Record Information
Version2.0 (beta)
Creation Date2009-07-06 15:35:33 -0600
Update Date2014-10-31 13:52:43 -0600
Accession NumberT3D2631
Identification
Common NameHeteroscodratoxin
ClassProtein
DescriptionHeteroscodratoxin is a peptide toxin produced by the Togo starburst tarantula (Heteroscodra maculata). It inhibits voltage-gated potassium channels. (1)
Compound Type
  • Amide
  • Amine
  • Animal Toxin
  • Natural Compound
  • Organic Compound
  • Protein
  • Spider Toxin
Protein StructureT3d2631
Synonyms
Synonym
Heteroscodratoxin-2
HmTx2
Kappa-theraphotoxin-Hm2a
Kappa-TRTX-Hm2a
Chemical FormulaNot Available
Average Molecular Mass4003.400 g/mol
CAS Registry NumberNot Available
Sequence
>Heteroscodratoxin
ECRYLFGGCSSTSDCCKHLSCRSDWKYCAWDGTFS
Chemical Taxonomy
KingdomOrganic Compounds
Super ClassOrganic Polymers
ClassPolypeptides
Sub ClassNot Available
Direct ParentNot Available
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Primary amine
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Secondary carboxylic acid amide
  • Carboxamide group
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Carboximidic acid derivative
  • Alpha amino acid amide
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
  • Amine
  • Alpha amino acid
  • Amino fatty acid
  • Fatty acyl
  • Primary aliphatic amine
  • N-acyl-aliphatic-alpha amino acid
  • N-acyl-alpha amino acid
  • Polypeptide
  • Alpha-peptide
  • N-acyl-alpha amino acid or derivatives
  • Alpha amino acid or derivatives
Molecular FrameworkNot Available
External DescriptorsNot Available
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
OriginExogenous
Cellular LocationsNot Available
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationsNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
ApplicationsNot Available
Biological RolesNot Available
Chemical RolesNot Available
Physical Properties
StateLiquid
AppearanceClear solution.
Experimental Properties
PropertyValue
Melting PointNot Available
Boiling PointNot Available
Solubility>10 mg/mL
LogPNot Available
Predicted PropertiesNot Available
Spectra
SpectraNot Available
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureInjection (sting/bite) (2)
Mechanism of ToxicityHeteroscodratoxin inhibits voltage-gated potassium channels by binding to the extracellular linker of the channel and shifting activation of the channel to more depolarized voltages. (1)
MetabolismFree toxin may be removed by opsonization via the reticuloendothelial system (primarily the liver and kidneys) or it may be degraded through cellular internalization via the lysosomes. Lysosomes are membrane-enclosed organelles that contain an array of digestive enzymes, including several proteases.
Toxicity ValuesNot Available
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)Not Available
Uses/SourcesHeteroscodratoxin is a peptide toxin produced by the Togo starburst tarantula (Heteroscodra maculata). (1)
Minimum Risk LevelNot Available
Health EffectsHeteroscodratoxin is neurotoxic. (1)
SymptomsHeteroscodratoxin may cause convulsions, spasms, tremors, and death. (1)
TreatmentNot Available
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDNot Available
HMDB IDNot Available
PubChem Compound IDNot Available
ChEMBL IDNot Available
ChemSpider IDNot Available
KEGG IDNot Available
UniProt IDP60992
OMIM ID
ChEBI IDNot Available
BioCyc IDNot Available
CTD IDNot Available
Stitch IDNot Available
PDB IDNot Available
ACToR IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
MSDSNot Available
General References
  1. The UniProt Consortium. The Universal Protein Resource (UniProt) Nucleic Acids Res. 2008;36:D190-D195.
  2. Wikipedia. Spider toxin. Last Updated 9 January 2009. [Link]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated GenesNot Available
Down-Regulated GenesNot Available

Targets

General Function:
Involved in synaptic transmission
Specific Function:
Mediates the voltage-dependent potassium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Channels open or close in response to the voltage difference across the membrane, letting potassium ions pass in accordance with their electrochemical gradient.
Gene Name:
KCNB1
Uniprot ID:
Q14721
Molecular Weight:
95876.615 Da
References
  1. Armas LA, Hollis BW, Heaney RP: Vitamin D2 is much less effective than vitamin D3 in humans. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004 Nov;89(11):5387-91. [15531486 ]
  2. The UniProt Consortium. The Universal Protein Resource (UniProt) Nucleic Acids Res. 2008;36:D190-D195.
General Function:
Involved in synaptic transmission
Specific Function:
Mediates the voltage-dependent potassium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Channels open or close in response to the voltage difference across the membrane, letting potassium ions pass in accordance with their electrochemical gradient.
Gene Name:
KCNB2
Uniprot ID:
Q92953
Molecular Weight:
102561.99 Da
References
  1. Armas LA, Hollis BW, Heaney RP: Vitamin D2 is much less effective than vitamin D3 in humans. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004 Nov;89(11):5387-91. [15531486 ]
  2. The UniProt Consortium. The Universal Protein Resource (UniProt) Nucleic Acids Res. 2008;36:D190-D195.
General Function:
Involved in synaptic transmission
Specific Function:
Pore-forming (alpha) subunit of voltage-gated rapidly inactivating A-type potassium channels. May contribute to I(To) current in heart and I(Sa) current in neurons. Channel properties are modulated by interactions with other alpha subunits and with regulatory subunits.
Gene Name:
KCND1
Uniprot ID:
Q9NSA2
Molecular Weight:
71329.6 Da
References
  1. Armas LA, Hollis BW, Heaney RP: Vitamin D2 is much less effective than vitamin D3 in humans. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004 Nov;89(11):5387-91. [15531486 ]
  2. The UniProt Consortium. The Universal Protein Resource (UniProt) Nucleic Acids Res. 2008;36:D190-D195.
General Function:
Inorganic ion transport and metabolism
Specific Function:
Pore-forming (alpha) subunit of voltage-gated rapidly inactivating A-type potassium channels. May contribute to I(To) current in heart and I(Sa) current in neurons. Channel properties are modulated by interactions with other alpha subunits and with regulatory subunits
Gene Name:
KCND2
Uniprot ID:
Q9NZV8
Molecular Weight:
70535.8 Da
References
  1. Armas LA, Hollis BW, Heaney RP: Vitamin D2 is much less effective than vitamin D3 in humans. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004 Nov;89(11):5387-91. [15531486 ]
  2. The UniProt Consortium. The Universal Protein Resource (UniProt) Nucleic Acids Res. 2008;36:D190-D195.
General Function:
Inorganic ion transport and metabolism
Specific Function:
Pore-forming (alpha) subunit of voltage-gated rapidly inactivating A-type potassium channels. May contribute to I(To) current in heart and I(Sa) current in neurons. Channel properties are modulated by interactions with other alpha subunits and with regulatory subunits
Gene Name:
KCND3
Uniprot ID:
Q9UK17
Molecular Weight:
73450.5 Da
References
  1. Armas LA, Hollis BW, Heaney RP: Vitamin D2 is much less effective than vitamin D3 in humans. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004 Nov;89(11):5387-91. [15531486 ]
  2. The UniProt Consortium. The Universal Protein Resource (UniProt) Nucleic Acids Res. 2008;36:D190-D195.