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Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2009-07-21 20:27:24 UTC
Update Date2014-12-24 20:25:52 UTC
Accession NumberT3D2857
Identification
Common NameGalantamine
ClassSmall Molecule
DescriptionA benzazepine derived from norbelladine. It is found in galanthus and other amaryllidaceae. Galantamine is a cholinesterase inhibitor that has been used to reverse the muscular effects of gallamine triethiodide and tubocurarine, and has been studied as a treatment for Alzheimer's disease and other central nervous system disorders. [PubChem]
Compound Type
  • Amine
  • Cholinesterase Inhibitor
  • Drug
  • Ether
  • Metabolite
  • Nootropic Agent
  • Organic Compound
  • Parasympathomimetic
  • Synthetic Compound
Chemical Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Synonym
(-)-Galanthamine
Galanthamine
Galanthamine hydrobromide
Lycoremine
Nivalin
Razadyne
Reminyl
Chemical FormulaC17H21NO3
Average Molecular Mass287.354 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass287.152 g/mol
CAS Registry Number357-70-0
IUPAC Name(1S,12S,14R)-9-methoxy-4-methyl-11-oxa-4-azatetracyclo[8.6.1.0¹,¹².0⁶,¹⁷]heptadeca-6(17),7,9,15-tetraen-14-ol
Traditional Namegalantamine
SMILES[H][C@]12C[C@@]([H])(O)C=C[C@]11CCN(C)CC3=C1C(O2)=C(OC)C=C3
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/C17H21NO3/c1-18-8-7-17-6-5-12(19)9-14(17)21-16-13(20-2)4-3-11(10-18)15(16)17/h3-6,12,14,19H,7-10H2,1-2H3/t12-,14-,17-/m0/s1
InChI KeyInChIKey=ASUTZQLVASHGKV-JDFRZJQESA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as galanthamine-type amaryllidaceae alkaloids. These are amaryllidaceae alkaloids with a structure characterized a tetracyclic skeleton with two ortho aromatic protons in ring A.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassAlkaloids and derivatives
ClassAmaryllidaceae alkaloids
Sub ClassGalanthamine-type amaryllidaceae alkaloids
Direct ParentGalanthamine-type amaryllidaceae alkaloids
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Galanthamine-type amaryllidaceae alkaloid
  • Benzazepine
  • Coumaran
  • Anisole
  • Alkyl aryl ether
  • Azepine
  • Aralkylamine
  • Benzenoid
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Tertiary amine
  • Tertiary aliphatic amine
  • Ether
  • Oxacycle
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Azacycle
  • Amine
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Alcohol
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
OriginExogenous
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationsNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
Applications
Biological Roles
Chemical Roles
Physical Properties
StateSolid
AppearanceWhite powder.
Experimental Properties
PropertyValue
Melting Point269-270°C (HBr salt)
Boiling PointNot Available
Solubility10 mg/mL (HBr salt)
LogP1.8
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility1.7 g/LALOGPS
logP1.39ALOGPS
logP1.16ChemAxon
logS-2.2ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)14.81ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)8.91ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area41.93 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count1ChemAxon
Refractivity82.3 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability31.4 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings4ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-010u-2090000000-ce0fee33e6fee456fb64JSpectraViewer
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-00fu-9137000000-e759a1bc34f489765011JSpectraViewer
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - , positivesplash10-000i-0390000000-f4f443a7f842d92dec39JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-00dr-0090000000-c09fea1137eb040ccff3JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-00dr-1090000000-e8fc73122c750f4a8b29JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-1000-4190000000-4e6f34da3d49bbf029b4JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-000i-0090000000-d57ff615302227895e9bJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-000i-0090000000-084d311da94f251627ebJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0w2c-1490000000-3ee999f09979ab3820f1JSpectraViewer
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-000l-5980000000-928ad889466b6a2b3827JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureOral
Mechanism of ToxicityGalantamine is a cholinesterase or acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor. A cholinesterase inhibitor (or 'anticholinesterase') suppresses the action of acetylcholinesterase. Because of its essential function, chemicals that interfere with the action of acetylcholinesterase are potent neurotoxins, causing excessive salivation and eye-watering in low doses, followed by muscle spasms and ultimately death. Nerve gases and many substances used in insecticides have been shown to act by binding a serine in the active site of acetylcholine esterase, inhibiting the enzyme completely. Acetylcholine esterase breaks down the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, which is released at nerve and muscle junctions, in order to allow the muscle or organ to relax. The result of acetylcholine esterase inhibition is that acetylcholine builds up and continues to act so that any nerve impulses are continually transmitted and muscle contractions do not stop. Among the most common acetylcholinesterase inhibitors are phosphorus-based compounds, which are designed to bind to the active site of the enzyme. The structural requirements are a phosphorus atom bearing two lipophilic groups, a leaving group (such as a halide or thiocyanate), and a terminal oxygen.
Metabolism Route of Elimination: Galantamine is metabolized by hepatic cytochrome P450 enzymes, glucuronidated, and excreted unchanged in the urine. Half Life: 7 hours
Toxicity ValuesLD50: 75 mg/kg (Rat) (5)
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)No indication of carcinogenicity to humans (not listed by IARC).
Uses/SourcesFor the treatment of mild to moderate dementia of the Alzheimer's type. Has also been investigated in patients with mild cognitive impairment who did not meet the diagnostic criteria for Alzheimer's disease.
Minimum Risk LevelNot Available
Health EffectsAcute exposure to cholinesterase inhibitors can cause a cholinergic crisis characterized by severe nausea/vomiting, salivation, sweating, bradycardia, hypotension, collapse, and convulsions. Increasing muscle weakness is a possibility and may result in death if respiratory muscles are involved. Accumulation of ACh at motor nerves causes overstimulation of nicotinic expression at the neuromuscular junction. When this occurs symptoms such as muscle weakness, fatigue, muscle cramps, fasciculation, and paralysis can be seen. When there is an accumulation of ACh at autonomic ganglia this causes overstimulation of nicotinic expression in the sympathetic system. Symptoms associated with this are hypertension, and hypoglycemia. Overstimulation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the central nervous system, due to accumulation of ACh, results in anxiety, headache, convulsions, ataxia, depression of respiration and circulation, tremor, general weakness, and potentially coma. When there is expression of muscarinic overstimulation due to excess acetylcholine at muscarinic acetylcholine receptors symptoms of visual disturbances, tightness in chest, wheezing due to bronchoconstriction, increased bronchial secretions, increased salivation, lacrimation, sweating, peristalsis, and urination can occur. Certain reproductive effects in fertility, growth, and development for males and females have been linked specifically to organophosphate pesticide exposure. Most of the research on reproductive effects has been conducted on farmers working with pesticides and insecticdes in rural areas. In females menstrual cycle disturbances, longer pregnancies, spontaneous abortions, stillbirths, and some developmental effects in offspring have been linked to organophosphate pesticide exposure. Prenatal exposure has been linked to impaired fetal growth and development. Neurotoxic effects have also been linked to poisoning with OP pesticides causing four neurotoxic effects in humans: cholinergic syndrome, intermediate syndrome, organophosphate-induced delayed polyneuropathy (OPIDP), and chronic organophosphate-induced neuropsychiatric disorder (COPIND). These syndromes result after acute and chronic exposure to OP pesticides.
SymptomsSymptoms of low dose exposure include excessive salivation and eye-watering. Acute dose symptoms include severe nausea/vomiting, salivation, sweating, bradycardia, hypotension, collapse, and convulsions. Increasing muscle weakness is a possibility and may result in death if respiratory muscles are involved. Hypertension, hypoglycemia, anxiety, headache, tremor and ataxia may also result.
TreatmentIf the compound has been ingested, rapid gastric lavage should be performed using 5% sodium bicarbonate. For skin contact, the skin should be washed with soap and water. If the compound has entered the eyes, they should be washed with large quantities of isotonic saline or water. In serious cases, atropine and/or pralidoxime should be administered. Anti-cholinergic drugs work to counteract the effects of excess acetylcholine and reactivate AChE. Atropine can be used as an antidote in conjunction with pralidoxime or other pyridinium oximes (such as trimedoxime or obidoxime), though the use of '-oximes' has been found to be of no benefit, or possibly harmful, in at least two meta-analyses. Atropine is a muscarinic antagonist, and thus blocks the action of acetylcholine peripherally.
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDDB00674
HMDB IDHMDB14812
PubChem Compound ID908828
ChEMBL IDCHEMBL659
ChemSpider ID23175565
KEGG IDC08526
UniProt IDNot Available
OMIM ID
ChEBI ID5264
BioCyc IDNot Available
CTD IDNot Available
Stitch IDGalantamine
PDB IDGNT
ACToR IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkGalantamine
References
Synthesis Reference

Vijaya Bolugoddu, Sanjay Shukla, Mukunda Jambula, Rajeshwar Sagyam, Ramchandra Pingili, Ananda Thirunavakarasu, “Preparation of (-)-galantamine hydrobromide.” U.S. Patent US20060009640, issued January 12, 2006.

MSDSLink
General References
  1. Scott LJ, Goa KL: Galantamine: a review of its use in Alzheimer's disease. Drugs. 2000 Nov;60(5):1095-122. [11129124 ]
  2. Greenblatt HM, Kryger G, Lewis T, Silman I, Sussman JL: Structure of acetylcholinesterase complexed with (-)-galanthamine at 2.3 A resolution. FEBS Lett. 1999 Dec 17;463(3):321-6. [10606746 ]
  3. Woodruff-Pak DS, Vogel RW 3rd, Wenk GL: Galantamine: effect on nicotinic receptor binding, acetylcholinesterase inhibition, and learning. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001 Feb 13;98(4):2089-94. Epub 2001 Feb 6. [11172080 ]
  4. Birks J: Cholinesterase inhibitors for Alzheimer's disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2006 Jan 25;(1):CD005593. [16437532 ]
  5. Wishart DS, Knox C, Guo AC, Cheng D, Shrivastava S, Tzur D, Gautam B, Hassanali M: DrugBank: a knowledgebase for drugs, drug actions and drug targets. Nucleic Acids Res. 2008 Jan;36(Database issue):D901-6. Epub 2007 Nov 29. [18048412 ]
  6. Olin J, Schneider L: Galantamine for Alzheimer's disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2002;(3):CD001747. [12137632 ]
  7. Drugs.com [Link]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated GenesNot Available
Down-Regulated GenesNot Available

Targets

General Function:
Serine hydrolase activity
Specific Function:
Terminates signal transduction at the neuromuscular junction by rapid hydrolysis of the acetylcholine released into the synaptic cleft. Role in neuronal apoptosis.
Gene Name:
ACHE
Uniprot ID:
P22303
Molecular Weight:
67795.525 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
Inhibitory0.06196 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 10404
Inhibitory0.3 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 10404
IC500.1 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 10404
IC500.3 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 10404
IC500.35 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 10404
IC500.5 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 10404
IC500.53 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 10404
IC500.59 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 10404
IC500.6 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 10404
IC500.8 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 10404
IC500.98 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 10404
IC501 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 10404
IC501.07 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 10404
IC501.18 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 10404
IC502.01 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 10404
IC502.09 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 10404
IC502.1 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 10404
IC502.6 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 10404
IC503.2 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 10404
IC507.3 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 10404
IC5073.9 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 10404
References
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  2. Greenblatt HM, Kryger G, Lewis T, Silman I, Sussman JL: Structure of acetylcholinesterase complexed with (-)-galanthamine at 2.3 A resolution. FEBS Lett. 1999 Dec 17;463(3):321-6. [10606746 ]
  3. Tonkopii VD, Prozorovskii VB, Suslova IM: [Interaction of reversible inhibitors with the catalytic centers and allosteric sites of cholinesterases]. Biull Eksp Biol Med. 1976 Aug;82(8):947-50. [1026294 ]
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General Function:
Ion channel activity
Specific Function:
After binding acetylcholine, the AChR responds by an extensive change in conformation that affects all subunits and leads to opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane.
Gene Name:
CHRNA1
Uniprot ID:
P02708
Molecular Weight:
54545.235 Da
References
  1. Scott LJ, Goa KL: Galantamine: a review of its use in Alzheimer's disease. Drugs. 2000 Nov;60(5):1095-122. [11129124 ]
  2. Lilienfeld S: Galantamine--a novel cholinergic drug with a unique dual mode of action for the treatment of patients with Alzheimer's disease. CNS Drug Rev. 2002 Summer;8(2):159-76. [12177686 ]
  3. Olin J, Schneider L: Galantamine for Alzheimer's disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2002;(3):CD001747. [12137632 ]
  4. Lilienfeld S, Parys W: Galantamine: additional benefits to patients with Alzheimer's disease. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord. 2000 Sep;11 Suppl 1:19-27. [10971048 ]
  5. Woodruff-Pak DS, Lander C, Geerts H: Nicotinic cholinergic modulation: galantamine as a prototype. CNS Drug Rev. 2002 Winter;8(4):405-26. [12481195 ]
  6. Hansen RA, Gartlehner G, Kaufer DJ, Lohr KN, Carey T: [20480924 ]
General Function:
Ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
After binding acetylcholine, the AChR responds by an extensive change in conformation that affects all subunits and leads to opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane.
Gene Name:
CHRNB1
Uniprot ID:
P11230
Molecular Weight:
56697.9 Da
References
  1. Scott LJ, Goa KL: Galantamine: a review of its use in Alzheimer's disease. Drugs. 2000 Nov;60(5):1095-122. [11129124 ]
  2. Lilienfeld S: Galantamine--a novel cholinergic drug with a unique dual mode of action for the treatment of patients with Alzheimer's disease. CNS Drug Rev. 2002 Summer;8(2):159-76. [12177686 ]
  3. Olin J, Schneider L: Galantamine for Alzheimer's disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2002;(3):CD001747. [12137632 ]
  4. Lilienfeld S, Parys W: Galantamine: additional benefits to patients with Alzheimer's disease. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord. 2000 Sep;11 Suppl 1:19-27. [10971048 ]
  5. Woodruff-Pak DS, Lander C, Geerts H: Nicotinic cholinergic modulation: galantamine as a prototype. CNS Drug Rev. 2002 Winter;8(4):405-26. [12481195 ]
  6. Hansen RA, Gartlehner G, Kaufer DJ, Lohr KN, Carey T: [20480924 ]
General Function:
Acetylcholine-activated cation-selective channel activity
Specific Function:
After binding acetylcholine, the AChR responds by an extensive change in conformation that affects all subunits and leads to opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane.
Gene Name:
CHRND
Uniprot ID:
Q07001
Molecular Weight:
58894.55 Da
References
  1. Scott LJ, Goa KL: Galantamine: a review of its use in Alzheimer's disease. Drugs. 2000 Nov;60(5):1095-122. [11129124 ]
  2. Lilienfeld S: Galantamine--a novel cholinergic drug with a unique dual mode of action for the treatment of patients with Alzheimer's disease. CNS Drug Rev. 2002 Summer;8(2):159-76. [12177686 ]
  3. Olin J, Schneider L: Galantamine for Alzheimer's disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2002;(3):CD001747. [12137632 ]
  4. Lilienfeld S, Parys W: Galantamine: additional benefits to patients with Alzheimer's disease. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord. 2000 Sep;11 Suppl 1:19-27. [10971048 ]
  5. Woodruff-Pak DS, Lander C, Geerts H: Nicotinic cholinergic modulation: galantamine as a prototype. CNS Drug Rev. 2002 Winter;8(4):405-26. [12481195 ]
  6. Hansen RA, Gartlehner G, Kaufer DJ, Lohr KN, Carey T: [20480924 ]
General Function:
Cation transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
After binding acetylcholine, the AChR responds by an extensive change in conformation that affects all subunits and leads to opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane.
Gene Name:
CHRNE
Uniprot ID:
Q04844
Molecular Weight:
54696.54 Da
References
  1. Scott LJ, Goa KL: Galantamine: a review of its use in Alzheimer's disease. Drugs. 2000 Nov;60(5):1095-122. [11129124 ]
  2. Lilienfeld S: Galantamine--a novel cholinergic drug with a unique dual mode of action for the treatment of patients with Alzheimer's disease. CNS Drug Rev. 2002 Summer;8(2):159-76. [12177686 ]
  3. Olin J, Schneider L: Galantamine for Alzheimer's disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2002;(3):CD001747. [12137632 ]
  4. Lilienfeld S, Parys W: Galantamine: additional benefits to patients with Alzheimer's disease. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord. 2000 Sep;11 Suppl 1:19-27. [10971048 ]
  5. Woodruff-Pak DS, Lander C, Geerts H: Nicotinic cholinergic modulation: galantamine as a prototype. CNS Drug Rev. 2002 Winter;8(4):405-26. [12481195 ]
  6. Hansen RA, Gartlehner G, Kaufer DJ, Lohr KN, Carey T: [20480924 ]
General Function:
Channel activity
Specific Function:
After binding acetylcholine, the AChR responds by an extensive change in conformation that affects all subunits and leads to opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane.
Gene Name:
CHRNG
Uniprot ID:
P07510
Molecular Weight:
57882.8 Da
References
  1. Scott LJ, Goa KL: Galantamine: a review of its use in Alzheimer's disease. Drugs. 2000 Nov;60(5):1095-122. [11129124 ]
  2. Lilienfeld S: Galantamine--a novel cholinergic drug with a unique dual mode of action for the treatment of patients with Alzheimer's disease. CNS Drug Rev. 2002 Summer;8(2):159-76. [12177686 ]
  3. Olin J, Schneider L: Galantamine for Alzheimer's disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2002;(3):CD001747. [12137632 ]
  4. Lilienfeld S, Parys W: Galantamine: additional benefits to patients with Alzheimer's disease. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord. 2000 Sep;11 Suppl 1:19-27. [10971048 ]
  5. Woodruff-Pak DS, Lander C, Geerts H: Nicotinic cholinergic modulation: galantamine as a prototype. CNS Drug Rev. 2002 Winter;8(4):405-26. [12481195 ]
  6. Hansen RA, Gartlehner G, Kaufer DJ, Lohr KN, Carey T: [20480924 ]
General Function:
Receptor binding
Specific Function:
Ionotropic receptor with a probable role in the modulation of auditory stimuli. Agonist binding may induce an extensive change in conformation that affects all subunits and leads to opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane. The channel is permeable to a range of divalent cations including calcium, the influx of which may activate a potassium current which hyperpolarizes the cell membrane. In the ear, this may lead to a reduction in basilar membrane motion, altering the activity of auditory nerve fibers and reducing the range of dynamic hearing. This may protect against acoustic trauma.
Gene Name:
CHRNA10
Uniprot ID:
Q9GZZ6
Molecular Weight:
49704.295 Da
References
  1. Scott LJ, Goa KL: Galantamine: a review of its use in Alzheimer's disease. Drugs. 2000 Nov;60(5):1095-122. [11129124 ]
  2. Lilienfeld S: Galantamine--a novel cholinergic drug with a unique dual mode of action for the treatment of patients with Alzheimer's disease. CNS Drug Rev. 2002 Summer;8(2):159-76. [12177686 ]
  3. Olin J, Schneider L: Galantamine for Alzheimer's disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2002;(3):CD001747. [12137632 ]
  4. Lilienfeld S, Parys W: Galantamine: additional benefits to patients with Alzheimer's disease. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord. 2000 Sep;11 Suppl 1:19-27. [10971048 ]
  5. Woodruff-Pak DS, Lander C, Geerts H: Nicotinic cholinergic modulation: galantamine as a prototype. CNS Drug Rev. 2002 Winter;8(4):405-26. [12481195 ]
  6. Hansen RA, Gartlehner G, Kaufer DJ, Lohr KN, Carey T: [20480924 ]
General Function:
Drug binding
Specific Function:
After binding acetylcholine, the AChR responds by an extensive change in conformation that affects all subunits and leads to opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane.
Gene Name:
CHRNA2
Uniprot ID:
Q15822
Molecular Weight:
59764.82 Da
References
  1. Scott LJ, Goa KL: Galantamine: a review of its use in Alzheimer's disease. Drugs. 2000 Nov;60(5):1095-122. [11129124 ]
  2. Lilienfeld S: Galantamine--a novel cholinergic drug with a unique dual mode of action for the treatment of patients with Alzheimer's disease. CNS Drug Rev. 2002 Summer;8(2):159-76. [12177686 ]
  3. Olin J, Schneider L: Galantamine for Alzheimer's disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2002;(3):CD001747. [12137632 ]
  4. Lilienfeld S, Parys W: Galantamine: additional benefits to patients with Alzheimer's disease. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord. 2000 Sep;11 Suppl 1:19-27. [10971048 ]
  5. Woodruff-Pak DS, Lander C, Geerts H: Nicotinic cholinergic modulation: galantamine as a prototype. CNS Drug Rev. 2002 Winter;8(4):405-26. [12481195 ]
  6. Hansen RA, Gartlehner G, Kaufer DJ, Lohr KN, Carey T: [20480924 ]
General Function:
Ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
After binding acetylcholine, the AChR responds by an extensive change in conformation that affects all subunits and leads to opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane.
Gene Name:
CHRNA3
Uniprot ID:
P32297
Molecular Weight:
57479.54 Da
References
  1. Scott LJ, Goa KL: Galantamine: a review of its use in Alzheimer's disease. Drugs. 2000 Nov;60(5):1095-122. [11129124 ]
  2. Lilienfeld S: Galantamine--a novel cholinergic drug with a unique dual mode of action for the treatment of patients with Alzheimer's disease. CNS Drug Rev. 2002 Summer;8(2):159-76. [12177686 ]
  3. Olin J, Schneider L: Galantamine for Alzheimer's disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2002;(3):CD001747. [12137632 ]
  4. Lilienfeld S, Parys W: Galantamine: additional benefits to patients with Alzheimer's disease. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord. 2000 Sep;11 Suppl 1:19-27. [10971048 ]
  5. Woodruff-Pak DS, Lander C, Geerts H: Nicotinic cholinergic modulation: galantamine as a prototype. CNS Drug Rev. 2002 Winter;8(4):405-26. [12481195 ]
  6. Hansen RA, Gartlehner G, Kaufer DJ, Lohr KN, Carey T: [20480924 ]
General Function:
Ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
After binding acetylcholine, the AChR responds by an extensive change in conformation that affects all subunits and leads to opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane permeable to sodium ions.
Gene Name:
CHRNA4
Uniprot ID:
P43681
Molecular Weight:
69956.47 Da
References
  1. Scott LJ, Goa KL: Galantamine: a review of its use in Alzheimer's disease. Drugs. 2000 Nov;60(5):1095-122. [11129124 ]
  2. Lilienfeld S: Galantamine--a novel cholinergic drug with a unique dual mode of action for the treatment of patients with Alzheimer's disease. CNS Drug Rev. 2002 Summer;8(2):159-76. [12177686 ]
  3. Olin J, Schneider L: Galantamine for Alzheimer's disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2002;(3):CD001747. [12137632 ]
  4. Lilienfeld S, Parys W: Galantamine: additional benefits to patients with Alzheimer's disease. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord. 2000 Sep;11 Suppl 1:19-27. [10971048 ]
  5. Woodruff-Pak DS, Lander C, Geerts H: Nicotinic cholinergic modulation: galantamine as a prototype. CNS Drug Rev. 2002 Winter;8(4):405-26. [12481195 ]
  6. Hansen RA, Gartlehner G, Kaufer DJ, Lohr KN, Carey T: [20480924 ]
General Function:
Ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
After binding acetylcholine, the AChR responds by an extensive change in conformation that affects all subunits and leads to opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane.
Gene Name:
CHRNA5
Uniprot ID:
P30532
Molecular Weight:
53053.965 Da
References
  1. Scott LJ, Goa KL: Galantamine: a review of its use in Alzheimer's disease. Drugs. 2000 Nov;60(5):1095-122. [11129124 ]
  2. Lilienfeld S: Galantamine--a novel cholinergic drug with a unique dual mode of action for the treatment of patients with Alzheimer's disease. CNS Drug Rev. 2002 Summer;8(2):159-76. [12177686 ]
  3. Olin J, Schneider L: Galantamine for Alzheimer's disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2002;(3):CD001747. [12137632 ]
  4. Lilienfeld S, Parys W: Galantamine: additional benefits to patients with Alzheimer's disease. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord. 2000 Sep;11 Suppl 1:19-27. [10971048 ]
  5. Woodruff-Pak DS, Lander C, Geerts H: Nicotinic cholinergic modulation: galantamine as a prototype. CNS Drug Rev. 2002 Winter;8(4):405-26. [12481195 ]
  6. Hansen RA, Gartlehner G, Kaufer DJ, Lohr KN, Carey T: [20480924 ]
General Function:
Acetylcholine-activated cation-selective channel activity
Specific Function:
After binding acetylcholine, the AChR responds by an extensive change in conformation that affects all subunits and leads to opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane.
Gene Name:
CHRNA6
Uniprot ID:
Q15825
Molecular Weight:
56897.745 Da
References
  1. Scott LJ, Goa KL: Galantamine: a review of its use in Alzheimer's disease. Drugs. 2000 Nov;60(5):1095-122. [11129124 ]
  2. Lilienfeld S: Galantamine--a novel cholinergic drug with a unique dual mode of action for the treatment of patients with Alzheimer's disease. CNS Drug Rev. 2002 Summer;8(2):159-76. [12177686 ]
  3. Olin J, Schneider L: Galantamine for Alzheimer's disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2002;(3):CD001747. [12137632 ]
  4. Lilienfeld S, Parys W: Galantamine: additional benefits to patients with Alzheimer's disease. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord. 2000 Sep;11 Suppl 1:19-27. [10971048 ]
  5. Woodruff-Pak DS, Lander C, Geerts H: Nicotinic cholinergic modulation: galantamine as a prototype. CNS Drug Rev. 2002 Winter;8(4):405-26. [12481195 ]
  6. Hansen RA, Gartlehner G, Kaufer DJ, Lohr KN, Carey T: [20480924 ]
General Function:
Toxic substance binding
Specific Function:
After binding acetylcholine, the AChR responds by an extensive change in conformation that affects all subunits and leads to opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane. The channel is blocked by alpha-bungarotoxin.
Gene Name:
CHRNA7
Uniprot ID:
P36544
Molecular Weight:
56448.925 Da
References
  1. Scott LJ, Goa KL: Galantamine: a review of its use in Alzheimer's disease. Drugs. 2000 Nov;60(5):1095-122. [11129124 ]
  2. Lilienfeld S: Galantamine--a novel cholinergic drug with a unique dual mode of action for the treatment of patients with Alzheimer's disease. CNS Drug Rev. 2002 Summer;8(2):159-76. [12177686 ]
  3. Olin J, Schneider L: Galantamine for Alzheimer's disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2002;(3):CD001747. [12137632 ]
  4. Lilienfeld S, Parys W: Galantamine: additional benefits to patients with Alzheimer's disease. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord. 2000 Sep;11 Suppl 1:19-27. [10971048 ]
  5. Woodruff-Pak DS, Lander C, Geerts H: Nicotinic cholinergic modulation: galantamine as a prototype. CNS Drug Rev. 2002 Winter;8(4):405-26. [12481195 ]
  6. Hansen RA, Gartlehner G, Kaufer DJ, Lohr KN, Carey T: [20480924 ]
General Function:
Calcium channel activity
Specific Function:
Ionotropic receptor with a probable role in the modulation of auditory stimuli. Agonist binding induces a conformation change that leads to the opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane (PubMed:11752216, PubMed:25282151). The channel is permeable to a range of divalent cations including calcium, the influx of which may activate a potassium current which hyperpolarizes the cell membrane (PubMed:11752216, PubMed:25282151). In the ear, this may lead to a reduction in basilar membrane motion, altering the activity of auditory nerve fibers and reducing the range of dynamic hearing. This may protect against acoustic trauma. May also regulate keratinocyte adhesion (PubMed:11021840).
Gene Name:
CHRNA9
Uniprot ID:
Q9UGM1
Molecular Weight:
54806.63 Da
References
  1. Scott LJ, Goa KL: Galantamine: a review of its use in Alzheimer's disease. Drugs. 2000 Nov;60(5):1095-122. [11129124 ]
  2. Lilienfeld S: Galantamine--a novel cholinergic drug with a unique dual mode of action for the treatment of patients with Alzheimer's disease. CNS Drug Rev. 2002 Summer;8(2):159-76. [12177686 ]
  3. Olin J, Schneider L: Galantamine for Alzheimer's disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2002;(3):CD001747. [12137632 ]
  4. Lilienfeld S, Parys W: Galantamine: additional benefits to patients with Alzheimer's disease. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord. 2000 Sep;11 Suppl 1:19-27. [10971048 ]
  5. Woodruff-Pak DS, Lander C, Geerts H: Nicotinic cholinergic modulation: galantamine as a prototype. CNS Drug Rev. 2002 Winter;8(4):405-26. [12481195 ]
  6. Hansen RA, Gartlehner G, Kaufer DJ, Lohr KN, Carey T: [20480924 ]
General Function:
Ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
After binding acetylcholine, the AChR responds by an extensive change in conformation that affects all subunits and leads to opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane permeable to sodiun ions.
Gene Name:
CHRNB2
Uniprot ID:
P17787
Molecular Weight:
57018.575 Da
References
  1. Scott LJ, Goa KL: Galantamine: a review of its use in Alzheimer's disease. Drugs. 2000 Nov;60(5):1095-122. [11129124 ]
  2. Lilienfeld S: Galantamine--a novel cholinergic drug with a unique dual mode of action for the treatment of patients with Alzheimer's disease. CNS Drug Rev. 2002 Summer;8(2):159-76. [12177686 ]
  3. Olin J, Schneider L: Galantamine for Alzheimer's disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2002;(3):CD001747. [12137632 ]
  4. Lilienfeld S, Parys W: Galantamine: additional benefits to patients with Alzheimer's disease. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord. 2000 Sep;11 Suppl 1:19-27. [10971048 ]
  5. Woodruff-Pak DS, Lander C, Geerts H: Nicotinic cholinergic modulation: galantamine as a prototype. CNS Drug Rev. 2002 Winter;8(4):405-26. [12481195 ]
  6. Hansen RA, Gartlehner G, Kaufer DJ, Lohr KN, Carey T: [20480924 ]
General Function:
Drug binding
Specific Function:
After binding acetylcholine, the AChR responds by an extensive change in conformation that affects all subunits and leads to opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane.
Gene Name:
CHRNB3
Uniprot ID:
Q05901
Molecular Weight:
52728.215 Da
References
  1. Scott LJ, Goa KL: Galantamine: a review of its use in Alzheimer's disease. Drugs. 2000 Nov;60(5):1095-122. [11129124 ]
  2. Lilienfeld S: Galantamine--a novel cholinergic drug with a unique dual mode of action for the treatment of patients with Alzheimer's disease. CNS Drug Rev. 2002 Summer;8(2):159-76. [12177686 ]
  3. Olin J, Schneider L: Galantamine for Alzheimer's disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2002;(3):CD001747. [12137632 ]
  4. Lilienfeld S, Parys W: Galantamine: additional benefits to patients with Alzheimer's disease. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord. 2000 Sep;11 Suppl 1:19-27. [10971048 ]
  5. Woodruff-Pak DS, Lander C, Geerts H: Nicotinic cholinergic modulation: galantamine as a prototype. CNS Drug Rev. 2002 Winter;8(4):405-26. [12481195 ]
  6. Hansen RA, Gartlehner G, Kaufer DJ, Lohr KN, Carey T: [20480924 ]
General Function:
Ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
After binding acetylcholine, the AChR responds by an extensive change in conformation that affects all subunits and leads to opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane.
Gene Name:
CHRNB4
Uniprot ID:
P30926
Molecular Weight:
56378.985 Da
References
  1. Scott LJ, Goa KL: Galantamine: a review of its use in Alzheimer's disease. Drugs. 2000 Nov;60(5):1095-122. [11129124 ]
  2. Lilienfeld S: Galantamine--a novel cholinergic drug with a unique dual mode of action for the treatment of patients with Alzheimer's disease. CNS Drug Rev. 2002 Summer;8(2):159-76. [12177686 ]
  3. Olin J, Schneider L: Galantamine for Alzheimer's disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2002;(3):CD001747. [12137632 ]
  4. Lilienfeld S, Parys W: Galantamine: additional benefits to patients with Alzheimer's disease. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord. 2000 Sep;11 Suppl 1:19-27. [10971048 ]
  5. Woodruff-Pak DS, Lander C, Geerts H: Nicotinic cholinergic modulation: galantamine as a prototype. CNS Drug Rev. 2002 Winter;8(4):405-26. [12481195 ]
  6. Hansen RA, Gartlehner G, Kaufer DJ, Lohr KN, Carey T: [20480924 ]
General Function:
Identical protein binding
Specific Function:
Esterase with broad substrate specificity. Contributes to the inactivation of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Can degrade neurotoxic organophosphate esters.
Gene Name:
BCHE
Uniprot ID:
P06276
Molecular Weight:
68417.575 Da
References
  1. Svoboda Z, Kvetina J, Kunesova G, Herink J, Bajgar J, Bartosova L, Zivny P, Palicka V: Effect of galantamine on acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase activities in the presence of L-carnitine in rat selected brain and peripheral tissues. Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2006 Dec;27 Suppl 2:183-6. [17159811 ]
  2. Giacobini E: Selective inhibitors of butyrylcholinesterase: a valid alternative for therapy of Alzheimer's disease? Drugs Aging. 2001;18(12):891-8. [11888344 ]
  3. Wilkinson DG: Galantamine: a new treatment for Alzheimer's disease. Expert Rev Neurother. 2001 Nov;1(2):153-9. doi: 10.1586/14737175.1.2.153. [19811027 ]
General Function:
Serine hydrolase activity
Specific Function:
Terminates signal transduction at the neuromuscular junction by rapid hydrolysis of the acetylcholine released into the synaptic cleft. Role in neuronal apoptosis.
Gene Name:
ACHE
Uniprot ID:
P22303
Molecular Weight:
67795.525 Da