhead (FOX) class of transcription factors. Another pathway regulated by PI3K-AKT/PKB activation is mTORC1 signaling pathway which regulates cell growth and metabolism and integrates signals from insulin. AKT mediates insulin-stimulated protein synthesis by phosphorylating TSC2 thereby activating mTORC1 pathway. The Ras/RAF/MAP2K/MAPK pathway is mainly involved in mediating cell growth, survival and cellular differentiation of insulin. Phosphorylated IRS1 recruits GRB2/SOS complex, which triggers the activation of the Ras/RAF/MAP2K/MAPK pathway. In addition to binding insulin, the insulin receptor can bind insulin-like growth factors (IGFI and IGFII). Isoform Short has a higher affinity for IGFII binding. When present in a hybrid receptor with IGF1R, binds IGF1. PubMed:12138094 shows that hybrid receptors composed of IGF1R and INSR isoform Long are activated with a high affinity by IGF1, with low affinity by IGF2 and not significantly activated by insulin, and that hybrid receptors composed of IGF1R and INSR isoform Short are activated by IGF1, IGF2 and insulin. In contrast, PubMed:16831875 shows that hybrid receptors composed of IGF1R and INSR isoform Long and hybrid receptors composed of IGF1R and INSR isoform Short have similar binding characteristics, both bind IGF1 and have a low affinity for insulin.
Gene Name:
INSR
Uniprot ID:
P06213
Molecular Weight:
156331.465 Da
References
  1. Sacco A, Morcavallo A, Pandini G, Vigneri R, Belfiore A: Differential signaling activation by insulin and insulin-like growth factors I and II upon binding to insulin receptor isoform A. Endocrinology. 2009 Aug;150(8):3594-602. doi: 10.1210/en.2009-0377. Epub 2009 May 14. [19443570 ]
  2. Wikipedia. Insulin. Last Updated 9 August 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Plays a role in the cellular breakdown of insulin, IAPP, glucagon, bradykinin, kallidin and other peptides, and thereby plays a role in intercellular peptide signaling. Degrades amyloid formed by APP and IAPP. May play a role in the degradation and clearance of naturally secreted amyloid beta-protein by neurons and microglia.(Microbial infection) The membrane-associated isoform acts as an entry receptor for varicella-zoster virus (VZV).
Gene Name:
IDE
Uniprot ID:
P14735
Molecular Weight:
117967.49 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
General Function:
Protein tyrosine kinase activity
Specific Function:
Receptor tyrosine kinase which mediates actions of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1). Binds IGF1 with high affinity and IGF2 and insulin (INS) with a lower affinity. The activated IGF1R is involved in cell growth and survival control. IGF1R is crucial for tumor transformation and survival of malignant cell. Ligand binding activates the receptor kinase, leading to receptor autophosphorylation, and tyrosines phosphorylation of multiple substrates, that function as signaling adapter proteins including, the insulin-receptor substrates (IRS1/2), Shc and 14-3-3 proteins. Phosphorylation of IRSs proteins lead to the activation of two main signaling pathways: the PI3K-AKT/PKB pathway and the Ras-MAPK pathway. The result of activating the MAPK pathway is increased cellular proliferation, whereas activating the PI3K pathway inhibits apoptosis and stimulates protein synthesis. Phosphorylated IRS1 can activate the 85 kDa regulatory subunit of PI3K (PIK3R1), leading to activation of several downstream substrates, including protein AKT/PKB. AKT phosphorylation, in turn, enhances protein synthesis through mTOR activation and triggers the antiapoptotic effects of IGFIR through phosphorylation and inactivation of BAD. In parallel to PI3K-driven signaling, recruitment of Grb2/SOS by phosphorylated IRS1 or Shc leads to recruitment of Ras and activation of the ras-MAPK pathway. In addition to these two main signaling pathways IGF1R signals also through the Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription pathway (JAK/STAT). Phosphorylation of JAK proteins can lead to phosphorylation/activation of signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) proteins. In particular activation of STAT3, may be essential for the transforming activity of IGF1R. The JAK/STAT pathway activates gene transcription and may be responsible for the transforming activity. JNK kinases can also be activated by the IGF1R. IGF1 exerts inhibiting activities on JNK activation via phosphorylation and inhibition of MAP3K5/ASK1, which is able to directly associate with the IGF1R.When present in a hybrid receptor with INSR, binds IGF1. PubMed:12138094 shows that hybrid receptors composed of IGF1R and INSR isoform Long are activated with a high affinity by IGF1, with low affinity by IGF2 and not significantly activated by insulin, and that hybrid receptors composed of IGF1R and INSR isoform Short are activated by IGF1, IGF2 and insulin. In contrast, PubMed:16831875 shows that hybrid receptors composed of IGF1R and INSR isoform Long and hybrid receptors composed of IGF1R and INSR isoform Short have similar binding characteristics, both bind IGF1 and have a low affinity for insulin.
Gene Name:
IGF1R
Uniprot ID:
P08069
Molecular Weight:
154791.73 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
General Function:
Not Available
Specific Function:
Binds IGF-I and IGF-II with a relatively low affinity. Stimulates prostacyclin (PGI2) production. Stimulates cell adhesion.
Gene Name:
IGFBP7
Uniprot ID:
Q16270
Molecular Weight:
29130.055 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
General Function:
Calcium ion binding
Specific Function:
Acts together with cubilin to mediate HDL endocytosis (By similarity). May participate in regulation of parathyroid-hormone and para-thyroid-hormone-related protein release.
Gene Name:
LRP2
Uniprot ID:
P98164
Molecular Weight:
521952.77 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
General Function:
Serine-type endopeptidase activity
Specific Function:
Involved in the processing of hormone and other protein precursors at sites comprised of pairs of basic amino acid residues. Substrates include POMC, renin, enkephalin, dynorphin, somatostatin, insulin and AGRP.
Gene Name:
PCSK1
Uniprot ID:
P29120
Molecular Weight:
84150.92 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
General Function:
Serine-type endopeptidase activity
Specific Function:
Involved in the processing of hormone and other protein precursors at sites comprised of pairs of basic amino acid residues. Responsible for the release of glucagon from proglucagon in pancreatic A cells.
Gene Name:
PCSK2
Uniprot ID:
P16519
Molecular Weight:
70564.735 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
General Function:
Notch binding
Specific Function:
Immediate-early protein playing a role in various cellular processes including proliferation, adhesion, migration, differentiation and survival (PubMed:15181016, PubMed:15611078, PubMed:12695522, PubMed:21344378, PubMed:12050162). Acts by binding to integrins or membrane receptors such as NOTCH1 (PubMed:12695522, PubMed:21344378, PubMed:15611078). Essential regulator of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell function (PubMed:17463287). Inhibits myogenic differentiation through the activation of Notch-signaling pathway (PubMed:12050162). Inhibits vascular smooth muscle cells proliferation by increasing expression of cell-cycle regulators such as CDKN2B or CDKN1A independently of TGFB1 signaling (PubMed:20139355). Ligand of integrins ITGAV:ITGB3 and ITGA5:ITGB1, acts directly upon endothelial cells to stimulate pro-angiogenic activities and induces angiogenesis. In endothelial cells, supports cell adhesion, induces directed cell migration (chemotaxis) and promotes cell survival (PubMed:12695522). Plays also a role in cutaneous wound healing acting as integrin receptor ligand. Supports skin fibroblast adhesion through ITGA5:ITGB1 and ITGA6:ITGB1 and induces fibroblast chemotaxis through ITGAV:ITGB5. Seems to enhance bFGF-induced DNA synthesis in fibroblasts (PubMed:15611078). Involved in bone regeneration as a negative regulator (By similarity). Enhances the articular chondrocytic phenotype, whereas it repressed the one representing endochondral ossification (PubMed:21871891). Impairs pancreatic beta-cell function, inhibits beta-cell proliferation and insulin secretion (By similarity). Plays a role as negative regulator of endothelial pro-inflammatory activation reducing monocyte adhesion, its anti-inflammatory effects occur secondary to the inhibition of NF-kappaB signaling pathway (PubMed:21063504). Contributes to the control and coordination of inflammatory processes in atherosclerosis (By similarity). Attenuates inflammatory pain through regulation of IL1B- and TNF-induced MMP9, MMP2 and CCL2 expression. Inhibits MMP9 expression through ITGB1 engagement (PubMed:21871891).
Gene Name:
NOV
Uniprot ID:
P48745
Molecular Weight:
39161.82 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
General Function:
Ubiquitin protein ligase binding
Specific Function:
Key regulator of entry into cell division that acts as a tumor suppressor. Promotes G0-G1 transition when phosphorylated by CDK3/cyclin-C. Acts as a transcription repressor of E2F1 target genes. The underphosphorylated, active form of RB1 interacts with E2F1 and represses its transcription activity, leading to cell cycle arrest. Directly involved in heterochromatin formation by maintaining overall chromatin structure and, in particular, that of constitutive heterochromatin by stabilizing histone methylation. Recruits and targets histone methyltransferases SUV39H1, SUV420H1 and SUV420H2, leading to epigenetic transcriptional repression. Controls histone H4 'Lys-20' trimethylation. Inhibits the intrinsic kinase activity of TAF1. Mediates transcriptional repression by SMARCA4/BRG1 by recruiting a histone deacetylase (HDAC) complex to the c-FOS promoter. In resting neurons, transcription of the c-FOS promoter is inhibited by BRG1-dependent recruitment of a phospho-RB1-HDAC1 repressor complex. Upon calcium influx, RB1 is dephosphorylated by calcineurin, which leads to release of the repressor complex (By similarity). In case of viral infections, interactions with SV40 large T antigen, HPV E7 protein or adenovirus E1A protein induce the disassembly of RB1-E2F1 complex thereby disrupting RB1's activity.
Gene Name:
RB1
Uniprot ID:
P06400
Molecular Weight:
106158.335 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Modulates exocytosis of dense-core granules and secretion of hormones in the pancreas and the pituitary. Interacts with vesicles containing negatively charged phospholipids in a Ca(2+)-independent manner (By similarity).
Gene Name:
SYTL4
Uniprot ID:
Q96C24
Molecular Weight:
76022.99 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
General Function:
Myosin binding
Specific Function:
Actins are highly conserved proteins that are involved in various types of cell motility and are ubiquitously expressed in all eukaryotic cells.
Gene Name:
ACTC1
Uniprot ID:
P68032
Molecular Weight:
42018.6 Da
References
  1. Menzel DB, Hamadeh HK, Lee E, Meacher DM, Said V, Rasmussen RE, Greene H, Roth RN: Arsenic binding proteins from human lymphoblastoid cells. Toxicol Lett. 1999 Mar 29;105(2):89-101. [10221271 ]
General Function:
Structural constituent of cytoskeleton
Specific Function:
Actins are highly conserved proteins that are involved in various types of cell motility and are ubiquitously expressed in all eukaryotic cells.
Gene Name:
ACTA1
Uniprot ID:
P68133
Molecular Weight:
42050.67 Da
References
  1. Menzel DB, Hamadeh HK, Lee E, Meacher DM, Said V, Rasmussen RE, Greene H, Roth RN: Arsenic binding proteins from human lymphoblastoid cells. Toxicol Lett. 1999 Mar 29;105(2):89-101. [10221271 ]
General Function:
Protein kinase binding
Specific Function:
Actins are highly conserved proteins that are involved in various types of cell motility and are ubiquitously expressed in all eukaryotic cells.
Gene Name:
ACTA2
Uniprot ID:
P62736
Molecular Weight:
42008.57 Da
References
  1. Menzel DB, Hamadeh HK, Lee E, Meacher DM, Said V, Rasmussen RE, Greene H, Roth RN: Arsenic binding proteins from human lymphoblastoid cells. Toxicol Lett. 1999 Mar 29;105(2):89-101. [10221271 ]
General Function:
Tat protein binding
Specific Function:
Actins are highly conserved proteins that are involved in various types of cell motility and are ubiquitously expressed in all eukaryotic cells.
Gene Name:
ACTB
Uniprot ID:
P60709
Molecular Weight:
41736.37 Da
References
  1. Menzel DB, Hamadeh HK, Lee E, Meacher DM, Said V, Rasmussen RE, Greene H, Roth RN: Arsenic binding proteins from human lymphoblastoid cells. Toxicol Lett. 1999 Mar 29;105(2):89-101. [10221271 ]
General Function:
Ubiquitin protein ligase binding
Specific Function:
Actins are highly conserved proteins that are involved in various types of cell motility and are ubiquitously expressed in all eukaryotic cells.
Gene Name:
ACTG1
Uniprot ID:
P63261
Molecular Weight:
41792.48 Da
References
  1. Menzel DB, Hamadeh HK, Lee E, Meacher DM, Said V, Rasmussen RE, Greene H, Roth RN: Arsenic binding proteins from human lymphoblastoid cells. Toxicol Lett. 1999 Mar 29;105(2):89-101. [10221271 ]
General Function:
Atp binding
Specific Function:
Actins are highly conserved proteins that are involved in various types of cell motility and are ubiquitously expressed in all eukaryotic cells.
Gene Name:
ACTG2
Uniprot ID:
P63267
Molecular Weight:
41876.495 Da
References
  1. Menzel DB, Hamadeh HK, Lee E, Meacher DM, Said V, Rasmussen RE, Greene H, Roth RN: Arsenic binding proteins from human lymphoblastoid cells. Toxicol Lett. 1999 Mar 29;105(2):89-101. [10221271 ]
General Function:
Protein homodimerization activity
Specific Function:
Involved in DNA excision repair. Initiates repair by binding to damaged sites with various affinities, depending on the photoproduct and the transcriptional state of the region. Required for UV-induced CHEK1 phosphorylation and the recruitment of CEP164 to cyclobutane pyrimidine dimmers (CPD), sites of DNA damage after UV irradiation.
Gene Name:
XPA
Uniprot ID:
P23025
Molecular Weight:
31367.71 Da
References
  1. Kitchin KT, Wallace K: The role of protein binding of trivalent arsenicals in arsenic carcinogenesis and toxicity. J Inorg Biochem. 2008 Mar;102(3):532-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jinorgbio.2007.10.021. Epub 2007 Nov 22. [18164070 ]
General Function:
Dihydrolipoyllysine-residue acetyltransferase activity
Specific Function:
The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex catalyzes the overall conversion of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA and CO(2), and thereby links the glycolytic pathway to the tricarboxylic cycle.
Gene Name:
DLAT
Uniprot ID:
P10515
Molecular Weight:
68996.03 Da
References
  1. Klaassen C and Watkins J (2003). Casarett and Doull's Essentials of Toxicology. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Nuclear hormone receptor. The steroid hormones and their receptors are involved in the regulation of eukaryotic gene expression and affect cellular proliferation and differentiation in target tissues. Ligand-dependent nuclear transactivation involves either direct homodimer binding to a palindromic estrogen response element (ERE) sequence or association with other DNA-binding transcription factors, such as AP-1/c-Jun, c-Fos, ATF-2, Sp1 and Sp3, to mediate ERE-independent signaling. Ligand binding induces a conformational change allowing subsequent or combinatorial association with multiprotein coactivator complexes through LXXLL motifs of their respective components. Mutual transrepression occurs between the estrogen receptor (ER) and NF-kappa-B in a cell-type specific manner. Decreases NF-kappa-B DNA-binding activity and inhibits NF-kappa-B-mediated transcription from the IL6 promoter and displace RELA/p65 and associated coregulators from the promoter. Recruited to the NF-kappa-B response element of the CCL2 and IL8 promoters and can displace CREBBP. Present with NF-kappa-B components RELA/p65 and NFKB1/p50 on ERE sequences. Can also act synergistically with NF-kappa-B to activate transcription involving respective recruitment adjacent response elements; the function involves CREBBP. Can activate the transcriptional activity of TFF1. Also mediates membrane-initiated estrogen signaling involving various kinase cascades. Isoform 3 is involved in activation of NOS3 and endothelial nitric oxide production. Isoforms lacking one or several functional domains are thought to modulate transcriptional activity by competitive ligand or DNA binding and/or heterodimerization with the full length receptor. Essential for MTA1-mediated transcriptional regulation of BRCA1 and BCAS3. Isoform 3 can bind to ERE and inhibit isoform 1.
Gene Name:
ESR1
Uniprot ID:
P03372
Molecular Weight:
66215.45 Da
References
  1. Kitchin KT, Wallace K: The role of protein binding of trivalent arsenicals in arsenic carcinogenesis and toxicity. J Inorg Biochem. 2008 Mar;102(3):532-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jinorgbio.2007.10.021. Epub 2007 Nov 22. [18164070 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Receptor for glucocorticoids (GC). Has a dual mode of action: as a transcription factor that binds to glucocorticoid response elements (GRE), both for nuclear and mitochondrial DNA, and as a modulator of other transcription factors. Affects inflammatory responses, cellular proliferation and differentiation in target tissues. Could act as a coactivator for STAT5-dependent transcription upon growth hormone (GH) stimulation and could reveal an essential role of hepatic GR in the control of body growth. Involved in chromatin remodeling. May play a negative role in adipogenesis through the regulation of lipolytic and antilipogenic genes expression.
Gene Name:
NR3C1
Uniprot ID:
P04150
Molecular Weight:
85658.57 Da
References
  1. Kitchin KT, Wallace K: The role of protein binding of trivalent arsenicals in arsenic carcinogenesis and toxicity. J Inorg Biochem. 2008 Mar;102(3):532-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jinorgbio.2007.10.021. Epub 2007 Nov 22. [18164070 ]
General Function:
Nadp binding
Specific Function:
Maintains high levels of reduced glutathione in the cytosol.
Gene Name:
GSR
Uniprot ID:
P00390
Molecular Weight:
56256.565 Da
References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2007). Toxicological profile for arsenic. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Serine-type endopeptidase activity
Specific Function:
As a result of hemolysis, hemoglobin is found to accumulate in the kidney and is secreted in the urine. Haptoglobin captures, and combines with free plasma hemoglobin to allow hepatic recycling of heme iron and to prevent kidney damage. Haptoglobin also acts as an Antimicrobial; Antioxidant, has antibacterial activity and plays a role in modulating many aspects of the acute phase response. Hemoglobin/haptoglobin complexes are rapidely cleared by the macrophage CD163 scavenger receptor expressed on the surface of liver Kupfer cells through an endocytic lysosomal degradation pathway.Uncleaved haptoglogin, also known as zonulin, plays a role in intestinal permeability, allowing intercellular tight junction disassembly, and controlling the equilibrium between tolerance and immunity to non-self antigens.
Gene Name:
HP
Uniprot ID:
P00738
Molecular Weight:
45205.065 Da
References
  1. Naranmandura H, Suzuki KT: Identification of the major arsenic-binding protein in rat plasma as the ternary dimethylarsinous-hemoglobin-haptoglobin complex. Chem Res Toxicol. 2008 Mar;21(3):678-85. doi: 10.1021/tx700383g. Epub 2008 Feb 2. [18247522 ]
General Function:
Oxygen transporter activity
Specific Function:
Involved in oxygen transport from the lung to the various peripheral tissues.
Gene Name:
HBA1
Uniprot ID:
P69905
Molecular Weight:
15257.405 Da
References
  1. Naranmandura H, Suzuki KT: Identification of the major arsenic-binding protein in rat plasma as the ternary dimethylarsinous-hemoglobin-haptoglobin complex. Chem Res Toxicol. 2008 Mar;21(3):678-85. doi: 10.1021/tx700383g. Epub 2008 Feb 2. [18247522 ]
General Function:
Oxygen transporter activity
Specific Function:
Involved in oxygen transport from the lung to the various peripheral tissues.LVV-hemorphin-7 potentiates the activity of bradykinin, causing a decrease in blood pressure.Spinorphin: functions as an endogenous inhibitor of enkephalin-degrading enzymes such as DPP3, and as a selective antagonist of the P2RX3 receptor which is involved in pain signaling, these properties implicate it as a regulator of pain and inflammation.
Gene Name:
HBB
Uniprot ID:
P68871
Molecular Weight:
15998.34 Da
References
  1. Naranmandura H, Suzuki KT: Identification of the major arsenic-binding protein in rat plasma as the ternary dimethylarsinous-hemoglobin-haptoglobin complex. Chem Res Toxicol. 2008 Mar;21(3):678-85. doi: 10.1021/tx700383g. Epub 2008 Feb 2. [18247522 ]
General Function:
Transcription factor binding
Specific Function:
Acts as a substrate adapter protein for the E3 ubiquitin ligase complex formed by CUL3 and RBX1 and targets NFE2L2/NRF2 for ubiquitination and degradation by the proteasome, thus resulting in the suppression of its transcriptional activity and the repression of antioxidant response element-mediated detoxifying enzyme gene expression. Retains NFE2L2/NRF2 and may also retain BPTF in the cytosol. Targets PGAM5 for ubiquitination and degradation by the proteasome.
Gene Name:
KEAP1
Uniprot ID:
Q14145
Molecular Weight:
69665.765 Da
References
  1. Kitchin KT, Wallace K: The role of protein binding of trivalent arsenicals in arsenic carcinogenesis and toxicity. J Inorg Biochem. 2008 Mar;102(3):532-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jinorgbio.2007.10.021. Epub 2007 Nov 22. [18164070 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Involved in the base excision repair (BER) pathway, by catalyzing the poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of a limited number of acceptor proteins involved in chromatin architecture and in DNA metabolism. This modification follows DNA damages and appears as an obligatory step in a detection/signaling pathway leading to the reparation of DNA strand breaks. Mediates the poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of APLF and CHFR. Positively regulates the transcription of MTUS1 and negatively regulates the transcription of MTUS2/TIP150. With EEF1A1 and TXK, forms a complex that acts as a T-helper 1 (Th1) cell-specific transcription factor and binds the promoter of IFN-gamma to directly regulate its transcription, and is thus involved importantly in Th1 cytokine production. Required for PARP9 and DTX3L recruitment to DNA damage sites. PARP1-dependent PARP9-DTX3L-mediated ubiquitination promotes the rapid and specific recruitment of 53BP1/TP53BP1, UIMC1/RAP80, and BRCA1 to DNA damage sites.
Gene Name:
PARP1
Uniprot ID:
P09874
Molecular Weight:
113082.945 Da
References
  1. Kitchin KT, Wallace K: The role of protein binding of trivalent arsenicals in arsenic carcinogenesis and toxicity. J Inorg Biochem. 2008 Mar;102(3):532-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jinorgbio.2007.10.021. Epub 2007 Nov 22. [18164070 ]
General Function:
Not Available
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
Not Available
Uniprot ID:
A6NKZ8
Molecular Weight:
Not Available
References
  1. Kitchin KT, Wallace K: The role of protein binding of trivalent arsenicals in arsenic carcinogenesis and toxicity. J Inorg Biochem. 2008 Mar;102(3):532-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jinorgbio.2007.10.021. Epub 2007 Nov 22. [18164070 ]
General Function:
Not Available
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
Not Available
Uniprot ID:
Q99867
Molecular Weight:
Not Available
References
  1. Kitchin KT, Wallace K: The role of protein binding of trivalent arsenicals in arsenic carcinogenesis and toxicity. J Inorg Biochem. 2008 Mar;102(3):532-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jinorgbio.2007.10.021. Epub 2007 Nov 22. [18164070 ]
General Function:
Structural constituent of cytoskeleton
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
TUBA4B
Uniprot ID:
Q9H853
Molecular Weight:
27551.01 Da
References
  1. Kitchin KT, Wallace K: The role of protein binding of trivalent arsenicals in arsenic carcinogenesis and toxicity. J Inorg Biochem. 2008 Mar;102(3):532-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jinorgbio.2007.10.021. Epub 2007 Nov 22. [18164070 ]
General Function:
Pyruvate dehydrogenase activity
Specific Function:
The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex catalyzes the overall conversion of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA and CO(2), and thereby links the glycolytic pathway to the tricarboxylic cycle.
Gene Name:
PDHA1
Uniprot ID:
P08559
Molecular Weight:
43295.255 Da
References
  1. Klaassen C and Watkins J (2003). Casarett and Doull's Essentials of Toxicology. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
General Function:
Pyruvate dehydrogenase (acetyl-transferring) activity
Specific Function:
The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex catalyzes the overall conversion of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA and CO(2), and thereby links the glycolytic pathway to the tricarboxylic cycle.
Gene Name:
PDHA2
Uniprot ID:
P29803
Molecular Weight:
42932.855 Da
References
  1. Klaassen C and Watkins J (2003). Casarett and Doull's Essentials of Toxicology. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
General Function:
Pyruvate dehydrogenase activity
Specific Function:
The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex catalyzes the overall conversion of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA and CO(2), and thereby links the glycolytic pathway to the tricarboxylic cycle.
Gene Name:
PDHB
Uniprot ID:
P11177
Molecular Weight:
39233.1 Da
References
  1. Klaassen C and Watkins J (2003). Casarett and Doull's Essentials of Toxicology. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
General Function:
Transferase activity, transferring acyl groups
Specific Function:
Required for anchoring dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (E3) to the dihydrolipoamide transacetylase (E2) core of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complexes of eukaryotes. This specific binding is essential for a functional PDH complex.
Gene Name:
PDHX
Uniprot ID:
O00330
Molecular Weight:
54121.76 Da
References
  1. Klaassen C and Watkins J (2003). Casarett and Doull's Essentials of Toxicology. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
General Function:
Thioredoxin-disulfide reductase activity
Specific Function:
Isoform 1 may possess glutaredoxin activity as well as thioredoxin reductase activity and induces actin and tubulin polymerization, leading to formation of cell membrane protrusions. Isoform 4 enhances the transcriptional activity of estrogen receptors alpha and beta while isoform 5 enhances the transcriptional activity of the beta receptor only. Isoform 5 also mediates cell death induced by a combination of interferon-beta and retinoic acid.
Gene Name:
TXNRD1
Uniprot ID:
Q16881
Molecular Weight:
70905.58 Da
References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2007). Toxicological profile for arsenic. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Thioredoxin-disulfide reductase activity
Specific Function:
Maintains thioredoxin in a reduced state. Implicated in the defenses against oxidative stress. May play a role in redox-regulated cell signaling.
Gene Name:
TXNRD2
Uniprot ID:
Q9NNW7
Molecular Weight:
56506.275 Da
References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2007). Toxicological profile for arsenic. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Thioredoxin-disulfide reductase activity
Specific Function:
Displays thioredoxin reductase, glutaredoxin and glutathione reductase activities. Catalyzes disulfide bond isomerization. Promotes disulfide bond formation between GPX4 and various sperm proteins and may play a role in sperm maturation by promoting formation of sperm structural components (By similarity).
Gene Name:
TXNRD3
Uniprot ID:
Q86VQ6
Molecular Weight:
70682.52 Da
References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2007). Toxicological profile for arsenic. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Structural constituent of cytoskeleton
Specific Function:
Tubulin is the major constituent of microtubules. It binds two moles of GTP, one at an exchangeable site on the beta chain and one at a non-exchangeable site on the alpha chain (By similarity).
Gene Name:
TUBAL3
Uniprot ID:
A6NHL2
Molecular Weight:
49908.305 Da
References
  1. Kitchin KT, Wallace K: The role of protein binding of trivalent arsenicals in arsenic carcinogenesis and toxicity. J Inorg Biochem. 2008 Mar;102(3):532-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jinorgbio.2007.10.021. Epub 2007 Nov 22. [18164070 ]
General Function:
Tubulin is the major constituent of microtubules. It binds two moles of GTP, one at an exchangeable site on the beta chain and one at a non-exchangeable site on the alpha chain.
Specific Function:
Gtp binding
Gene Name:
TUBA1A
Uniprot ID:
Q71U36
Molecular Weight:
50135.25 Da
References
  1. Kitchin KT, Wallace K: The role of protein binding of trivalent arsenicals in arsenic carcinogenesis and toxicity. J Inorg Biochem. 2008 Mar;102(3):532-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jinorgbio.2007.10.021. Epub 2007 Nov 22. [18164070 ]
General Function:
Ubiquitin protein ligase binding
Specific Function:
Tubulin is the major constituent of microtubules. It binds two moles of GTP, one at an exchangeable site on the beta chain and one at a non-exchangeable site on the alpha chain.
Gene Name:
TUBA1B
Uniprot ID:
P68363
Molecular Weight:
50151.24 Da
References
  1. Kitchin KT, Wallace K: The role of protein binding of trivalent arsenicals in arsenic carcinogenesis and toxicity. J Inorg Biochem. 2008 Mar;102(3):532-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jinorgbio.2007.10.021. Epub 2007 Nov 22. [18164070 ]
General Function:
Structural molecule activity
Specific Function:
Tubulin is the major constituent of microtubules. It binds two moles of GTP, one at an exchangeable site on the beta chain and one at a non-exchangeable site on the alpha chain.
Gene Name:
TUBA1C
Uniprot ID:
Q9BQE3
Molecular Weight:
49894.93 Da
References
  1. Kitchin KT, Wallace K: The role of protein binding of trivalent arsenicals in arsenic carcinogenesis and toxicity. J Inorg Biochem. 2008 Mar;102(3):532-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jinorgbio.2007.10.021. Epub 2007 Nov 22. [18164070 ]
General Function:
Structural constituent of cytoskeleton
Specific Function:
Tubulin is the major constituent of microtubules. It binds two moles of GTP, one at an exchangeable site on the beta chain and one at a non-exchangeable site on the alpha chain.
Gene Name:
TUBA3C
Uniprot ID:
Q13748
Molecular Weight:
49959.145 Da
References
  1. Kitchin KT, Wallace K: The role of protein binding of trivalent arsenicals in arsenic carcinogenesis and toxicity. J Inorg Biochem. 2008 Mar;102(3):532-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jinorgbio.2007.10.021. Epub 2007 Nov 22. [18164070 ]
General Function:
Structural constituent of cytoskeleton
Specific Function:
Tubulin is the major constituent of microtubules. It binds two moles of GTP, one at an exchangeable site on the beta chain and one at a non-exchangeable site on the alpha chain (By similarity).
Gene Name:
TUBA3E
Uniprot ID:
Q6PEY2
Molecular Weight:
49858.135 Da
References
  1. Kitchin KT, Wallace K: The role of protein binding of trivalent arsenicals in arsenic carcinogenesis and toxicity. J Inorg Biochem. 2008 Mar;102(3):532-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jinorgbio.2007.10.021. Epub 2007 Nov 22. [18164070 ]
General Function:
Structural constituent of cytoskeleton
Specific Function:
Tubulin is the major constituent of microtubules. It binds two moles of GTP, one at an exchangeable site on the beta chain and one at a non-exchangeable site on the alpha chain.
Gene Name:
TUBA4A
Uniprot ID:
P68366
Molecular Weight:
49923.995 Da
References
  1. Kitchin KT, Wallace K: The role of protein binding of trivalent arsenicals in arsenic carcinogenesis and toxicity. J Inorg Biochem. 2008 Mar;102(3):532-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jinorgbio.2007.10.021. Epub 2007 Nov 22. [18164070 ]
General Function:
Tubulin is the major constituent of microtubules. It binds two moles of GTP, one at an exchangeable site on the beta chain and one at a non-exchangeable site on the alpha chain.
Specific Function:
Gtp binding
Gene Name:
TUBA8
Uniprot ID:
Q9NY65
Molecular Weight:
50093.12 Da
References
  1. Kitchin KT, Wallace K: The role of protein binding of trivalent arsenicals in arsenic carcinogenesis and toxicity. J Inorg Biochem. 2008 Mar;102(3):532-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jinorgbio.2007.10.021. Epub 2007 Nov 22. [18164070 ]
General Function:
Ubiquitin protein ligase binding
Specific Function:
Tubulin is the major constituent of microtubules. It binds two moles of GTP, one at an exchangeable site on the beta chain and one at a non-exchangeable site on the alpha chain.
Gene Name:
TUBB
Uniprot ID:
P07437
Molecular Weight:
49670.515 Da
References
  1. Kitchin KT, Wallace K: The role of protein binding of trivalent arsenicals in arsenic carcinogenesis and toxicity. J Inorg Biochem. 2008 Mar;102(3):532-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jinorgbio.2007.10.021. Epub 2007 Nov 22. [18164070 ]
General Function:
Structural constituent of cytoskeleton
Specific Function:
Tubulin is the major constituent of microtubules. It binds two moles of GTP, one at an exchangeable site on the beta chain and one at a non-exchangeable site on the alpha chain (By similarity).
Gene Name:
TUBB1
Uniprot ID:
Q9H4B7
Molecular Weight:
50326.56 Da
References
  1. Kitchin KT, Wallace K: The role of protein binding of trivalent arsenicals in arsenic carcinogenesis and toxicity. J Inorg Biochem. 2008 Mar;102(3):532-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jinorgbio.2007.10.021. Epub 2007 Nov 22. [18164070 ]
General Function:
Structural constituent of cytoskeleton
Specific Function:
Tubulin is the major constituent of microtubules. It binds two moles of GTP, one at an exchangeable site on the beta chain and one at a non-exchangeable site on the alpha chain (By similarity).
Gene Name:
TUBB2A
Uniprot ID:
Q13885
Molecular Weight:
49906.67 Da
References
  1. Kitchin KT, Wallace K: The role of protein binding of trivalent arsenicals in arsenic carcinogenesis and toxicity. J Inorg Biochem. 2008 Mar;102(3):532-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jinorgbio.2007.10.021. Epub 2007 Nov 22. [18164070 ]
General Function:
Structural constituent of cytoskeleton
Specific Function:
Tubulin is the major constituent of microtubules. It binds two moles of GTP, one at an exchangeable site on the beta chain and one at a non-exchangeable site on the alpha chain (By similarity). TUBB2B is implicated in neuronal migration.
Gene Name:
TUBB2B
Uniprot ID:
Q9BVA1
Molecular Weight:
49952.76 Da
References
  1. Kitchin KT, Wallace K: The role of protein binding of trivalent arsenicals in arsenic carcinogenesis and toxicity. J Inorg Biochem. 2008 Mar;102(3):532-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jinorgbio.2007.10.021. Epub 2007 Nov 22. [18164070 ]
General Function:
Structural constituent of cytoskeleton
Specific Function:
Tubulin is the major constituent of microtubules. It binds two moles of GTP, one at an exchangeable site on the beta chain and one at a non-exchangeable site on the alpha chain. TUBB3 plays a critical role in proper axon guidance and mantainance.
Gene Name:
TUBB3
Uniprot ID:
Q13509
Molecular Weight:
50432.355 Da
References
  1. Kitchin KT, Wallace K: The role of protein binding of trivalent arsenicals in arsenic carcinogenesis and toxicity. J Inorg Biochem. 2008 Mar;102(3):532-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jinorgbio.2007.10.021. Epub 2007 Nov 22. [18164070 ]
General Function:
Structural constituent of cytoskeleton
Specific Function:
Tubulin is the major constituent of microtubules. It binds two moles of GTP, one at an exchangeable site on the beta chain and one at a non-exchangeable site on the alpha chain.
Gene Name:
TUBB4A
Uniprot ID:
P04350
Molecular Weight:
49585.475 Da
References
  1. Kitchin KT, Wallace K: The role of protein binding of trivalent arsenicals in arsenic carcinogenesis and toxicity. J Inorg Biochem. 2008 Mar;102(3):532-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jinorgbio.2007.10.021. Epub 2007 Nov 22. [18164070 ]
General Function:
Unfolded protein binding
Specific Function:
Tubulin is the major constituent of microtubules. It binds two moles of GTP, one at an exchangeable site on the beta chain and one at a non-exchangeable site on the alpha chain.
Gene Name:
TUBB4B
Uniprot ID:
P68371
Molecular Weight:
49830.72 Da
References
  1. Kitchin KT, Wallace K: The role of protein binding of trivalent arsenicals in arsenic carcinogenesis and toxicity. J Inorg Biochem. 2008 Mar;102(3):532-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jinorgbio.2007.10.021. Epub 2007 Nov 22. [18164070 ]
General Function:
Structural constituent of cytoskeleton
Specific Function:
Tubulin is the major constituent of microtubules. It binds two moles of GTP, one at an exchangeable site on the beta chain and one at a non-exchangeable site on the alpha chain (By similarity).
Gene Name:
TUBB6
Uniprot ID:
Q9BUF5
Molecular Weight:
49856.785 Da
References
  1. Kitchin KT, Wallace K: The role of protein binding of trivalent arsenicals in arsenic carcinogenesis and toxicity. J Inorg Biochem. 2008 Mar;102(3):532-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jinorgbio.2007.10.021. Epub 2007 Nov 22. [18164070 ]
General Function:
Structural constituent of cytoskeleton
Specific Function:
Tubulin is the major constituent of microtubules. It binds two moles of GTP, one at an exchangeable site on the beta chain and one at a non-exchangeable site on the alpha chain (By similarity).
Gene Name:
TUBB8
Uniprot ID:
Q3ZCM7
Molecular Weight:
49775.655 Da
References
  1. Kitchin KT, Wallace K: The role of protein binding of trivalent arsenicals in arsenic carcinogenesis and toxicity. J Inorg Biochem. 2008 Mar;102(3):532-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jinorgbio.2007.10.021. Epub 2007 Nov 22. [18164070 ]
General Function:
Structural constituent of cytoskeleton
Specific Function:
Tubulin is the major constituent of microtubules. It binds two moles of GTP, one at an exchangeable site on the beta chain and one at a non-exchangeable site on the alpha chain (By similarity).
Gene Name:
Not Available
Uniprot ID:
A6NNZ2
Molecular Weight:
49572.265 Da
References
  1. Kitchin KT, Wallace K: The role of protein binding of trivalent arsenicals in arsenic carcinogenesis and toxicity. J Inorg Biochem. 2008 Mar;102(3):532-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jinorgbio.2007.10.021. Epub 2007 Nov 22. [18164070 ]