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Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2009-07-21 20:27:21 UTC
Update Date2014-12-24 20:25:52 UTC
Accession NumberT3D2852
Identification
Common NameTrazodone
ClassSmall Molecule
DescriptionA serotonin uptake inhibitor that is used as an antidepressive agent. It has been shown to be effective in patients with major depressive disorders and other subsets of depressive disorders. It is generally more useful in depressive disorders associated with insomnia and anxiety. This drug does not aggravate psychotic symptoms in patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorders. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p309)
Compound Type
  • Amine
  • Anti-Anxiety Agent
  • Antidepressant, Second-Generation
  • Antidepressive Agent, Second-Generation
  • Drug
  • Metabolite
  • Organic Compound
  • Organochloride
  • Serotonin Uptake Inhibitor
  • Synthetic Compound
Chemical Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Synonym
2-(3-[4-(3-Chlorophenyl)-1-piperazinyl]propyl)[1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-a]pyridin-3(2H)-one
Beneficat
Deprax
Desirel
Desyrel
Desyrel Dividose
Mesyrel
Molipaxin
Oleptro
Thombran
Trazodona
Trazodonum
Trazorel
Trialodine
Trittico
Chemical FormulaC19H22ClN5O
Average Molecular Mass371.864 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass371.151 g/mol
CAS Registry Number19794-93-5
IUPAC Name2-{3-[4-(3-chlorophenyl)piperazin-1-yl]propyl}-2H,3H-[1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-a]pyridin-3-one
Traditional Nametrazodone
SMILESClC1=CC(=CC=C1)N1CCN(CCCN2N=C3C=CC=CN3C2=O)CC1
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/C19H22ClN5O/c20-16-5-3-6-17(15-16)23-13-11-22(12-14-23)8-4-10-25-19(26)24-9-2-1-7-18(24)21-25/h1-3,5-7,9,15H,4,8,10-14H2
InChI KeyInChIKey=PHLBKPHSAVXXEF-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as phenylpiperazines. Phenylpiperazines are compounds containing a phenylpiperazine skeleton, which consists of a piperazine bound to a phenyl group.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganoheterocyclic compounds
ClassDiazinanes
Sub ClassPiperazines
Direct ParentPhenylpiperazines
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Phenylpiperazine
  • N-arylpiperazine
  • Aryl 1,2,4-triazol-3-one
  • Triazolopyridine
  • Tertiary aliphatic/aromatic amine
  • Aniline or substituted anilines
  • Dialkylarylamine
  • Pyridinone
  • Chlorobenzene
  • N-alkylpiperazine
  • Halobenzene
  • Aryl chloride
  • Aryl halide
  • Pyridine
  • Monocyclic benzene moiety
  • Benzenoid
  • 1,2,4-triazole
  • Azole
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • Triazole
  • Tertiary aliphatic amine
  • Tertiary amine
  • Azacycle
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organochloride
  • Organohalogen compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organic oxide
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Amine
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
OriginExogenous
Cellular Locations
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationsNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
Applications
Biological Roles
Chemical RolesNot Available
Physical Properties
StateSolid
AppearanceWhite powder.
Experimental Properties
PropertyValue
Melting Point87°C
Boiling PointNot Available
SolubilitySparigly soluble
LogP2.9
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.29 g/LALOGPS
logP2.68ALOGPS
logP3.13ChemAxon
logS-3.1ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Basic)7.09ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area42.39 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count5ChemAxon
Refractivity105.88 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability40.12 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings4ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0a4j-3940000000-a9996f74a013c4cd5f34JSpectraViewer
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - , positivesplash10-00di-0609000000-cee74b5bf3182c2aa324JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-00di-0409000000-aa395fcbb17de632c6bdJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-009j-3943000000-2a70b3bfe44c6f0cbc7bJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0f7d-6910000000-98fd05d57a2cfaca1e18JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-00di-1509000000-86e48f5bf6cb797c7455JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-001i-4903000000-dbd293226ccdf09ec683JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-053r-2900000000-cc4d58e26d8dc2a62148JSpectraViewer
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-0a4i-7980000000-5d2bde624fdd9a946993JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureRapidly and almost completely absorbed following oral administration. Food may decrease the rate and extent of absorption.
Mechanism of ToxicityTrazodone binds at 5-HT2 receptor, it acts as a serotonin agonist at high doses and a serotonin antagonist at low doses. Like fluoxetine, trazodone's antidepressant activity likely results from blockage of serotonin reuptake by inhibiting serotonin reuptake pump at the presynaptic neuronal membrane. If used for long time periods, postsynaptic neuronal receptor binding sites may also be affected. The sedative effect of trazodone is likely the result of alpha-adrenergic blocking action and modest histamine blockade at H1 receptor. It weakly blocks presynaptic alpha2-adrenergic receptors and strongly inhibits postsynaptic alpha1 receptors. Trazodone does not affect the reuptake of norepinephrine or dopamine within the CNS.
MetabolismUndergoes extensive hepatic metabolism via hydroxylation, N-dealkylation, N-oxidation and splitting of the pyridine ring. Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 catalyzes the formation of the major active metabolite, m-chlorophenylpiperazine (m-CPP). Metabolites may be further conjugated to glucuonic acid or glutathione. CYP2D6 is responsible for 4'-hydroxylation of m-CPP and the formation of at least one glutathione conjugates of m-CPP, a quinone imine-sulhydryl adduct. Oxotriazolopyridinpropionic acid, an inactive metabolite, and its conjugates account for about 20% of the total excreted oral dose. Less than 1% of the oral dose is excreted unchanged. Approximately 70-75% of the dose is eliminated in urine with the remainder being excreted in feces via biliary elimination. Half Life: Undergoes biphasic elimination with an initial phase t1/2 α of 3-6 hours and a terminal phase t1/2 β of 5-9 hours.
Toxicity ValuesLD50: 96mg/kg (Intravenous, Mouse) (6)
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)No indication of carcinogenicity to humans (not listed by IARC).
Uses/SourcesFor the treatment of depression.
Minimum Risk LevelNot Available
Health EffectsNot Available
SymptomsNot Available
TreatmentThere is no specific antidote for Trazodone. Treatment should be symptomatic and supportive in the case of hypotension or excessive sedation. Any patient suspected of having taken an overdose should have the stomach emptied by gastric lavage. Forced diuresis may be useful in facilitating elimination of the drug. (10)
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDDB00656
HMDB IDHMDB14794
PubChem Compound ID5533
ChEMBL IDCHEMBL621
ChemSpider ID5332
KEGG IDC07156
UniProt IDNot Available
OMIM ID
ChEBI ID9654
BioCyc IDNot Available
CTD IDNot Available
Stitch IDTrazodone
PDB IDNot Available
ACToR IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkTrazodone
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
MSDSLink
General References
  1. Marek GJ, McDougle CJ, Price LH, Seiden LS: A comparison of trazodone and fluoxetine: implications for a serotonergic mechanism of antidepressant action. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1992;109(1-2):2-11. [1365657 ]
  2. Jauch R, Kopitar Z, Prox A, Zimmer A: [Pharmacokinetics and metabolism of trazodone in man (author's transl)]. Arzneimittelforschung. 1976;26(11):2084-9. [1037253 ]
  3. Rotzinger S, Fang J, Baker GB: Trazodone is metabolized to m-chlorophenylpiperazine by CYP3A4 from human sources. Drug Metab Dispos. 1998 Jun;26(6):572-5. [9616194 ]
  4. Kalgutkar AS, Henne KR, Lame ME, Vaz AD, Collin C, Soglia JR, Zhao SX, Hop CE: Metabolic activation of the nontricyclic antidepressant trazodone to electrophilic quinone-imine and epoxide intermediates in human liver microsomes and recombinant P4503A4. Chem Biol Interact. 2005 Jun 30;155(1-2):10-20. Epub 2005 Apr 18. [15978881 ]
  5. Otani K, Yasui N, Kaneko S, Ishida M, Ohkubo T, Osanai T, Sugawara K, Fukushima Y: Trazodone treatment increases plasma prolactin concentrations in depressed patients. Int Clin Psychopharmacol. 1995 Jun;10(2):115-7. [7673654 ]
  6. Wishart DS, Knox C, Guo AC, Cheng D, Shrivastava S, Tzur D, Gautam B, Hassanali M: DrugBank: a knowledgebase for drugs, drug actions and drug targets. Nucleic Acids Res. 2008 Jan;36(Database issue):D901-6. Epub 2007 Nov 29. [18048412 ]
  7. Saletu-Zyhlarz GM, Abu-Bakr MH, Anderer P, Gruber G, Mandl M, Strobl R, Gollner D, Prause W, Saletu B: Insomnia in depression: differences in objective and subjective sleep and awakening quality to normal controls and acute effects of trazodone. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2002 Feb;26(2):249-60. [11817501 ]
  8. Fink HA, MacDonald R, Rutks IR, Wilt TJ: Trazodone for erectile dysfunction: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BJU Int. 2003 Sep;92(4):441-6. [12930437 ]
  9. Drugs.com [Link]
  10. RxList: The Internet Drug Index (2009). [Link]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated GenesNot Available
Down-Regulated GenesNot Available

Targets

General Function:
Virus receptor activity
Specific Function:
G-protein coupled receptor for 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin). Also functions as a receptor for various drugs and psychoactive substances, including mescaline, psilocybin, 1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane (DOI) and lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD). Ligand binding causes a conformation change that triggers signaling via guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) and modulates the activity of down-stream effectors. Beta-arrestin family members inhibit signaling via G proteins and mediate activation of alternative signaling pathways. Signaling activates phospholipase C and a phosphatidylinositol-calcium second messenger system that modulates the activity of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and promotes the release of Ca(2+) ions from intracellular stores. Affects neural activity, perception, cognition and mood. Plays a role in the regulation of behavior, including responses to anxiogenic situations and psychoactive substances. Plays a role in intestinal smooth muscle contraction, and may play a role in arterial vasoconstriction.(Microbial infection) Acts as a receptor for human JC polyomavirus/JCPyV.
Gene Name:
HTR2A
Uniprot ID:
P28223
Molecular Weight:
52602.58 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
Inhibitory0.04467 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50073444
References
  1. Marek GJ, McDougle CJ, Price LH, Seiden LS: A comparison of trazodone and fluoxetine: implications for a serotonergic mechanism of antidepressant action. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1992;109(1-2):2-11. [1365657 ]
  2. Pazzagli M, Giovannini MG, Pepeu G: Trazodone increases extracellular serotonin levels in the frontal cortex of rats. Eur J Pharmacol. 1999 Nov 3;383(3):249-57. [10594316 ]
  3. Marcoli M, Rosu C, Bonfanti A, Raiteri M, Maura G: Inhibitory presynaptic 5-hydroxytryptamine(2A) receptors regulate evoked glutamate release from rat cerebellar mossy fibers. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2001 Dec;299(3):1106-11. [11714900 ]
  4. Saletu-Zyhlarz GM, Abu-Bakr MH, Anderer P, Gruber G, Mandl M, Strobl R, Gollner D, Prause W, Saletu B: Insomnia in depression: differences in objective and subjective sleep and awakening quality to normal controls and acute effects of trazodone. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2002 Feb;26(2):249-60. [11817501 ]
  5. Luparini MR, Garrone B, Pazzagli M, Pinza M, Pepeu G: A cortical GABA-5HT interaction in the mechanism of action of the antidepressant trazodone. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2004 Nov;28(7):1117-27. [15610924 ]
  6. Knight AR, Misra A, Quirk K, Benwell K, Revell D, Kennett G, Bickerdike M: Pharmacological characterisation of the agonist radioligand binding site of 5-HT(2A), 5-HT(2B) and 5-HT(2C) receptors. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 2004 Aug;370(2):114-23. Epub 2004 Jul 30. [15322733 ]
General Function:
Serotonin receptor activity
Specific Function:
G-protein coupled receptor for 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin). Also functions as a receptor for various drugs and psychoactive substances, including ergot alkaloid derivatives, 1-2,5,-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl-2-aminopropane (DOI) and lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD). Ligand binding causes a conformation change that triggers signaling via guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) and modulates the activity of down-stream effectors. Beta-arrestin family members inhibit signaling via G proteins and mediate activation of alternative signaling pathways. Signaling activates a phosphatidylinositol-calcium second messenger system that modulates the activity of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and down-stream signaling cascades and promotes the release of Ca(2+) ions from intracellular stores. Regulates neuronal activity via the activation of short transient receptor potential calcium channels in the brain, and thereby modulates the activation of pro-opiomelacortin neurons and the release of CRH that then regulates the release of corticosterone. Plays a role in the regulation of appetite and eating behavior, responses to anxiogenic stimuli and stress. Plays a role in insulin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis.
Gene Name:
HTR2C
Uniprot ID:
P28335
Molecular Weight:
51820.705 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
Inhibitory0.025 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50073444
Inhibitory0.22387 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50073444
References
  1. Fiorella D, Rabin RA, Winter JC: The role of the 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptors in the stimulus effects of m-chlorophenylpiperazine. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1995 May;119(2):222-30. [7659770 ]
  2. Conn PJ, Sanders-Bush E: Relative efficacies of piperazines at the phosphoinositide hydrolysis-linked serotonergic (5-HT-2 and 5-HT-1c) receptors. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1987 Aug;242(2):552-7. [3039120 ]
  3. Cusack B, Nelson A, Richelson E: Binding of antidepressants to human brain receptors: focus on newer generation compounds. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1994 May;114(4):559-65. [7855217 ]
  4. Knight AR, Misra A, Quirk K, Benwell K, Revell D, Kennett G, Bickerdike M: Pharmacological characterisation of the agonist radioligand binding site of 5-HT(2A), 5-HT(2B) and 5-HT(2C) receptors. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 2004 Aug;370(2):114-23. Epub 2004 Jul 30. [15322733 ]
  5. Chanrion B, Mannoury la Cour C, Gavarini S, Seimandi M, Vincent L, Pujol JF, Bockaert J, Marin P, Millan MJ: Inverse agonist and neutral antagonist actions of antidepressants at recombinant and native 5-hydroxytryptamine2C receptors: differential modulation of cell surface expression and signal transduction. Mol Pharmacol. 2008 Mar;73(3):748-57. Epub 2007 Dec 14. [18083778 ]
General Function:
Serotonin receptor activity
Specific Function:
G-protein coupled receptor for 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin). Also functions as a receptor for various drugs and psychoactive substances. Ligand binding causes a conformation change that triggers signaling via guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) and modulates the activity of down-stream effectors, such as adenylate cyclase. Beta-arrestin family members inhibit signaling via G proteins and mediate activation of alternative signaling pathways. Signaling inhibits adenylate cyclase activity and activates a phosphatidylinositol-calcium second messenger system that regulates the release of Ca(2+) ions from intracellular stores. Plays a role in the regulation of 5-hydroxytryptamine release and in the regulation of dopamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine metabolism. Plays a role in the regulation of dopamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine levels in the brain, and thereby affects neural activity, mood and behavior. Plays a role in the response to anxiogenic stimuli.
Gene Name:
HTR1A
Uniprot ID:
P08908
Molecular Weight:
46106.335 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
Inhibitory0.096 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50073444
References
  1. Subhash MN, Srinivas BN, Vinod KY: Alterations in 5-HT(1A) receptors and adenylyl cyclase response by trazodone in regions of rat brain. Life Sci. 2002 Aug 16;71(13):1559-67. [12127910 ]
  2. Odagaki Y, Toyoshima R, Yamauchi T: Trazodone and its active metabolite m-chlorophenylpiperazine as partial agonists at 5-HT1A receptors assessed by [35S]GTPgammaS binding. J Psychopharmacol. 2005 May;19(3):235-41. [15888508 ]
  3. Redrobe JP, Bourin M: Effects of pretreatment with clonidine, lithium and quinine on the activities of antidepressant drugs in the mouse tail suspension test. Fundam Clin Pharmacol. 1997;11(5):381-6. [9342590 ]
  4. Cusack B, Nelson A, Richelson E: Binding of antidepressants to human brain receptors: focus on newer generation compounds. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1994 May;114(4):559-65. [7855217 ]
General Function:
Thioesterase binding
Specific Function:
Alpha-2 adrenergic receptors mediate the catecholamine-induced inhibition of adenylate cyclase through the action of G proteins. The rank order of potency for agonists of this receptor is oxymetazoline > clonidine > epinephrine > norepinephrine > phenylephrine > dopamine > p-synephrine > p-tyramine > serotonin = p-octopamine. For antagonists, the rank order is yohimbine > phentolamine = mianserine > chlorpromazine = spiperone = prazosin > propanolol > alprenolol = pindolol.
Gene Name:
ADRA2A
Uniprot ID:
P08913
Molecular Weight:
48956.275 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
Inhibitory0.106 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50073444
Inhibitory0.32 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50073444
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
  3. Owens MJ, Morgan WN, Plott SJ, Nemeroff CB: Neurotransmitter receptor and transporter binding profile of antidepressants and their metabolites. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1997 Dec;283(3):1305-22. [9400006 ]
  4. Cusack B, Nelson A, Richelson E: Binding of antidepressants to human brain receptors: focus on newer generation compounds. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1994 May;114(4):559-65. [7855217 ]
General Function:
Histamine receptor activity
Specific Function:
In peripheral tissues, the H1 subclass of histamine receptors mediates the contraction of smooth muscles, increase in capillary permeability due to contraction of terminal venules, and catecholamine release from adrenal medulla, as well as mediating neurotransmission in the central nervous system.
Gene Name:
HRH1
Uniprot ID:
P35367
Molecular Weight:
55783.61 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
Inhibitory1.1 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50073444
References
  1. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [11752352 ]
  2. Richelson E, Nelson A: Antagonism by antidepressants of neurotransmitter receptors of normal human brain in vitro. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1984 Jul;230(1):94-102. [6086881 ]
  3. Noguchi S, Inukai T, Kuno T, Tanaka C: The suppression of olfactory bulbectomy-induced muricide by antidepressants and antihistamines via histamine H1 receptor blocking. Physiol Behav. 1992 Jun;51(6):1123-7. [1353628 ]
  4. Cusack B, Nelson A, Richelson E: Binding of antidepressants to human brain receptors: focus on newer generation compounds. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1994 May;114(4):559-65. [7855217 ]
General Function:
Serotonin:sodium symporter activity
Specific Function:
Serotonin transporter whose primary function in the central nervous system involves the regulation of serotonergic signaling via transport of serotonin molecules from the synaptic cleft back into the pre-synaptic terminal for re-utilization. Plays a key role in mediating regulation of the availability of serotonin to other receptors of serotonergic systems. Terminates the action of serotonin and recycles it in a sodium-dependent manner.
Gene Name:
SLC6A4
Uniprot ID:
P31645
Molecular Weight:
70324.165 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
Inhibitory0.16 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50073444
Inhibitory0.252 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50073444
Inhibitory0.69 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50073444
References
  1. Owens MJ, Ieni JR, Knight DL, Winders K, Nemeroff CB: The serotonergic antidepressant nefazodone inhibits the serotonin transporter: in vivo and ex vivo studies. Life Sci. 1995;57(24):PL373-80. [7475971 ]
  2. Haney EM, Chan BK, Diem SJ, Ensrud KE, Cauley JA, Barrett-Connor E, Orwoll E, Bliziotes MM: Association of low bone mineral density with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor use by older men. Arch Intern Med. 2007 Jun 25;167(12):1246-51. [17592097 ]
  3. Tatsumi M, Groshan K, Blakely RD, Richelson E: Pharmacological profile of antidepressants and related compounds at human monoamine transporters. Eur J Pharmacol. 1997 Dec 11;340(2-3):249-58. [9537821 ]
  4. Owens MJ, Morgan WN, Plott SJ, Nemeroff CB: Neurotransmitter receptor and transporter binding profile of antidepressants and their metabolites. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1997 Dec;283(3):1305-22. [9400006 ]
General Function:
Norepinephrine:sodium symporter activity
Specific Function:
Amine transporter. Terminates the action of noradrenaline by its high affinity sodium-dependent reuptake into presynaptic terminals.
Gene Name:
SLC6A2
Uniprot ID:
P23975
Molecular Weight:
69331.42 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
Inhibitory8.5 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50073444
Inhibitory>10 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50073444
References
  1. Owens MJ, Ieni JR, Knight DL, Winders K, Nemeroff CB: The serotonergic antidepressant nefazodone inhibits the serotonin transporter: in vivo and ex vivo studies. Life Sci. 1995;57(24):PL373-80. [7475971 ]
  2. Tatsumi M, Groshan K, Blakely RD, Richelson E: Pharmacological profile of antidepressants and related compounds at human monoamine transporters. Eur J Pharmacol. 1997 Dec 11;340(2-3):249-58. [9537821 ]
  3. Owens MJ, Morgan WN, Plott SJ, Nemeroff CB: Neurotransmitter receptor and transporter binding profile of antidepressants and their metabolites. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1997 Dec;283(3):1305-22. [9400006 ]
General Function:
Serotonin receptor activity
Specific Function:
G-protein coupled receptor for 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin). Also functions as a receptor for various ergot alkaloid derivatives and psychoactive substances. Ligand binding causes a conformation change that triggers signaling via guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) and modulates the activity of down-stream effectors. Beta-arrestin family members inhibit signaling via G proteins and mediate activation of alternative signaling pathways. Signaling activates a phosphatidylinositol-calcium second messenger system that modulates the activity of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and down-stream signaling cascades and promotes the release of Ca(2+) ions from intracellular stores. Plays a role in the regulation of dopamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine release, 5-hydroxytryptamine uptake and in the regulation of extracellular dopamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine levels, and thereby affects neural activity. May play a role in the perception of pain. Plays a role in the regulation of behavior, including impulsive behavior. Required for normal proliferation of embryonic cardiac myocytes and normal heart development. Protects cardiomyocytes against apoptosis. Plays a role in the adaptation of pulmonary arteries to chronic hypoxia. Plays a role in vasoconstriction. Required for normal osteoblast function and proliferation, and for maintaining normal bone density. Required for normal proliferation of the interstitial cells of Cajal in the intestine.
Gene Name:
HTR2B
Uniprot ID:
P41595
Molecular Weight:
54297.41 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
Inhibitory0.0736 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50073444
Inhibitory0.08318 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50073444
References
  1. Rothman RB, Baumann MH, Savage JE, Rauser L, McBride A, Hufeisen SJ, Roth BL: Evidence for possible involvement of 5-HT(2B) receptors in the cardiac valvulopathy associated with fenfluramine and other serotonergic medications. Circulation. 2000 Dec 5;102(23):2836-41. [11104741 ]
  2. Knight AR, Misra A, Quirk K, Benwell K, Revell D, Kennett G, Bickerdike M: Pharmacological characterisation of the agonist radioligand binding site of 5-HT(2A), 5-HT(2B) and 5-HT(2C) receptors. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 2004 Aug;370(2):114-23. Epub 2004 Jul 30. [15322733 ]
General Function:
Protein heterodimerization activity
Specific Function:
This alpha-adrenergic receptor mediates its action by association with G proteins that activate a phosphatidylinositol-calcium second messenger system. Its effect is mediated by G(q) and G(11) proteins. Nuclear ADRA1A-ADRA1B heterooligomers regulate phenylephrine(PE)-stimulated ERK signaling in cardiac myocytes.
Gene Name:
ADRA1A
Uniprot ID:
P35348
Molecular Weight:
51486.005 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
General Function:
G-protein coupled acetylcholine receptor activity
Specific Function:
The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor mediates various cellular responses, including inhibition of adenylate cyclase, breakdown of phosphoinositides and modulation of potassium channels through the action of G proteins. Primary transducing effect is adenylate cyclase inhibition. Signaling promotes phospholipase C activity, leading to the release of inositol trisphosphate (IP3); this then triggers calcium ion release into the cytosol.
Gene Name:
CHRM2
Uniprot ID:
P08172
Molecular Weight:
51714.605 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
Inhibitory>10 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50073444
References
  1. Cusack B, Nelson A, Richelson E: Binding of antidepressants to human brain receptors: focus on newer generation compounds. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1994 May;114(4):559-65. [7855217 ]
  2. Stanton T, Bolden-Watson C, Cusack B, Richelson E: Antagonism of the five cloned human muscarinic cholinergic receptors expressed in CHO-K1 cells by antidepressants and antihistaminics. Biochem Pharmacol. 1993 Jun 9;45(11):2352-4. [8100134 ]
General Function:
Protein heterodimerization activity
Specific Function:
This alpha-adrenergic receptor mediates its action by association with G proteins that activate a phosphatidylinositol-calcium second messenger system. Its effect is mediated by G(q) and G(11) proteins. Nuclear ADRA1A-ADRA1B heterooligomers regulate phenylephrine (PE)-stimulated ERK signaling in cardiac myocytes.
Gene Name:
ADRA1B
Uniprot ID:
P35368
Molecular Weight:
56835.375 Da
References
  1. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [11752352 ]
General Function:
Phosphatidylinositol phospholipase c activity
Specific Function:
The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor mediates various cellular responses, including inhibition of adenylate cyclase, breakdown of phosphoinositides and modulation of potassium channels through the action of G proteins. Primary transducing effect is Pi turnover.
Gene Name:
CHRM1
Uniprot ID:
P11229
Molecular Weight:
51420.375 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
Inhibitory>10 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50073444
References
  1. Stanton T, Bolden-Watson C, Cusack B, Richelson E: Antagonism of the five cloned human muscarinic cholinergic receptors expressed in CHO-K1 cells by antidepressants and antihistaminics. Biochem Pharmacol. 1993 Jun 9;45(11):2352-4. [8100134 ]
General Function:
Receptor activity
Specific Function:
The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor mediates various cellular responses, including inhibition of adenylate cyclase, breakdown of phosphoinositides and modulation of potassium channels through the action of G proteins. Primary transducing effect is Pi turnover.
Gene Name:
CHRM3
Uniprot ID:
P20309
Molecular Weight:
66127.445 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
Inhibitory>10 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50073444
References
  1. Stanton T, Bolden-Watson C, Cusack B, Richelson E: Antagonism of the five cloned human muscarinic cholinergic receptors expressed in CHO-K1 cells by antidepressants and antihistaminics. Biochem Pharmacol. 1993 Jun 9;45(11):2352-4. [8100134 ]
General Function:
Guanyl-nucleotide exchange factor activity
Specific Function:
The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor mediates various cellular responses, including inhibition of adenylate cyclase, breakdown of phosphoinositides and modulation of potassium channels through the action of G proteins. Primary transducing effect is inhibition of adenylate cyclase.
Gene Name:
CHRM4
Uniprot ID:
P08173
Molecular Weight:
53048.65 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
Inhibitory>10 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50073444
References
  1. Stanton T, Bolden-Watson C, Cusack B, Richelson E: Antagonism of the five cloned human muscarinic cholinergic receptors expressed in CHO-K1 cells by antidepressants and antihistaminics. Biochem Pharmacol. 1993 Jun 9;45(11):2352-4. [8100134 ]
General Function:
Monoamine transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Amine transporter. Terminates the action of dopamine by its high affinity sodium-dependent reuptake into presynaptic terminals.
Gene Name:
SLC6A3
Uniprot ID:
Q01959
Molecular Weight:
68494.255 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
Inhibitory7.4 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50073444
References
  1. Tatsumi M, Groshan K, Blakely RD, Richelson E: Pharmacological profile of antidepressants and related compounds at human monoamine transporters. Eur J Pharmacol. 1997 Dec 11;340(2-3):249-58. [9537821 ]