You are using an unsupported browser. Please upgrade your browser to a newer version to get the best experience on Toxin, Toxin Target Database.
Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2009-07-06 21:35:29 UTC
Update Date2014-12-24 20:25:47 UTC
Accession NumberT3D2627
Identification
Common Namemu-Agatoxin
ClassProtein
DescriptionAgatoxins are a class of chemically diverse polyamine and peptide toxins which are isolated from the venom of various spiders, in particular the North American funnel-web spider (Agelenopsis aperta), after which agatoxins are named. mu-Agatoxins are C-terminally amidated peptides that consist of 35-37 amino acids and are constrained by four intramolecular disulfide bonds. They modify presynaptic voltage-activated sodium channels in the neuromuscular joints of insects. (1)
Compound Type
  • Amide
  • Amine
  • Animal Toxin
  • Natural Compound
  • Organic Compound
  • Protein
  • Spider Toxin
Protein StructureT3d2627
Synonyms
Synonym
m-Agatoxin
Mu-agatoxin I
Mu-agatoxin-1
Mu-agatoxin-Aa1a
Mu-AGTX-Aa1a
Chemical FormulaNot Available
Average Molecular Mass4272.715 g/mol
CAS Registry Number120500-28-9
SequenceNot Available
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionNot Available
KingdomOrganic Compounds
Super ClassOrganic Acids
ClassCarboxylic Acids and Derivatives
Sub ClassAmino Acids, Peptides, and Analogues
Direct ParentPeptides
Alternative ParentsNot Available
SubstituentsNot Available
Molecular FrameworkNot Available
External DescriptorsNot Available
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
OriginExogenous
Cellular LocationsNot Available
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationsNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
ApplicationsNot Available
Biological RolesNot Available
Chemical RolesNot Available
Physical Properties
StateLiquid
AppearanceClear solution.
Experimental Properties
PropertyValue
Melting PointNot Available
Boiling PointNot Available
Solubility>10 mg/mL
LogPNot Available
Predicted PropertiesNot Available
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureInjection (sting/bite) (3)
Mechanism of Toxicitymu-Agatoxins modify presynaptic voltage-activated sodium channels in the neuromuscular joints of insects. Modifying sodium channels leads to an increased sensitivity of these channels, resulting in increased frequency of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents, neurotransmitter release, and repetitive action potentials of motor neurons. (1)
MetabolismFree toxin may be removed by opsonization via the reticuloendothelial system (primarily the liver and kidneys) or it may be degraded through cellular internalization via the lysosomes. Lysosomes are membrane-enclosed organelles that contain an array of digestive enzymes, including several proteases.
Toxicity ValuesNot Available
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)No indication of carcinogenicity to humans (not listed by IARC).
Uses/SourcesAgatoxins are a class of chemically diverse polyamine and peptide toxins which are isolated from the venom of various spiders, in particular the North American funnel-web spider (Agelenopsis aperta). (1)
Minimum Risk LevelNot Available
Health Effectsmu-Agatoxin causes a slow long-lasting paralysis. Death can result from progressive hypotension or possibly raised intracranial pressure resulting from cerebral oedema. (2, 1)
SymptomsThe bites of funnel-web spiders may cause tingling around the mouth and tongue, facial muscle twitching, nausea, vomiting, profuse sweating, salivation, and shortness of breath. Patients may also rapidly develop agitation, confusion and coma associated with hypertension, metabolic acidosis, dilation of the pupils, generalised muscle twitching and pulmonary oedema. (2)
TreatmentFirst aid for funnel-web bites consists of applying a pressure immobilization bandage to slow venom movement. Further supportive care may be necessary, but the mainstay of treatment is antivenom. (2)
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDNot Available
HMDB IDNot Available
PubChem Compound IDNot Available
ChEMBL IDNot Available
ChemSpider IDNot Available
KEGG IDNot Available
UniProt IDP11057
OMIM ID
ChEBI IDNot Available
BioCyc IDNot Available
CTD IDNot Available
Stitch IDAgatoxin
PDB ID1EIT
ACToR IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
MSDSNot Available
General References
  1. Wikipedia. Agatoxin. Last Updated 28 March 2009. [Link]
  2. Wikipedia. Australian funnel-web spider. Last Updated 6 July 2009. [Link]
  3. Wikipedia. Spider toxin. Last Updated 9 January 2009. [Link]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated GenesNot Available
Down-Regulated GenesNot Available