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Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2009-07-21 20:27:06 UTC
Update Date2014-12-24 20:25:51 UTC
Accession NumberT3D2818
Identification
Common NameNortriptyline
ClassSmall Molecule
DescriptionNortriptyline hydrochloride, the N-demethylated active metabolite of amitriptyline, is a dibenzocycloheptene-derivative tricyclic antidepressant (TCA). TCAs are structurally similar to phenothiazines. They contain a tricyclic ring system with an alkyl amine substituent on the central ring. In non-depressed individuals, nortriptyline does not affect mood or arousal, but may cause sedation. In depressed individuals, nortriptyline exerts a positive effect on mood. TCAs are potent inhibitors of serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake. Secondary amine TCAs, such as nortriptyline, are more potent inhibitors of norepinephrine reuptake than tertiary amine TCAs, such as amitriptyline. TCAs also down-regulate cerebral cortical β-adrenergic receptors and sensitize post-synaptic serotonergic receptors with chronic use. The antidepressant effects of TCAs are thought to be due to an overall increase in serotonergic neurotransmission. TCAs also block histamine-H1 receptors, α1-adrenergic receptors and muscarinic receptors, which accounts for their sedative, hypotensive and anticholinergic effects (e.g. blurred vision, dry mouth, constipation, urinary retention), respectively. See toxicity section below for a complete listing of side effects. Nortriptyline exerts less anticholinergic and sedative side effects compared to the tertiary amine TCAs, amitriptyline and clomipramine. Nortriptyline may be used to treat depression, chronic pain (unlabeled use), irritable bowel syndrome (unlabeled use), diabetic neuropathy (unlabeled use), post-traumatic stress disorder (unlabeled use), and for migraine prophylaxis (unlabeled use).
Compound Type
  • Adrenergic Uptake Inhibitor
  • Amine
  • Antidepressant
  • Antidepressive Agent
  • Antidepressive Agent, Tricyclic
  • Drug
  • Metabolite
  • Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitor
  • Organic Compound
  • Synthetic Compound
Chemical Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Synonym
10,11-dihydro-N-Methyl-5H-dibenzo[a,D]cycloheptene-delta(5,gamma)-propylamine
3-(10,11-dihydro-5H-Dibenzo[a,D]cyclohepten-5-ylidene)-N-methyl-1-propanamine
Allegron
Ateben
Avantyl
Aventyl
Demethylamitriptyline
Desmethylamitriptyline
Noritren
Norpress
Nortrilen
Pamelor
Psychostyl
Sensaval
Sensoval
Chemical FormulaC19H21N
Average Molecular Mass263.377 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass263.167 g/mol
CAS Registry Number72-69-5
IUPAC Namemethyl(3-{tricyclo[9.4.0.0³,⁸]pentadeca-1(15),3,5,7,11,13-hexaen-2-ylidene}propyl)amine
Traditional Namenortriptyline
SMILESCNCCC=C1C2=CC=CC=C2CCC2=CC=CC=C12
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/C19H21N/c1-20-14-6-11-19-17-9-4-2-7-15(17)12-13-16-8-3-5-10-18(16)19/h2-5,7-11,20H,6,12-14H2,1H3
InChI KeyInChIKey=PHVGLTMQBUFIQQ-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as dibenzocycloheptenes. Dibenzocycloheptenes are compounds containing a dibenzocycloheptene moiety, which consists of two benzene rings connected by a cycloheptene ring.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassBenzenoids
ClassDibenzocycloheptenes
Sub ClassNot Available
Direct ParentDibenzocycloheptenes
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Dibenzocycloheptene
  • Secondary amine
  • Secondary aliphatic amine
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Amine
  • Aromatic homopolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic homopolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
OriginExogenous
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue Locations
  • Kidney
  • Liver
PathwaysNot Available
Applications
Biological Roles
Chemical RolesNot Available
Physical Properties
StateSolid
AppearanceWhite powder.
Experimental Properties
PropertyValue
Melting Point213-215°C
Boiling PointNot Available
Solubility8.74e-04 g/L
LogP4.51
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.00087 g/LALOGPS
logP4.65ALOGPS
logP4.43ChemAxon
logS-5.5ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Basic)10.47ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area12.03 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count3ChemAxon
Refractivity96.21 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability31.87 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings3ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-0006-9000000000-bb9eae4818c0402317eeJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-0006-9000000000-bb9eae4818c0402317eeJSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0006-9040000000-03aa30e0f3d1715d991eJSpectraViewer
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positivesplash10-05nf-5970000000-f92c7d23474b57a4ba50JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positivesplash10-03di-0090000000-4c40cb3ec4df8809981eJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positivesplash10-06sl-2590000000-be2abd28b2b0f75dd8bbJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positivesplash10-05mo-3940000000-6a454924ec75665c6175JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positivesplash10-05mo-3930000000-eb8141866b19782dd1e5JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positivesplash10-00kf-4930000000-81614e655fc32d5839ceJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positivesplash10-00kf-4930000000-f918306a99d07f887503JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positivesplash10-0gdl-5930000000-d876ab376d0e9885d06dJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positivesplash10-0gb9-5930000000-e51a246750bf8ce7e4ecJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positivesplash10-0gbi-5930000000-c2811578219a3a7e1ccfJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - , positivesplash10-03yi-0490000000-094e7bdb831aed030f5fJSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-03e9-1090000000-0122fb1ff7e4f061277fJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-01qc-3290000000-820f6bab951ae7e9352dJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0006-6950000000-d6a7a0dcc07c2ab8c35fJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-03di-0090000000-6586d2d06dd2491b85d0JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-03di-1090000000-3af72990a6e6a4c9e3abJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-001l-4290000000-05af30a36ff956182b21JSpectraViewer
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-0006-9230000000-15f73e5232a0e230f41bJSpectraViewer | MoNA
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureOral, well absorbed from the GI tract. Peak plasma concentrations occur 7-8.5 hours following oral administration.
Mechanism of ToxicityIt is believed that nortriptyline either inhibits the reuptake of the neurotransmitter serotonin at the neuronal membrane or acts at beta-adrenergic receptors. Tricyclic antidepressants do not inhibit monoamine oxidase nor do they affect dopamine reuptake.
MetabolismUndergoes hepatic metabolism via the same pathway as other TCAs. Route of Elimination: Approximately one-third of a single orally administered dose is excreted in urine within 24 hours. Small amounts are excreted in feces via biliary elimination. Half Life: 16 to 90+ hours
Toxicity ValuesLD50=mg/kg (orally in rat)
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)No indication of carcinogenicity to humans (not listed by IARC).
Uses/SourcesFor the treatment of depression, chronic pain, irritable bowel syndrome, sleep disorders, diabetic neuropathy, agitation and insomnia, and migraine prophylaxis.
Minimum Risk LevelNot Available
Health EffectsNot Available
SymptomsSymptoms of overdose include cardiac dysrhythmias, severe hypotension, shock, congestive heart failure, pulmonary edema, convulsions, and CNS depression, including coma. Changes in the electrocardiogram, particularly in QRS axis or width, are clinically significant indicators of tricyclic antidepressant toxicity.
TreatmentNot Available
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDDB00540
HMDB IDHMDB14680
PubChem Compound ID4543
ChEMBL IDCHEMBL445
ChemSpider ID4384
KEGG IDC07274
UniProt IDNot Available
OMIM ID
ChEBI ID7640
BioCyc IDNot Available
CTD IDNot Available
Stitch IDNortriptyline
PDB IDNot Available
ACToR IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkNortriptyline
References
Synthesis Reference

Abraham Nudelman, “ACID ADDITION SALT OF A NORTRIPTYLINE-GABA CONJUGATE AND A PROCESS OF PREPARING SAME.” U.S. Patent US20130184347, issued July 18, 2013.

MSDST3D2818.pdf
General References
  1. Prochazka AV, Weaver MJ, Keller RT, Fryer GE, Licari PA, Lofaso D: A randomized trial of nortriptyline for smoking cessation. Arch Intern Med. 1998 Oct 12;158(18):2035-9. [9778204 ]
  2. Drugs.com [Link]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated GenesNot Available
Down-Regulated GenesNot Available

Targets

General Function:
Norepinephrine:sodium symporter activity
Specific Function:
Amine transporter. Terminates the action of noradrenaline by its high affinity sodium-dependent reuptake into presynaptic terminals.
Gene Name:
SLC6A2
Uniprot ID:
P23975
Molecular Weight:
69331.42 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
Inhibitory0.00149 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50020710
Inhibitory0.0018 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50020710
Inhibitory0.00437 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50020710
Inhibitory0.0063 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50020710
Inhibitory0.0083 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50020710
Inhibitory0.021 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50020710
References
  1. Vaishnavi SN, Nemeroff CB, Plott SJ, Rao SG, Kranzler J, Owens MJ: Milnacipran: a comparative analysis of human monoamine uptake and transporter binding affinity. Biol Psychiatry. 2004 Feb 1;55(3):320-2. [14744476 ]
  2. Roubert C, Cox PJ, Bruss M, Hamon M, Bonisch H, Giros B: Determination of residues in the norepinephrine transporter that are critical for tricyclic antidepressant affinity. J Biol Chem. 2001 Mar 16;276(11):8254-60. Epub 2000 Nov 22. [11092898 ]
  3. Roubert C, Sagne C, Kapsimali M, Vernier P, Bourrat F, Giros B: A Na(+)/Cl(-)-dependent transporter for catecholamines, identified as a norepinephrine transporter, is expressed in the brain of the teleost fish medaka (Oryzias latipes). Mol Pharmacol. 2001 Sep;60(3):462-73. [11502876 ]
  4. Kim H, Lim SW, Kim S, Kim JW, Chang YH, Carroll BJ, Kim DK: Monoamine transporter gene polymorphisms and antidepressant response in koreans with late-life depression. JAMA. 2006 Oct 4;296(13):1609-18. [17018806 ]
  5. Barker EL, Blakely RD: Identification of a single amino acid, phenylalanine 586, that is responsible for high affinity interactions of tricyclic antidepressants with the human serotonin transporter. Mol Pharmacol. 1996 Oct;50(4):957-65. [8863842 ]
  6. Owens MJ, Morgan WN, Plott SJ, Nemeroff CB: Neurotransmitter receptor and transporter binding profile of antidepressants and their metabolites. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1997 Dec;283(3):1305-22. [9400006 ]
  7. Tatsumi M, Groshan K, Blakely RD, Richelson E: Pharmacological profile of antidepressants and related compounds at human monoamine transporters. Eur J Pharmacol. 1997 Dec 11;340(2-3):249-58. [9537821 ]
  8. Glennon RA, Lee M, Rangisetty JB, Dukat M, Roth BL, Savage JE, McBride A, Rauser L, Hufeisen S, Lee DK: 2-Substituted tryptamines: agents with selectivity for 5-HT(6) serotonin receptors. J Med Chem. 2000 Mar 9;43(5):1011-8. [10715164 ]
General Function:
Serotonin:sodium symporter activity
Specific Function:
Serotonin transporter whose primary function in the central nervous system involves the regulation of serotonergic signaling via transport of serotonin molecules from the synaptic cleft back into the pre-synaptic terminal for re-utilization. Plays a key role in mediating regulation of the availability of serotonin to other receptors of serotonergic systems. Terminates the action of serotonin and recycles it in a sodium-dependent manner.
Gene Name:
SLC6A4
Uniprot ID:
P31645
Molecular Weight:
70324.165 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
Inhibitory0.015 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50020710
Inhibitory0.018 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50020710
Inhibitory0.279 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50020710
Inhibitory0.317 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50020710
References
  1. Vaishnavi SN, Nemeroff CB, Plott SJ, Rao SG, Kranzler J, Owens MJ: Milnacipran: a comparative analysis of human monoamine uptake and transporter binding affinity. Biol Psychiatry. 2004 Feb 1;55(3):320-2. [14744476 ]
  2. Joyce PR, Mulder RT, Luty SE, McKenzie JM, Miller AL, Rogers GR, Kennedy MA: Age-dependent antidepressant pharmacogenomics: polymorphisms of the serotonin transporter and G protein beta3 subunit as predictors of response to fluoxetine and nortriptyline. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2003 Dec;6(4):339-46. [14604448 ]
  3. Wisner KL, Hanusa BH, Perel JM, Peindl KS, Piontek CM, Sit DK, Findling RL, Moses-Kolko EL: Postpartum depression: a randomized trial of sertraline versus nortriptyline. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2006 Aug;26(4):353-60. [16855451 ]
  4. Pollock BG, Ferrell RE, Mulsant BH, Mazumdar S, Miller M, Sweet RA, Davis S, Kirshner MA, Houck PR, Stack JA, Reynolds CF, Kupfer DJ: Allelic variation in the serotonin transporter promoter affects onset of paroxetine treatment response in late-life depression. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2000 Nov;23(5):587-90. [11027924 ]
  5. Rausch JL, Moeller FG, Johnson ME: Initial platelet serotonin (5-HT) transport kinetics predict nortriptyline treatment outcome. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2003 Apr;23(2):138-44. [12640215 ]
  6. Owens MJ, Morgan WN, Plott SJ, Nemeroff CB: Neurotransmitter receptor and transporter binding profile of antidepressants and their metabolites. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1997 Dec;283(3):1305-22. [9400006 ]
  7. Tatsumi M, Groshan K, Blakely RD, Richelson E: Pharmacological profile of antidepressants and related compounds at human monoamine transporters. Eur J Pharmacol. 1997 Dec 11;340(2-3):249-58. [9537821 ]
General Function:
Toxic substance binding
Specific Function:
Serum albumin, the main protein of plasma, has a good binding capacity for water, Ca(2+), Na(+), K(+), fatty acids, hormones, bilirubin and drugs. Its main function is the regulation of the colloidal osmotic pressure of blood. Major zinc transporter in plasma, typically binds about 80% of all plasma zinc.
Gene Name:
ALB
Uniprot ID:
P02768
Molecular Weight:
69365.94 Da
References
  1. Kamel RS, Landon J, Smith DS: Novel 125I-labeled nortriptyline derivatives and their use in liquid-phase or magnetizable solid-phase second-antibody radioimmunoassays. Clin Chem. 1979 Dec;25(12):1997-2002. [41648 ]
  2. Brunswick DJ, Needelman B, Mendels J: Specific radioimmunoassay of amitriptyline and nortriptyline. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1979 Apr;7(4):343-8. [444353 ]
  3. Brinkschulte M, Breyer-Pfaff U: The contribution of alpha 1-acid glycoprotein, lipoproteins, and albumin to the plasma binding of perazine, amitriptyline, and nortriptyline in healthy man. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 1980 Oct;314(1):61-6. [6108517 ]
  4. Adamczyk M, Fishpaugh J, Harrington C, Hartter D, Johnson D, Vanderbilt A: Immunoassay reagents for psychoactive drugs. I. The method for the development of antibodies specific to amitriptyline and nortriptyline. J Immunol Methods. 1993 Jun 4;162(1):47-58. [8509652 ]
  5. Lucek R, Dixon R: Specific radioimmunoassay for amitriptyline and nortriptyline in plasma. Res Commun Chem Pathol Pharmacol. 1977 Sep;18(1):125-36. [905625 ]
General Function:
Histamine receptor activity
Specific Function:
In peripheral tissues, the H1 subclass of histamine receptors mediates the contraction of smooth muscles, increase in capillary permeability due to contraction of terminal venules, and catecholamine release from adrenal medulla, as well as mediating neurotransmission in the central nervous system.
Gene Name:
HRH1
Uniprot ID:
P35367
Molecular Weight:
55783.61 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
Inhibitory0.0063 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50020710
Inhibitory0.0084 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50020710
References
  1. Cusack B, Nelson A, Richelson E: Binding of antidepressants to human brain receptors: focus on newer generation compounds. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1994 May;114(4):559-65. [7855217 ]
  2. Sadava D, Wilmington K: Tricyclic antidepressant drugs affect histamine receptors in human leukocytes. Life Sci. 1984 Dec 17;35(25):2545-8. [6096660 ]
  3. Kanba S, Richelson E: Histamine H1 receptors in human brain labelled with [3H]doxepin. Brain Res. 1984 Jun 18;304(1):1-7. [6146381 ]
General Function:
Serotonin receptor activity
Specific Function:
G-protein coupled receptor for 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin). Also functions as a receptor for various drugs and psychoactive substances, including ergot alkaloid derivatives, 1-2,5,-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl-2-aminopropane (DOI) and lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD). Ligand binding causes a conformation change that triggers signaling via guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) and modulates the activity of down-stream effectors. Beta-arrestin family members inhibit signaling via G proteins and mediate activation of alternative signaling pathways. Signaling activates a phosphatidylinositol-calcium second messenger system that modulates the activity of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and down-stream signaling cascades and promotes the release of Ca(2+) ions from intracellular stores. Regulates neuronal activity via the activation of short transient receptor potential calcium channels in the brain, and thereby modulates the activation of pro-opiomelacortin neurons and the release of CRH that then regulates the release of corticosterone. Plays a role in the regulation of appetite and eating behavior, responses to anxiogenic stimuli and stress. Plays a role in insulin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis.
Gene Name:
HTR2C
Uniprot ID:
P28335
Molecular Weight:
51820.705 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
Inhibitory0.041 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50020710
References
  1. Palvimaki EP, Roth BL, Majasuo H, Laakso A, Kuoppamaki M, Syvalahti E, Hietala J: Interactions of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors with the serotonin 5-HT2c receptor. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1996 Aug;126(3):234-40. [8876023 ]
  2. Cusack B, Nelson A, Richelson E: Binding of antidepressants to human brain receptors: focus on newer generation compounds. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1994 May;114(4):559-65. [7855217 ]
General Function:
Serotonin receptor activity
Specific Function:
This is one of the several different receptors for 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin), a biogenic hormone that functions as a neurotransmitter, a hormone, and a mitogen. The activity of this receptor is mediated by G proteins that stimulate adenylate cyclase. It has a high affinity for tricyclic psychotropic drugs (By similarity). Controls pyramidal neurons migration during corticogenesis, through the regulation of CDK5 activity (By similarity). Is an activator of TOR signaling (PubMed:23027611).
Gene Name:
HTR6
Uniprot ID:
P50406
Molecular Weight:
46953.625 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
Inhibitory0.214 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50020710
References
  1. Monsma FJ Jr, Shen Y, Ward RP, Hamblin MW, Sibley DR: Cloning and expression of a novel serotonin receptor with high affinity for tricyclic psychotropic drugs. Mol Pharmacol. 1993 Mar;43(3):320-7. [7680751 ]
  2. Hajjo R, Setola V, Roth BL, Tropsha A: Chemocentric informatics approach to drug discovery: identification and experimental validation of selective estrogen receptor modulators as ligands of 5-hydroxytryptamine-6 receptors and as potential cognition enhancers. J Med Chem. 2012 Jun 28;55(12):5704-19. doi: 10.1021/jm2011657. Epub 2012 Jun 11. [22537153 ]
General Function:
Protein heterodimerization activity
Specific Function:
This alpha-adrenergic receptor mediates its action by association with G proteins that activate a phosphatidylinositol-calcium second messenger system. Its effect is mediated by G(q) and G(11) proteins. Nuclear ADRA1A-ADRA1B heterooligomers regulate phenylephrine(PE)-stimulated ERK signaling in cardiac myocytes.
Gene Name:
ADRA1A
Uniprot ID:
P35348
Molecular Weight:
51486.005 Da
References
  1. Cusack B, Nelson A, Richelson E: Binding of antidepressants to human brain receptors: focus on newer generation compounds. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1994 May;114(4):559-65. [7855217 ]
  2. Nojimoto FD, Mueller A, Hebeler-Barbosa F, Akinaga J, Lima V, Kiguti LR, Pupo AS: The tricyclic antidepressants amitriptyline, nortriptyline and imipramine are weak antagonists of human and rat alpha1B-adrenoceptors. Neuropharmacology. 2010 Jul-Aug;59(1-2):49-57. doi: 10.1016/j.neuropharm.2010.03.015. Epub 2010 Apr 2. [20363235 ]
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Responsible for the metabolism of many drugs and environmental chemicals that it oxidizes. It is involved in the metabolism of drugs such as antiarrhythmics, adrenoceptor antagonists, and tricyclic antidepressants.
Gene Name:
CYP2D6
Uniprot ID:
P10635
Molecular Weight:
55768.94 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
IC502.3 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50020710
IC502.6 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50020710
References
  1. Venhorst J, ter Laak AM, Commandeur JN, Funae Y, Hiroi T, Vermeulen NP: Homology modeling of rat and human cytochrome P450 2D (CYP2D) isoforms and computational rationalization of experimental ligand-binding specificities. J Med Chem. 2003 Jan 2;46(1):74-86. [12502361 ]
  2. Kemp CA, Flanagan JU, van Eldik AJ, Marechal JD, Wolf CR, Roberts GC, Paine MJ, Sutcliffe MJ: Validation of model of cytochrome P450 2D6: an in silico tool for predicting metabolism and inhibition. J Med Chem. 2004 Oct 21;47(22):5340-6. [15481972 ]
General Function:
Phosphatidylinositol phospholipase c activity
Specific Function:
The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor mediates various cellular responses, including inhibition of adenylate cyclase, breakdown of phosphoinositides and modulation of potassium channels through the action of G proteins. Primary transducing effect is Pi turnover.
Gene Name:
CHRM1
Uniprot ID:
P11229
Molecular Weight:
51420.375 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
Inhibitory0.04 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50020710
References
  1. Cusack B, Nelson A, Richelson E: Binding of antidepressants to human brain receptors: focus on newer generation compounds. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1994 May;114(4):559-65. [7855217 ]
  2. Stanton T, Bolden-Watson C, Cusack B, Richelson E: Antagonism of the five cloned human muscarinic cholinergic receptors expressed in CHO-K1 cells by antidepressants and antihistaminics. Biochem Pharmacol. 1993 Jun 9;45(11):2352-4. [8100134 ]
General Function:
G-protein coupled acetylcholine receptor activity
Specific Function:
The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor mediates various cellular responses, including inhibition of adenylate cyclase, breakdown of phosphoinositides and modulation of potassium channels through the action of G proteins. Primary transducing effect is adenylate cyclase inhibition. Signaling promotes phospholipase C activity, leading to the release of inositol trisphosphate (IP3); this then triggers calcium ion release into the cytosol.
Gene Name:
CHRM2
Uniprot ID:
P08172
Molecular Weight:
51714.605 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
Inhibitory0.037 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50020710
Inhibitory0.11 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50020710
References
  1. Cusack B, Nelson A, Richelson E: Binding of antidepressants to human brain receptors: focus on newer generation compounds. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1994 May;114(4):559-65. [7855217 ]
  2. Stanton T, Bolden-Watson C, Cusack B, Richelson E: Antagonism of the five cloned human muscarinic cholinergic receptors expressed in CHO-K1 cells by antidepressants and antihistaminics. Biochem Pharmacol. 1993 Jun 9;45(11):2352-4. [8100134 ]
General Function:
Receptor activity
Specific Function:
The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor mediates various cellular responses, including inhibition of adenylate cyclase, breakdown of phosphoinositides and modulation of potassium channels through the action of G proteins. Primary transducing effect is Pi turnover.
Gene Name:
CHRM3
Uniprot ID:
P20309
Molecular Weight:
66127.445 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
Inhibitory0.05 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50020710
References
  1. Cusack B, Nelson A, Richelson E: Binding of antidepressants to human brain receptors: focus on newer generation compounds. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1994 May;114(4):559-65. [7855217 ]
  2. Stanton T, Bolden-Watson C, Cusack B, Richelson E: Antagonism of the five cloned human muscarinic cholinergic receptors expressed in CHO-K1 cells by antidepressants and antihistaminics. Biochem Pharmacol. 1993 Jun 9;45(11):2352-4. [8100134 ]
General Function:
Guanyl-nucleotide exchange factor activity
Specific Function:
The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor mediates various cellular responses, including inhibition of adenylate cyclase, breakdown of phosphoinositides and modulation of potassium channels through the action of G proteins. Primary transducing effect is inhibition of adenylate cyclase.
Gene Name:
CHRM4
Uniprot ID:
P08173
Molecular Weight:
53048.65 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
Inhibitory0.084 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50020710
References
  1. Cusack B, Nelson A, Richelson E: Binding of antidepressants to human brain receptors: focus on newer generation compounds. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1994 May;114(4):559-65. [7855217 ]
  2. Stanton T, Bolden-Watson C, Cusack B, Richelson E: Antagonism of the five cloned human muscarinic cholinergic receptors expressed in CHO-K1 cells by antidepressants and antihistaminics. Biochem Pharmacol. 1993 Jun 9;45(11):2352-4. [8100134 ]
General Function:
Monoamine transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Amine transporter. Terminates the action of dopamine by its high affinity sodium-dependent reuptake into presynaptic terminals.
Gene Name:
SLC6A3
Uniprot ID:
Q01959
Molecular Weight:
68494.255 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
Inhibitory1.14 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50020710
Inhibitory1.2 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50020710
Inhibitory5 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50020710
References
  1. Tatsumi M, Groshan K, Blakely RD, Richelson E: Pharmacological profile of antidepressants and related compounds at human monoamine transporters. Eur J Pharmacol. 1997 Dec 11;340(2-3):249-58. [9537821 ]
  2. Vaishnavi SN, Nemeroff CB, Plott SJ, Rao SG, Kranzler J, Owens MJ: Milnacipran: a comparative analysis of human monoamine uptake and transporter binding affinity. Biol Psychiatry. 2004 Feb 1;55(3):320-2. [14744476 ]
General Function:
Serotonin receptor activity
Specific Function:
G-protein coupled receptor for 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin). Also functions as a receptor for various drugs and psychoactive substances. Ligand binding causes a conformation change that triggers signaling via guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) and modulates the activity of down-stream effectors, such as adenylate cyclase. Beta-arrestin family members inhibit signaling via G proteins and mediate activation of alternative signaling pathways. Signaling inhibits adenylate cyclase activity and activates a phosphatidylinositol-calcium second messenger system that regulates the release of Ca(2+) ions from intracellular stores. Plays a role in the regulation of 5-hydroxytryptamine release and in the regulation of dopamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine metabolism. Plays a role in the regulation of dopamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine levels in the brain, and thereby affects neural activity, mood and behavior. Plays a role in the response to anxiogenic stimuli.
Gene Name:
HTR1A
Uniprot ID:
P08908
Molecular Weight:
46106.335 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
Inhibitory0.294 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50020710
References
  1. Cusack B, Nelson A, Richelson E: Binding of antidepressants to human brain receptors: focus on newer generation compounds. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1994 May;114(4):559-65. [7855217 ]
General Function:
Virus receptor activity
Specific Function:
G-protein coupled receptor for 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin). Also functions as a receptor for various drugs and psychoactive substances, including mescaline, psilocybin, 1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane (DOI) and lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD). Ligand binding causes a conformation change that triggers signaling via guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) and modulates the activity of down-stream effectors. Beta-arrestin family members inhibit signaling via G proteins and mediate activation of alternative signaling pathways. Signaling activates phospholipase C and a phosphatidylinositol-calcium second messenger system that modulates the activity of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and promotes the release of Ca(2+) ions from intracellular stores. Affects neural activity, perception, cognition and mood. Plays a role in the regulation of behavior, including responses to anxiogenic situations and psychoactive substances. Plays a role in intestinal smooth muscle contraction, and may play a role in arterial vasoconstriction.(Microbial infection) Acts as a receptor for human JC polyomavirus/JCPyV.
Gene Name:
HTR2A
Uniprot ID:
P28223
Molecular Weight:
52602.58 Da
References
  1. Cusack B, Nelson A, Richelson E: Binding of antidepressants to human brain receptors: focus on newer generation compounds. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1994 May;114(4):559-65. [7855217 ]
General Function:
Protein heterodimerization activity
Specific Function:
This alpha-adrenergic receptor mediates its action by association with G proteins that activate a phosphatidylinositol-calcium second messenger system. Its effect is mediated by G(q) and G(11) proteins. Nuclear ADRA1A-ADRA1B heterooligomers regulate phenylephrine (PE)-stimulated ERK signaling in cardiac myocytes.
Gene Name:
ADRA1B
Uniprot ID:
P35368
Molecular Weight:
56835.375 Da
References
  1. Nojimoto FD, Mueller A, Hebeler-Barbosa F, Akinaga J, Lima V, Kiguti LR, Pupo AS: The tricyclic antidepressants amitriptyline, nortriptyline and imipramine are weak antagonists of human and rat alpha1B-adrenoceptors. Neuropharmacology. 2010 Jul-Aug;59(1-2):49-57. doi: 10.1016/j.neuropharm.2010.03.015. Epub 2010 Apr 2. [20363235 ]
General Function:
Alpha1-adrenergic receptor activity
Specific Function:
This alpha-adrenergic receptor mediates its effect through the influx of extracellular calcium.
Gene Name:
ADRA1D
Uniprot ID:
P25100
Molecular Weight:
60462.205 Da
References
  1. Nojimoto FD, Mueller A, Hebeler-Barbosa F, Akinaga J, Lima V, Kiguti LR, Pupo AS: The tricyclic antidepressants amitriptyline, nortriptyline and imipramine are weak antagonists of human and rat alpha1B-adrenoceptors. Neuropharmacology. 2010 Jul-Aug;59(1-2):49-57. doi: 10.1016/j.neuropharm.2010.03.015. Epub 2010 Apr 2. [20363235 ]
General Function:
Thioesterase binding
Specific Function:
Alpha-2 adrenergic receptors mediate the catecholamine-induced inhibition of adenylate cyclase through the action of G proteins. The rank order of potency for agonists of this receptor is oxymetazoline > clonidine > epinephrine > norepinephrine > phenylephrine > dopamine > p-synephrine > p-tyramine > serotonin = p-octopamine. For antagonists, the rank order is yohimbine > phentolamine = mianserine > chlorpromazine = spiperone = prazosin > propanolol > alprenolol = pindolol.
Gene Name:
ADRA2A
Uniprot ID:
P08913
Molecular Weight:
48956.275 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
Inhibitory2.03 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50020710
References
  1. Cusack B, Nelson A, Richelson E: Binding of antidepressants to human brain receptors: focus on newer generation compounds. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1994 May;114(4):559-65. [7855217 ]
General Function:
Potassium channel regulator activity
Specific Function:
Dopamine receptor whose activity is mediated by G proteins which inhibit adenylyl cyclase.
Gene Name:
DRD2
Uniprot ID:
P14416
Molecular Weight:
50618.91 Da
References
  1. Peroutka SJ, Snyder SH: Antiemetics: neurotransmitter receptor binding predicts therapeutic actions. Lancet. 1982 Mar 20;1(8273):658-9. [6121969 ]
General Function:
Histamine receptor activity
Specific Function:
The H2 subclass of histamine receptors mediates gastric acid secretion. Also appears to regulate gastrointestinal motility and intestinal secretion. Possible role in regulating cell growth and differentiation. The activity of this receptor is mediated by G proteins which activate adenylyl cyclase and, through a separate G protein-dependent mechanism, the phosphoinositide/protein kinase (PKC) signaling pathway (By similarity).
Gene Name:
HRH2
Uniprot ID:
P25021
Molecular Weight:
40097.65 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
IC507 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50020710
References
  1. Quinones-Torrelo C, Sagrado S, Villanueva-Camanas RM, Medina-Hernandez MJ: Development of predictive retention-activity relationship models of tricyclic antidepressants by micellar liquid chromatography. J Med Chem. 1999 Aug 12;42(16):3154-62. [10447960 ]
General Function:
Phosphatidylinositol phospholipase c activity
Specific Function:
The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor mediates various cellular responses, including inhibition of adenylate cyclase, breakdown of phosphoinositides and modulation of potassium channels through the action of G proteins. Primary transducing effect is Pi turnover.
Gene Name:
CHRM5
Uniprot ID:
P08912
Molecular Weight:
60073.205 Da
References
  1. Cusack B, Nelson A, Richelson E: Binding of antidepressants to human brain receptors: focus on newer generation compounds. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1994 May;114(4):559-65. [7855217 ]
22. Alpha-2 adrenergic receptors (Protein Group)
General Function:
Thioesterase binding
Specific Function:
Alpha-2 adrenergic receptors mediate the catecholamine-induced inhibition of adenylate cyclase through the action of G proteins. The rank order of potency for agonists of this receptor is oxymetazoline > clonidine > epinephrine > norepinephrine > phenylephrine > dopamine > p-synephrine > p-tyramine > serotonin = p-octopamine. For antagonists, the rank order is yohimbine > phentolamine = mianserine > chlorpromazine = spiperone = prazosin > propanolol > alprenolol = pindolol.
Included Proteins:
P08913 , P18089 , P18825
23. Beta adrenergic receptor (Protein Group)
General Function:
Receptor signaling protein activity
Specific Function:
Beta-adrenergic receptors mediate the catecholamine-induced activation of adenylate cyclase through the action of G proteins. This receptor binds epinephrine and norepinephrine with approximately equal affinity. Mediates Ras activation through G(s)-alpha- and cAMP-mediated signaling.
Included Proteins:
P08588 , P07550 , P13945
24. Sigma receptor (Protein Group)
General Function:
Steroid binding
Specific Function:
Receptor for progesterone.
Included Proteins:
O00264 , Q99720