Record Information
Version2.0 (beta)
Creation Date2009-07-07 15:54:32 -0600
Update Date2014-10-20 10:32:25 -0600
Accession NumberT3D2659
Identification
Common Namekappa-Conotoxin (Conus purpurascens)
ClassProtein
DescriptionConotoxins are neurotoxic peptides from the venom of the marine cone snail (genus Conus). kappa-Conotoxins inhibit potassium channels. (1)
Compound Type
  • Amide
  • Amine
  • Animal Toxin
  • Natural Compound
  • Organic Compound
  • Protein
  • Snail Toxin
Protein StructureT3d2659
SynonymsNot Available
Chemical FormulaNot Available
Average Molecular Mass8316.795 g/mol
CAS Registry NumberNot Available
Sequence
>kappa-Conotoxin (Conus purpurascens)
MKLTCVVIVVVLFLTACQLITADDSRRTQKHRALRSTTKLSLSTRCRIPNQKCFQHLDDC
CSRKCNRFNKCV
Chemical Taxonomy
KingdomOrganic Compounds
Super ClassOrganic Polymers
ClassPolypeptides
Sub ClassNot Available
Direct ParentNot Available
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Primary amine
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Secondary carboxylic acid amide
  • Carboxamide group
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Carboximidic acid derivative
  • Alpha amino acid amide
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
  • Amine
  • Alpha amino acid
  • Amino fatty acid
  • Fatty acyl
  • Primary aliphatic amine
  • N-acyl-aliphatic-alpha amino acid
  • N-acyl-alpha amino acid
  • Polypeptide
  • Alpha-peptide
  • N-acyl-alpha amino acid or derivatives
  • Alpha amino acid or derivatives
Molecular FrameworkNot Available
External DescriptorsNot Available
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
OriginExogenous
Cellular LocationsNot Available
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationsNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
ApplicationsNot Available
Biological RolesNot Available
Chemical RolesNot Available
Physical Properties
StateLiquid
AppearanceClear solution.
Experimental Properties
PropertyValue
Melting PointNot Available
Boiling PointNot Available
Solubility>10 mg/mL
LogPNot Available
Predicted PropertiesNot Available
Spectra
SpectraNot Available
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureInjection (sting/bite) (2)
Mechanism of Toxicitykappa-Conotoxins inhibit potassium channels. (1)
MetabolismFree toxin may be removed by opsonization via the reticuloendothelial system (primarily the liver and kidneys) or it may be degraded through cellular internalization via the lysosomes. Lysosomes are membrane-enclosed organelles that contain an array of digestive enzymes, including several proteases.
Toxicity ValuesNot Available
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)Not Available
Uses/SourcesConotoxins are neurotoxic peptides from the venom of the marine cone snail (genus Conus). (1)
Minimum Risk LevelNot Available
Health EffectsConotoxins are neurotoxic. (1)
SymptomsCone snail stings can cause intense pain, swelling, numbness and tingling. Symptoms can start immediately or can be delayed in onset for days. Severe cases involve muscle paralysis, changes in vision and respiratory failure that can lead to death. (3)
TreatmentNot Available
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDNot Available
HMDB IDNot Available
PubChem Compound IDNot Available
ChEMBL IDNot Available
ChemSpider IDNot Available
KEGG IDNot Available
UniProt IDP56633
OMIM ID
ChEBI IDNot Available
BioCyc IDNot Available
CTD IDNot Available
Stitch IDConotoxin
PDB ID1AV3
ACToR IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
MSDSNot Available
General References
  1. Wikipedia. Conotoxin. Last Updated 2 June 2009. [Link]
  2. Wikipedia. Mollusca. Last Updated 5 August 2009. [Link]
  3. Wikipedia. Cone snail. Last Updated 29 July 2009. [Link]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated GenesNot Available
Down-Regulated GenesNot Available

Targets

General Function:
Inorganic ion transport and metabolism
Specific Function:
Mediates the voltage-dependent potassium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Assuming opened or closed conformations in response to the voltage difference across the membrane, the protein forms a potassium-selective channel through which potassium ions may pass in accordance with their electrochemical gradient
Gene Name:
KCNA1
Uniprot ID:
Q09470
Molecular Weight:
56542.0 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Conotoxin. Last Updated 2 June 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Involved in synaptic transmission
Specific Function:
Mediates voltage-dependent potassium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Assuming opened or closed conformations in response to the voltage difference across the membrane, the protein forms a potassium-selective channel through which potassium ions may pass in accordance with their electrochemical gradient. The channel activity is up-regulated by cAMP.
Gene Name:
KCNA10
Uniprot ID:
Q16322
Molecular Weight:
57784.47 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Conotoxin. Last Updated 2 June 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Involved in synaptic transmission
Specific Function:
Mediates the voltage-dependent potassium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Assuming opened or closed conformations in response to the voltage difference across the membrane, the protein forms a potassium-selective channel through which potassium ions may pass in accordance with their electrochemical gradient.
Gene Name:
KCNA2
Uniprot ID:
P16389
Molecular Weight:
56716.21 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Conotoxin. Last Updated 2 June 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Involved in synaptic transmission
Specific Function:
Mediates the voltage-dependent potassium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Assuming opened or closed conformations in response to the voltage difference across the membrane, the protein forms a potassium-selective channel through which potassium ions may pass in accordance with their electrochemical gradient.
Gene Name:
KCNA3
Uniprot ID:
P22001
Molecular Weight:
63841.09 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Conotoxin. Last Updated 2 June 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Involved in synaptic transmission
Specific Function:
Mediates the voltage-dependent potassium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Assuming opened or closed conformations in response to the voltage difference across the membrane, the protein forms a potassium-selective channel through which potassium ions may pass in accordance with their electrochemical gradient.
Gene Name:
KCNA4
Uniprot ID:
P22459
Molecular Weight:
73256.64 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Conotoxin. Last Updated 2 June 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Involved in synaptic transmission
Specific Function:
Mediates the voltage-dependent potassium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Assuming opened or closed conformations in response to the voltage difference across the membrane, the protein forms a potassium-selective channel through which potassium ions may pass in accordance with their electrochemical gradient. This channel displays rapid activation and slow inactivation. May play a role in regulating the secretion of insulin in normal pancreatic islets. Isoform 2 exhibits a voltage-dependent recovery from inactivation and an excessive cumulative inactivation.
Gene Name:
KCNA5
Uniprot ID:
P22460
Molecular Weight:
67227.15 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Conotoxin. Last Updated 2 June 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Involved in synaptic transmission
Specific Function:
Mediates the voltage-dependent potassium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Assuming opened or closed conformations in response to the voltage difference across the membrane, the protein forms a potassium-selective channel through which potassium ions may pass in accordance with their electrochemical gradient.
Gene Name:
KCNA6
Uniprot ID:
P17658
Molecular Weight:
58728.21 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Conotoxin. Last Updated 2 June 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Involved in synaptic transmission
Specific Function:
Mediates the voltage-dependent potassium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Assuming opened or closed conformations in response to the voltage difference across the membrane, the protein forms a potassium-selective channel through which potassium ions may pass in accordance with their electrochemical gradient (By similarity).
Gene Name:
KCNA7
Uniprot ID:
Q96RP8
Molecular Weight:
50558.415 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Conotoxin. Last Updated 2 June 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Involved in synaptic transmission
Specific Function:
Mediates the voltage-dependent potassium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Channels open or close in response to the voltage difference across the membrane, letting potassium ions pass in accordance with their electrochemical gradient.
Gene Name:
KCNB1
Uniprot ID:
Q14721
Molecular Weight:
95876.615 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Conotoxin. Last Updated 2 June 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Involved in synaptic transmission
Specific Function:
Mediates the voltage-dependent potassium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Channels open or close in response to the voltage difference across the membrane, letting potassium ions pass in accordance with their electrochemical gradient.
Gene Name:
KCNB2
Uniprot ID:
Q92953
Molecular Weight:
102561.99 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Conotoxin. Last Updated 2 June 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Involved in synaptic transmission
Specific Function:
Mediates the voltage-dependent potassium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Assuming opened or closed conformations in response to the voltage difference across the membrane, the protein forms a potassium-selective channel through which potassium ions may pass in accordance with their electrochemical gradient.
Gene Name:
KCNC1
Uniprot ID:
P48547
Molecular Weight:
57941.87 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Conotoxin. Last Updated 2 June 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Involved in synaptic transmission
Specific Function:
Mediates the voltage-dependent potassium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Assuming opened or closed conformations in response to the voltage difference across the membrane, the protein forms a potassium-selective channel through which potassium ions may pass in accordance with their electrochemical gradient. Channel properties are modulated by subunit assembly (By similarity).
Gene Name:
KCNC2
Uniprot ID:
Q96PR1
Molecular Weight:
70224.915 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Conotoxin. Last Updated 2 June 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Involved in synaptic transmission
Specific Function:
This protein mediates the voltage-dependent potassium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Assuming opened or closed conformations in response to the voltage difference across the membrane, the protein forms a potassium-selective channel through which potassium ions may pass in accordance with their electrochemical gradient.
Gene Name:
KCNC3
Uniprot ID:
Q14003
Molecular Weight:
80577.23 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Conotoxin. Last Updated 2 June 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Involved in protein binding
Specific Function:
This protein mediates the voltage-dependent potassium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Assuming opened or closed conformations in response to the voltage difference across the membrane, the protein forms a potassium-selective channel through which potassium ions may pass in accordance with their electrochemical gradient
Gene Name:
KCNC4
Uniprot ID:
Q03721
Molecular Weight:
69767.0 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Conotoxin. Last Updated 2 June 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Involved in synaptic transmission
Specific Function:
Pore-forming (alpha) subunit of voltage-gated rapidly inactivating A-type potassium channels. May contribute to I(To) current in heart and I(Sa) current in neurons. Channel properties are modulated by interactions with other alpha subunits and with regulatory subunits.
Gene Name:
KCND1
Uniprot ID:
Q9NSA2
Molecular Weight:
71329.6 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Conotoxin. Last Updated 2 June 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Inorganic ion transport and metabolism
Specific Function:
Pore-forming (alpha) subunit of voltage-gated rapidly inactivating A-type potassium channels. May contribute to I(To) current in heart and I(Sa) current in neurons. Channel properties are modulated by interactions with other alpha subunits and with regulatory subunits
Gene Name:
KCND2
Uniprot ID:
Q9NZV8
Molecular Weight:
70535.8 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Conotoxin. Last Updated 2 June 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Inorganic ion transport and metabolism
Specific Function:
Pore-forming (alpha) subunit of voltage-gated rapidly inactivating A-type potassium channels. May contribute to I(To) current in heart and I(Sa) current in neurons. Channel properties are modulated by interactions with other alpha subunits and with regulatory subunits
Gene Name:
KCND3
Uniprot ID:
Q9UK17
Molecular Weight:
73450.5 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Conotoxin. Last Updated 2 June 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Involved in synaptic transmission
Specific Function:
Pore-forming (alpha) subunit of voltage-gated non-inactivating delayed rectifier potassium channel. Channel properties may be modulated by cAMP and subunit assembly. Mediates IK(NI) current in myoblasts.
Gene Name:
KCNH1
Uniprot ID:
O95259
Molecular Weight:
111421.76 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Conotoxin. Last Updated 2 June 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Inorganic ion transport and metabolism
Specific Function:
Probably important in cardiac repolarization. Associates with KCNE1 (MinK) to form the I(Ks) cardiac potassium current. Elicits a rapidly activating, potassium-selective outward current. Muscarinic agonist oxotremorine-M strongly suppresses KCNQ1/KCNE1 current in CHO cells in which cloned KCNQ1/KCNE1 channels were coexpressed with M1 muscarinic receptors. May associate also with KCNE3 (MiRP2) to form the potassium channel that is important for cyclic AMP-stimulated intestinal secretion of chloride ions, which is reduced in cystic fibrosis and pathologically stimulated in cholera and other forms of secretory diarrhea
Gene Name:
KCNQ1
Uniprot ID:
P51787
Molecular Weight:
74699.0 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Conotoxin. Last Updated 2 June 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Inorganic ion transport and metabolism
Specific Function:
Probably important in the regulation of neuronal excitability. Associates with KCNQ3 to form a potassium channel with essentially identical properties to the channel underlying the native M-current, a slowly activating and deactivating potassium conductance which plays a critical role in determining the subthreshold electrical excitability of neurons as well as the responsiveness to synaptic inputs. KCNQ2/KCNQ3 current is blocked by linopirdine and XE991, and activated by the anticonvulsant retigabine. Muscarinic agonist oxotremorine-M strongly suppress KCNQ2/KCNQ3 current in cells in which cloned KCNQ2/KCNQ3 channels were coexpressed with M1 muscarinic receptors
Gene Name:
KCNQ2
Uniprot ID:
O43526
Molecular Weight:
95848.0 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Conotoxin. Last Updated 2 June 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Involved in ion channel activity
Specific Function:
Probably important in the regulation of neuronal excitability. Associates with KCNQ2 or KCNQ5 to form a potassium channel with essentially identical properties to the channel underlying the native M-current, a slowly activating and deactivating potassium conductance which plays a critical role in determining the subthreshold electrical excitability of neurons as well as the responsiveness to synaptic inputs
Gene Name:
KCNQ3
Uniprot ID:
O43525
Molecular Weight:
96743.0 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Conotoxin. Last Updated 2 June 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Involved in ion channel activity
Specific Function:
Probably important in the regulation of neuronal excitability. May underlie a potassium current involved in regulating the excitability of sensory cells of the cochlea. KCNQ4 channels are blocked by linopirdin, XE991 and bepridil, whereas clofilium is without significant effect. Muscarinic agonist oxotremorine-M strongly suppress KCNQ4 current in CHO cells in which cloned KCNQ4 channels were coexpressed with M1 muscarinnic receptors
Gene Name:
KCNQ4
Uniprot ID:
P56696
Molecular Weight:
77093.0 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Conotoxin. Last Updated 2 June 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Involved in ion channel activity
Specific Function:
Probably important in the regulation of neuronal excitability. Associates with KCNQ3 to form a potassium channel which contributes to M-type current, a slowly activating and deactivating potassium conductance which plays a critical role in determining the subthreshold electrical excitability of neurons. May contribute, with other potassium channels, to the molecular diversity of an heterogeneous population of M-channels, varying in kinetic and pharmacological properties, which underlie this physiologically important current. Insensitive to tetraethylammonium, but inhibited by barium, linopirdine and XE991. Activated by niflumic acid and the anticonvulsant retigabine. Muscarine suppresses KCNQ5 current in Xenopus oocytes in which cloned KCNQ5 channels were coexpressed with M(1) muscarinic receptors
Gene Name:
KCNQ5
Uniprot ID:
Q9NR82
Molecular Weight:
102180.0 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Conotoxin. Last Updated 2 June 2009. [Link]