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Record Information
Creation Date2009-07-21 20:28:00 UTC
Update Date2014-12-24 20:25:53 UTC
Accession NumberT3D2936
Common NameAspirin
ClassSmall Molecule
DescriptionAcetylsalicylic acid (acetosal) or aspirin is only found in individuals who have consumed this drug. Acetylsalicylic acid is a drug in the family of salicylates, often used as an analgesic (against minor pains and aches), antipyretic (against fever), and anti-inflammatory. It has also an anticoagulant effect and is used in long-term low-doses to prevent heart attacks and cancer. It was isolated from meadowsweet (Filipendula ulmaria, formerly classified as Spiraea ulmaria) by German researchers in 1839. While their extract was somewhat effective, it also caused digestive problems such as irritated stomach and diarrhoea, and even death when consumed in high doses. In 1853, a French chemist named Charles Frederic Gerhardt neutralized salicylic acid by buffering it with sodium (sodium salicylate) and acetyl chloride, creating acetosalicylic anhydride. Gerhardt's product worked, but he had no desire to market it and abandoned his discovery. In 1897, researcher Arthur Eichengrun and Felix Hoffmann, a research assistant at Friedrich Bayer & Co. in Germany, derivatized one of the hydroxyl functional groups in salicylic acid with an acetyl group (forming the acetyl ester), which greatly reduced the negative effects. This was the first synthetic drug, not a copy of something that existed in nature, and the start of the pharmaceuticals industry. The name 'aspirin' is composed of a- (from the acetyl group) -spir- (from the plant genus Spiraea) and -in (a common ending for drugs at the time). It has also been stated that the name originated by another means. As referring to AcetylSalicylic and 'pir' in reference to one of the scientists who was able to isolate it in crystalline form, Raffaele Piria. Finally 'in' due to the same reasons as stated above. Salicylic acid (which is a naturally occurring substance found in many plants) can be acetylated using acetic anhydride, yielding aspirin and acetic acid as a byproduct. It is a common experiment performed in organic chemistry labs, and generally tends to produce low yields due to the relative difficulty of its extraction from an aqueous state. The trick to getting the reaction to work is to acidify with phosphoric acid and heat the reagents under reflux with a boiling water bath for between 40 minutes and an hour. Aspirin acts as an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase which results in the inhibition of the biosynthesis of prostaglandins. Aspirin also inhibits platelet aggregation and is used in the prevention of arterial and venous thrombosis. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p5).
Compound Type
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agent, Non-Steroidal
  • Anticoagulant
  • Antipyretic
  • Cyclooxygenase Inhibitor
  • Drug
  • Ester
  • Fibrinolytic Agent
  • Food Toxin
  • Metabolite
  • Organic Compound
  • Platelet Aggregation Inhibitor
  • Salicylate
  • Synthetic Compound
Chemical Structure
2-(Acetyloxy)benzoic acid
2-Acetoxybenzenecarboxylic acid
2-Acetoxybenzoic acid
2-Carboxyphenyl acetate
Acetylsalicylic acid
Acetysalicylic acid
Acide 2-(acetyloxy)benzoique
Acide acétylsalicylique
ácido acetilsalicílico
Acidum acetylsalicylicum
Bayer Aspirin
O-(Acetyloxy)benzoic acid
O-Acetoxybenzoic acid
O-Acetylsalicylic acid
O-Carboxyphenyl acetate
Salicylic acid acetate
Solprin acid
St. Joseph Aspirin for Adults
Chemical FormulaC9H8O4
Average Molecular Mass180.157 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass180.042 g/mol
CAS Registry Number50-78-2
IUPAC Name2-(acetyloxy)benzoic acid
Traditional Nameaspirin
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/C9H8O4/c1-6(10)13-8-5-3-2-4-7(8)9(11)12/h2-5H,1H3,(H,11,12)
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as acylsalicylic acids. These are o-acylated derivatives of salicylic acid.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassBenzenoids
ClassBenzene and substituted derivatives
Sub ClassBenzoic acids and derivatives
Direct ParentAcylsalicylic acids
Alternative Parents
  • Acylsalicylic acid
  • Phenol ester
  • Benzoic acid
  • Phenoxy compound
  • Benzoyl
  • Dicarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Carboxylic acid ester
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Aromatic homomonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue Locations
  • Platelet
Acetylsalicylic Acid PathwayNot AvailableNot Available
Biological Roles
Chemical Roles
Physical Properties
AppearanceWhite powder.
Experimental Properties
Melting Point135°C
Boiling Point140°C
Solubility4600 mg/L (at 25°C)
Predicted Properties
Water Solubility1.46 g/LALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)3.41ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-7.1ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area63.6 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count3ChemAxon
Refractivity44.45 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability17.1 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyDeposition DateView
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (Non-derivatized)splash10-014l-2960000000-ffcb8d28ab7e460b0da82014-06-16View Spectrum
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 TMS)splash10-006w-2910000000-910e8ce2493a05870b332014-06-16View Spectrum
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-00dl-9400000000-64327d3bef0063cf4fe12017-09-12View Spectrum
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - CI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-00di-0900000000-113943b65024522c17122017-09-12View Spectrum
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-014i-1590000000-7890c99ca2b0e2c4ff192017-09-12View Spectrum
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-014l-2960000000-ffcb8d28ab7e460b0da82017-09-12View Spectrum
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-006w-2910000000-910e8ce2493a05870b332017-09-12View Spectrum
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-006w-2900000000-253eb678a85f77d4ba612017-09-12View Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-000f-8900000000-760033c820b78b9452ed2017-08-28View Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-00dl-9830000000-b3fcef47ab2b2ba0e7d12017-10-06View Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, PositiveNot Available2021-10-12View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-00kr-6900000000-324f46e8def1652ed4bf2012-07-24View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-000i-9000000000-cdf64eaf75083da6f3552012-07-24View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-000i-9000000000-ee75806b6fb8a38fd6972012-07-24View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - EI-B (Unknown) , Positivesplash10-00dl-9400000000-64327d3bef0063cf4fe12012-08-31View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - CI-B (Unknown) , Positivesplash10-00di-0900000000-113943b65024522c17122012-08-31View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativesplash10-000i-1900000000-bc50013edb10656e0aa42017-09-14View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativesplash10-000i-2900000000-8c55c1f8d7cb7f247a5d2017-09-14View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativesplash10-000l-9700000000-d475fd0478daf18a419a2017-09-14View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativesplash10-0006-9100000000-3daaf3c8697e17e678692017-09-14View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativesplash10-0006-9000000000-ee876bcdd1a5c7c229a02017-09-14View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativesplash10-0006-9000000000-cd4e1f8fe0a2bbc869f92017-09-14View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativesplash10-0006-9000000000-4dca49851b5b9fd03d1a2017-09-14View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativesplash10-00kf-9000000000-4611655c6aff89d706eb2017-09-14View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativesplash10-014l-9000000000-4d636e2d7318b857528d2017-09-14View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positivesplash10-01ot-0900000000-1256ca04e4244fbc4a642017-09-14View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positivesplash10-01ot-0900000000-2cae7e19320bfa1a03a02017-09-14View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positivesplash10-01ot-0900000000-42f69c49b256900b75242017-09-14View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positivesplash10-01ot-0900000000-4860d5cbeeb9c31311ec2017-09-14View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positivesplash10-006t-3900000000-cc185048e2a1bcc521242017-09-14View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-001i-0900000000-96fcc874bfbf44a6ce6c2017-07-26View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-0019-1900000000-8ea2ab1846fc78de42622017-07-26View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0fkc-9700000000-53fc1f45243a05bf1c172017-07-26View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-002r-1900000000-421bc1739eeb6dced80a2017-07-26View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-000l-4900000000-1c7dec3a4993a5b23cd82017-07-26View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0006-9100000000-81a6114ec99ac0f0f3932017-07-26View Spectrum
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-00dl-6900000000-74f8a29aa18d0c3afe982014-09-20View Spectrum
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 600 MHz, H2O, experimental)Not Available2012-12-04View Spectrum
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 400 MHz, CDCl3, experimental)Not Available2014-09-20View Spectrum
1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 50.18 MHz, CDCl3, experimental)Not Available2014-09-23View Spectrum
2D NMR[1H, 13C]-HSQC NMR Spectrum (2D, 600 MHz, H2O, experimental)Not Available2012-12-05View Spectrum
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureAbsorption is generally rapid and complete following oral administration but may vary according to specific salicylate used, dosage form, and other factors such as tablet dissolution rate and gastric or intraluminal pH.
Mechanism of ToxicityThe analgesic, antipyretic, and anti-inflammatory effects of acetylsalicylic acid are due to actions by both the acetyl and the salicylate portions of the intact molecule as well as by the active salicylate metabolite. Acetylsalicylic acid directly and irreversibly inhibits the activity of both types of cyclooxygenase (COX-1 and COX-2) to decrease the formation of precursors of prostaglandins and thromboxanes from arachidonic acid. This makes acetylsalicylic acid different from other NSAIDS (such as diclofenac and ibuprofen) which are reversible inhibitors. Salicylate may competitively inhibit prostaglandin formation. Acetylsalicylic acid's antirheumatic (nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory) actions are a result of its analgesic and anti-inflammatory mechanisms; the therapeutic effects are not due to pituitary-adrenal stimulation. The platelet aggregation-inhibiting effect of acetylsalicylic acid specifically involves the compound's ability to act as an acetyl donor to cyclooxygenase; the nonacetylated salicylates have no clinically significant effect on platelet aggregation. Irreversible acetylation renders cyclooxygenase inactive, thereby preventing the formation of the aggregating agent thromboxane A2 in platelets. Since platelets lack the ability to synthesize new proteins, the effects persist for the life of the exposed platelets (7-10 days). Acetylsalicylic acid may also inhibit production of the platelet aggregation inhibitor, prostacyclin (prostaglandin I2), by blood vessel endothelial cells; however, inhibition prostacyclin production is not permanent as endothelial cells can produce more cyclooxygenase to replace the non-functional enzyme.
MetabolismAcetylsalicylic acid is rapidly hydrolyzed primarily in the liver to salicylic acid, which is conjugated with glycine (forming salicyluric acid) and glucuronic acid and excreted largely in the urine. Half Life: The plasma half-life is approximately 15 minutes; that for salicylate lengthens as the dose increases: doses of 300 to 650 mg have a half-life of 3.1 to 3.2 hours; with doses of 1 gram, the half-life is increased to 5 hours and with 2 grams it is increased to about 9 hours.
Toxicity ValuesLD50: 250 mg/kg (Oral, Mouse) (6) LD50: 1010 mg/kg (Oral, Rabbit) (6) LD50: 200 mg/kg (Oral, Rat) (6)
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)No indication of carcinogenicity to humans (not listed by IARC).
Uses/SourcesFor use in the temporary relief of various forms of pain, inflammation associated with various conditions (including rheumatoid arthritis, juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, osteoarthritis, and ankylosing spondylitis), and is also used to reduce the risk of death and/or nonfatal myocardial infarction in patients with a previous infarction or unstable angina pectoris.
Minimum Risk LevelNot Available
Health EffectsMight increase the risk of gastrointestinal bleeding; large doses of salicylate, a metabolite of aspirin, have been proposed to cause tinnitus; Reye's syndrome, a severe illness characterized by acute encephalopathy and fatty liver, can occur when children or adolescents are given aspirin for a fever or other illnesses or infections. [Wikipedia]
SymptomsEffects of overdose include: tinnitus, abdominal pain, hypokalemia, hypoglycemia, pyrexia, hyperventilation, dysrhythmia, hypotension, hallucination, renal failure, confusion, seizure, coma, and death.
TreatmentNot Available
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDDB00945
PubChem Compound ID2244
ChemSpider ID2157
UniProt IDNot Available
ChEBI ID15365
BioCyc IDCPD-524
CTD IDNot Available
Stitch IDAspirin
Wikipedia LinkAspirin
Synthesis Reference

Marino Gobetti, Guido Vandoni, “Acetylsalicylic acid thioesters, a process for their preparation and pharmaceutical compositions containing them.” U.S. Patent US4563443, issued March, 1981.

General References
  1. Macdonald S: Aspirin use to be banned in under 16 year olds. BMJ. 2002 Nov 2;325(7371):988. [12411346 ]
  2. Sneader W: The discovery of aspirin: a reappraisal. BMJ. 2000 Dec 23-30;321(7276):1591-4. [11124191 ]
  3. Aukerman G, Knutson D, Miser WF: Management of the acute migraine headache. Am Fam Physician. 2002 Dec 1;66(11):2123-30. [12484694 ]
  4. Randomised trial of intravenous streptokinase, oral aspirin, both, or neither among 17,187 cases of suspected acute myocardial infarction: ISIS-2. ISIS-2 (Second International Study of Infarct Survival) Collaborative Group. Lancet. 1988 Aug 13;2(8607):349-60. [2899772 ]
  5. Dorsch MP, Lee JS, Lynch DR, Dunn SP, Rodgers JE, Schwartz T, Colby E, Montague D, Smyth SS: Aspirin resistance in patients with stable coronary artery disease with and without a history of myocardial infarction. Ann Pharmacother. 2007 May;41(5):737-41. Epub 2007 Apr 24. [17456544 ]
  6. Wishart DS, Knox C, Guo AC, Cheng D, Shrivastava S, Tzur D, Gautam B, Hassanali M: DrugBank: a knowledgebase for drugs, drug actions and drug targets. Nucleic Acids Res. 2008 Jan;36(Database issue):D901-6. Epub 2007 Nov 29. [18048412 ]
  7. Frelinger AL 3rd, Furman MI, Linden MD, Li Y, Fox ML, Barnard MR, Michelson AD: Residual arachidonic acid-induced platelet activation via an adenosine diphosphate-dependent but cyclooxygenase-1- and cyclooxygenase-2-independent pathway: a 700-patient study of aspirin resistance. Circulation. 2006 Jun 27;113(25):2888-96. Epub 2006 Jun 19. [16785341 ]
  8. Eikelboom J, Feldman M, Mehta SR, Michelson AD, Oates JA, Topol E: Aspirin resistance and its implications in clinical practice. MedGenMed. 2005 Jul 11;7(3):76. [16369302 ]
  9. Konrad CJ, Schuepfer GK, Gerber H, Rukwied R, Schmelz M, Schley M: Duration of effects of aspirin on platelet function in healthy volunteers: an analysis using the PFA-100. J Clin Anesth. 2006 Feb;18(1):12-7. [16517326 ]
  10. Faraday N, Becker DM, Yanek LR, Herrera-Galeano JE, Segal JB, Moy TF, Bray PF, Becker LC: Relation between atherosclerosis risk factors and aspirin resistance in a primary prevention population. Am J Cardiol. 2006 Sep 15;98(6):774-9. Epub 2006 Jul 28. [16950183 ]
  11. Lee SH, Rhim T, Choi YS, Min JW, Kim SH, Cho SY, Paik YK, Park CS: Complement C3a and C4a increased in plasma of patients with aspirin-induced asthma. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2006 Feb 15;173(4):370-8. Epub 2005 Nov 17. [16293803 ]
  12. Perneby C, Wallen NH, Rooney C, Fitzgerald D, Hjemdahl P: Dose- and time-dependent antiplatelet effects of aspirin. Thromb Haemost. 2006 Apr;95(4):652-8. [16601836 ]
  13. Maree AO, Curtin RJ, Chubb A, Dolan C, Cox D, O'Brien J, Crean P, Shields DC, Fitzgerald DJ: Cyclooxygenase-1 haplotype modulates platelet response to aspirin. J Thromb Haemost. 2005 Oct;3(10):2340-5. Epub 2005 Sep 9. [16150050 ]
  14. Satoh K, Ozaki Y: [Attempts for aspirin monitoring with a new assay system, Ultegra Rapid Platelet Function Assay (RPFA), based on turbidimetric platelet agglutination of whole blood samples]. Rinsho Byori. 2006 Jun;54(6):576-82. [16872006 ]
  15. Eikelboom JW, Hankey GJ, Thom J, Claxton A, Yi Q, Gilmore G, Staton J, Barden A, Norman PE: Enhanced antiplatelet effect of clopidogrel in patients whose platelets are least inhibited by aspirin: a randomized crossover trial. J Thromb Haemost. 2005 Dec;3(12):2649-55. [16359503 ]
  16. Cornelissen J, Kirtland S, Lim E, Goddard M, Bellm S, Sheridan K, Large S, Vuylsteke A: Biological efficacy of low against medium dose aspirin regimen after coronary surgery: analysis of platelet function. Thromb Haemost. 2006 Mar;95(3):476-82. [16525576 ]
  17. Eliasson B, Cederholm J, Nilsson P, Gudbjornsdottir S: The gap between guidelines and reality: Type 2 diabetes in a National Diabetes Register 1996-2003. Diabet Med. 2005 Oct;22(10):1420-6. [16176206 ]
  18. Zailaie MZ: Aspirin reduces serum anti-melanocyte antibodies and soluble interleukin-2 receptors in vitiligo patients. Saudi Med J. 2005 Jul;26(7):1085-91. [16047057 ]
  19. Aktas B, Pozgajova M, Bergmeier W, Sunnarborg S, Offermanns S, Lee D, Wagner DD, Nieswandt B: Aspirin induces platelet receptor shedding via ADAM17 (TACE). J Biol Chem. 2005 Dec 2;280(48):39716-22. Epub 2005 Sep 22. [16179345 ]
  20. Maree AO, Curtin RJ, Dooley M, Conroy RM, Crean P, Cox D, Fitzgerald DJ: Platelet response to low-dose enteric-coated aspirin in patients with stable cardiovascular disease. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2005 Oct 4;46(7):1258-63. [16198840 ]
  21. Lev EI, Patel RT, Maresh KJ, Guthikonda S, Granada J, DeLao T, Bray PF, Kleiman NS: Aspirin and clopidogrel drug response in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention: the role of dual drug resistance. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2006 Jan 3;47(1):27-33. Epub 2005 Dec 9. [16386660 ]
  22. Sun W, Gerhardinger C, Dagher Z, Hoehn T, Lorenzi M: Aspirin at low-intermediate concentrations protects retinal vessels in experimental diabetic retinopathy through non-platelet-mediated effects. Diabetes. 2005 Dec;54(12):3418-26. [16306357 ]
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  27. [Link]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated Genes
GeneGene SymbolGene IDInteractionChromosomeDetails
Down-Regulated Genes
GeneGene SymbolGene IDInteractionChromosomeDetails


General Function:
Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase activity
Specific Function:
Converts arachidonate to prostaglandin H2 (PGH2), a committed step in prostanoid synthesis. Constitutively expressed in some tissues in physiological conditions, such as the endothelium, kidney and brain, and in pathological conditions, such as in cancer. PTGS2 is responsible for production of inflammatory prostaglandins. Up-regulation of PTGS2 is also associated with increased cell adhesion, phenotypic changes, resistance to apoptosis and tumor angiogenesis. In cancer cells, PTGS2 is a key step in the production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), which plays important roles in modulating motility, proliferation and resistance to apoptosis.
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular Weight:
68995.625 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
Inhibitory>10 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 22360
IC502.4 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 22360
IC5019.8 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 22360
IC5062.5 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 22360
IC50100 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 22360
IC50710 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 22360
IC501000 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 22360
IC501050 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 22360
IC501413.3 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 22360
IC5018000 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 22360
IC50>400 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 22360
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  9. Chowdhury MA, Abdellatif KR, Dong Y, Das D, Yu G, Velazquez CA, Suresh MR, Knaus EE: Synthesis and biological evaluation of salicylic acid and N-acetyl-2-carboxybenzenesulfonamide regioisomers possessing a N-difluoromethyl-1,2-dihydropyrid-2-one pharmacophore: dual inhibitors of cyclooxygenases and 5-lipoxygenase with anti-inflammatory activity. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2009 Dec 15;19(24):6855-61. doi: 10.1016/j.bmcl.2009.10.083. Epub 2009 Oct 23. [19884005 ]
  10. Chowdhury MA, Abdellatif KR, Dong Y, Yu G, Huang Z, Rahman M, Das D, Velazquez CA, Suresh MR, Knaus EE: Celecoxib analogs possessing a N-(4-nitrooxybutyl)piperidin-4-yl or N-(4-nitrooxybutyl)-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridin-4-yl nitric oxide donor moiety: synthesis, biological evaluation and nitric oxide release studies. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2010 Feb 15;20(4):1324-9. doi: 10.1016/j.bmcl.2010.01.014. Epub 2010 Jan 11. [20097072 ]
  11. Abdellatif KR, Chowdhury MA, Velazquez CA, Huang Z, Dong Y, Das D, Yu G, Suresh MR, Knaus EE: Celecoxib prodrugs possessing a diazen-1-ium-1,2-diolate nitric oxide donor moiety: synthesis, biological evaluation and nitric oxide release studies. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2010 Aug 1;20(15):4544-9. doi: 10.1016/j.bmcl.2010.06.022. Epub 2010 Jun 8. [20576432 ]
  12. Jain S, Tran S, El Gendy MA, Kashfi K, Jurasz P, Velazquez-Martinez CA: Nitric oxide release is not required to decrease the ulcerogenic profile of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. J Med Chem. 2012 Jan 26;55(2):688-96. doi: 10.1021/jm200973j. Epub 2012 Jan 10. [22148253 ]
  13. Kaur J, Bhardwaj A, Huang Z, Knaus EE: N-1 and C-3 substituted indole Schiff bases as selective COX-2 inhibitors: synthesis and biological evaluation. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2012 Mar 15;22(6):2154-9. doi: 10.1016/j.bmcl.2012.01.130. Epub 2012 Feb 6. [22361134 ]
  14. Bhardwaj A, Kaur J, Sharma SK, Huang Z, Wuest F, Knaus EE: Hybrid fluorescent conjugates of COX-2 inhibitors: search for a COX-2 isozyme imaging cancer biomarker. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2013 Jan 1;23(1):163-8. doi: 10.1016/j.bmcl.2012.10.131. Epub 2012 Nov 9. [23200247 ]
  15. Boonphong S, Puangsombat P, Baramee A, Mahidol C, Ruchirawat S, Kittakoop P: Bioactive compounds from Bauhinia purpurea possessing antimalarial, antimycobacterial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, and cytotoxic activities. J Nat Prod. 2007 May;70(5):795-801. Epub 2007 May 5. [17480099 ]
  16. Kalgutkar AS, Kozak KR, Crews BC, Hochgesang GP Jr, Marnett LJ: Covalent modification of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) by 2-acetoxyphenyl alkyl sulfides, a new class of selective COX-2 inactivators. J Med Chem. 1998 Nov 19;41(24):4800-18. [9822550 ]
  17. Handler N, Brunhofer G, Studenik C, Leisser K, Jaeger W, Parth S, Erker T: 'Bridged' stilbene derivatives as selective cyclooxygenase-1 inhibitors. Bioorg Med Chem. 2007 Sep 15;15(18):6109-18. Epub 2007 Jun 20. [17604631 ]
  18. Kakuta H, Zheng X, Oda H, Harada S, Sugimoto Y, Sasaki K, Tai A: Cyclooxygenase-1-selective inhibitors are attractive candidates for analgesics that do not cause gastric damage. design and in vitro/in vivo evaluation of a benzamide-type cyclooxygenase-1 selective inhibitor. J Med Chem. 2008 Apr 24;51(8):2400-11. doi: 10.1021/jm701191z. Epub 2008 Mar 26. [18363350 ]
  19. Khan KM, Ambreen N, Mughal UR, Jalil S, Perveen S, Choudhary MI: 3-Formylchromones: potential antiinflammatory agents. Eur J Med Chem. 2010 Sep;45(9):4058-64. doi: 10.1016/j.ejmech.2010.05.065. Epub 2010 Jun 8. [20576329 ]
  20. Wang H, Nair MG, Strasburg GM, Chang YC, Booren AM, Gray JI, DeWitt DL: Antioxidant and antiinflammatory activities of anthocyanins and their aglycon, cyanidin, from tart cherries. J Nat Prod. 1999 Feb;62(2):294-6. [10075763 ]
  21. Takahashi T, Miyazawa M: N-Caffeoyl serotonin as selective COX-2 inhibitor. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2012 Apr 1;22(7):2494-6. doi: 10.1016/j.bmcl.2012.02.002. Epub 2012 Feb 9. [22386242 ]
  22. Wilkerson WW, Copeland RA, Covington M, Trzaskos JM: Antiinflammatory 4,5-diarylpyrroles. 2. Activity as a function of cyclooxygenase-2 inhibition. J Med Chem. 1995 Sep 29;38(20):3895-901. [7562922 ]
  23. Liu T, Lin Y, Wen X, Jorissen RN, Gilson MK: BindingDB: a web-accessible database of experimentally determined protein-ligand binding affinities. Nucleic Acids Res. 2007 Jan;35(Database issue):D198-201. Epub 2006 Dec 1. [17145705 ]
  24. Cryer B, Feldman M: Cyclooxygenase-1 and cyclooxygenase-2 selectivity of widely used nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Am J Med. 1998 May;104(5):413-21. [9626023 ]
General Function:
Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase activity
Specific Function:
Converts arachidonate to prostaglandin H2 (PGH2), a committed step in prostanoid synthesis. Involved in the constitutive production of prostanoids in particular in the stomach and platelets. In gastric epithelial cells, it is a key step in the generation of prostaglandins, such as prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), which plays an important role in cytoprotection. In platelets, it is involved in the generation of thromboxane A2 (TXA2), which promotes platelet activation and aggregation, vasoconstriction and proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells.
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular Weight:
68685.82 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
IC50100 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 22360
IC50560.1 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 22360
IC50750.41 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 22360
  1. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [11752352 ]
  2. Stevenson DD, Szczeklik A: Clinical and pathologic perspectives on aspirin sensitivity and asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2006 Oct;118(4):773-86; quiz 787-8. Epub 2006 Sep 1. [17030227 ]
  3. Flipo RM: [Are the NSAIDs able to compromising the cardio-preventive efficacy of aspirin?]. Presse Med. 2006 Sep;35(9 Spec No 1):1S53-60. [17078596 ]
  4. Schwartz KA: Aspirin resistance: a review of diagnostic methodology, mechanisms, and clinical utility. Adv Clin Chem. 2006;42:81-110. [17131625 ]
  5. Birnbaum Y, Ye Y, Lin Y, Freeberg SY, Huang MH, Perez-Polo JR, Uretsky BF: Aspirin augments 15-epi-lipoxin A4 production by lipopolysaccharide, but blocks the pioglitazone and atorvastatin induction of 15-epi-lipoxin A4 in the rat heart. Prostaglandins Other Lipid Mediat. 2007 Feb;83(1-2):89-98. Epub 2006 Nov 7. [17259075 ]
  6. Guthikonda S, Lev EI, Patel R, DeLao T, Bergeron AL, Dong JF, Kleiman NS: Reticulated platelets and uninhibited COX-1 and COX-2 decrease the antiplatelet effects of aspirin. J Thromb Haemost. 2007 Mar;5(3):490-6. [17319904 ]
  7. Kakuta H, Zheng X, Oda H, Harada S, Sugimoto Y, Sasaki K, Tai A: Cyclooxygenase-1-selective inhibitors are attractive candidates for analgesics that do not cause gastric damage. design and in vitro/in vivo evaluation of a benzamide-type cyclooxygenase-1 selective inhibitor. J Med Chem. 2008 Apr 24;51(8):2400-11. doi: 10.1021/jm701191z. Epub 2008 Mar 26. [18363350 ]
  8. Takahashi T, Miyazawa M: N-Caffeoyl serotonin as selective COX-2 inhibitor. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2012 Apr 1;22(7):2494-6. doi: 10.1016/j.bmcl.2012.02.002. Epub 2012 Feb 9. [22386242 ]
  9. Khan KM, Ambreen N, Mughal UR, Jalil S, Perveen S, Choudhary MI: 3-Formylchromones: potential antiinflammatory agents. Eur J Med Chem. 2010 Sep;45(9):4058-64. doi: 10.1016/j.ejmech.2010.05.065. Epub 2010 Jun 8. [20576329 ]
General Function:
Tau-protein kinase activity
Specific Function:
Catalytic subunit of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), an energy sensor protein kinase that plays a key role in regulating cellular energy metabolism. In response to reduction of intracellular ATP levels, AMPK activates energy-producing pathways and inhibits energy-consuming processes: inhibits protein, carbohydrate and lipid biosynthesis, as well as cell growth and proliferation. AMPK acts via direct phosphorylation of metabolic enzymes, and by longer-term effects via phosphorylation of transcription regulators. Also acts as a regulator of cellular polarity by remodeling the actin cytoskeleton; probably by indirectly activating myosin. Regulates lipid synthesis by phosphorylating and inactivating lipid metabolic enzymes such as ACACA, ACACB, GYS1, HMGCR and LIPE; regulates fatty acid and cholesterol synthesis by phosphorylating acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACACA and ACACB) and hormone-sensitive lipase (LIPE) enzymes, respectively. Regulates insulin-signaling and glycolysis by phosphorylating IRS1, PFKFB2 and PFKFB3. AMPK stimulates glucose uptake in muscle by increasing the translocation of the glucose transporter SLC2A4/GLUT4 to the plasma membrane, possibly by mediating phosphorylation of TBC1D4/AS160. Regulates transcription and chromatin structure by phosphorylating transcription regulators involved in energy metabolism such as CRTC2/TORC2, FOXO3, histone H2B, HDAC5, MEF2C, MLXIPL/ChREBP, EP300, HNF4A, p53/TP53, SREBF1, SREBF2 and PPARGC1A. Acts as a key regulator of glucose homeostasis in liver by phosphorylating CRTC2/TORC2, leading to CRTC2/TORC2 sequestration in the cytoplasm. In response to stress, phosphorylates 'Ser-36' of histone H2B (H2BS36ph), leading to promote transcription. Acts as a key regulator of cell growth and proliferation by phosphorylating TSC2, RPTOR and ATG1/ULK1: in response to nutrient limitation, negatively regulates the mTORC1 complex by phosphorylating RPTOR component of the mTORC1 complex and by phosphorylating and activating TSC2. In response to nutrient limitation, promotes autophagy by phosphorylating and activating ATG1/ULK1. AMPK also acts as a regulator of circadian rhythm by mediating phosphorylation of CRY1, leading to destabilize it. May regulate the Wnt signaling pathway by phosphorylating CTNNB1, leading to stabilize it. Also has tau-protein kinase activity: in response to amyloid beta A4 protein (APP) exposure, activated by CAMKK2, leading to phosphorylation of MAPT/TAU; however the relevance of such data remains unclear in vivo. Also phosphorylates CFTR, EEF2K, KLC1, NOS3 and SLC12A1.
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular Weight:
64008.64 Da
  1. Din FV, Valanciute A, Houde VP, Zibrova D, Green KA, Sakamoto K, Alessi DR, Dunlop MG: Aspirin inhibits mTOR signaling, activates AMP-activated protein kinase, and induces autophagy in colorectal cancer cells. Gastroenterology. 2012 Jun;142(7):1504-15.e3. doi: 10.1053/j.gastro.2012.02.050. Epub 2012 Mar 6. [22406476 ]
  2. Hawley SA, Fullerton MD, Ross FA, Schertzer JD, Chevtzoff C, Walker KJ, Peggie MW, Zibrova D, Green KA, Mustard KJ, Kemp BE, Sakamoto K, Steinberg GR, Hardie DG: The ancient drug salicylate directly activates AMP-activated protein kinase. Science. 2012 May 18;336(6083):918-22. doi: 10.1126/science.1215327. Epub 2012 Apr 19. [22517326 ]
General Function:
Phospholipase a2 activity
Specific Function:
PLA2 catalyzes the calcium-dependent hydrolysis of the 2-acyl groups in 3-sn-phosphoglycerides.
Gene Name:
Not Available
Uniprot ID:
Molecular Weight:
13968.385 Da
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
General Function:
Phospholipase a2 activity
Specific Function:
Snake venom phospholipase A2 (PLA2) that shows weak neurotoxicity and medium anticoagulant effects by binding to factor Xa (F10) and inhibiting the prothrombinase activity (IC(50) is 130 nM) (PubMed:18062812). It also damages vital organs such as lung, liver and kidney, displays edema-inducing activities when injected into the foot pads of mice and induces necrosis of muscle cells when injected into the thigh muscle. Has a low enzymatic activity. PLA2 catalyzes the calcium-dependent hydrolysis of the 2-acyl groups in 3-sn-phosphoglycerides.
Gene Name:
Not Available
Uniprot ID:
Molecular Weight:
13610.55 Da
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
General Function:
Unfolded protein binding
Specific Function:
Probably plays a role in facilitating the assembly of multimeric protein complexes inside the endoplasmic reticulum. Involved in the correct folding of proteins and degradation of misfolded proteins via its interaction with DNAJC10, probably to facilitate the release of DNAJC10 from its substrate.
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular Weight:
72332.425 Da
  1. Deng WG, Ruan KH, Du M, Saunders MA, Wu KK: Aspirin and salicylate bind to immunoglobulin heavy chain binding protein (BiP) and inhibit its ATPase activity in human fibroblasts. FASEB J. 2001 Nov;15(13):2463-70. [11689471 ]
General Function:
Trans-1,2-dihydrobenzene-1,2-diol dehydrogenase activity
Specific Function:
Converts progesterone to its inactive form, 20-alpha-dihydroxyprogesterone (20-alpha-OHP). In the liver and intestine, may have a role in the transport of bile. May have a role in monitoring the intrahepatic bile acid concentration. Has a low bile-binding ability. May play a role in myelin formation.
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular Weight:
36788.02 Da
  1. Dhagat U, Carbone V, Chung RP, Matsunaga T, Endo S, Hara A, El-Kabbani O: A salicylic acid-based analogue discovered from virtual screening as a potent inhibitor of human 20alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. Med Chem. 2007 Nov;3(6):546-50. [18045204 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. Can hydrates cyanamide to urea.
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular Weight:
28870.0 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
Inhibitory7530 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 22360
IC502710 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 22360
  1. Bayram E, Senturk M, Kufrevioglu OI, Supuran CT: In vitro inhibition of salicylic acid derivatives on human cytosolic carbonic anhydrase isozymes I and II. Bioorg Med Chem. 2008 Oct 15;16(20):9101-5. doi: 10.1016/j.bmc.2008.09.028. Epub 2008 Sep 13. [18819808 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Essential for bone resorption and osteoclast differentiation (By similarity). Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. Can hydrate cyanamide to urea. Involved in the regulation of fluid secretion into the anterior chamber of the eye. Contributes to intracellular pH regulation in the duodenal upper villous epithelium during proton-coupled peptide absorption. Stimulates the chloride-bicarbonate exchange activity of SLC26A6.
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular Weight:
29245.895 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
Inhibitory3660 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 22360
IC501160 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 22360
  1. Bayram E, Senturk M, Kufrevioglu OI, Supuran CT: In vitro inhibition of salicylic acid derivatives on human cytosolic carbonic anhydrase isozymes I and II. Bioorg Med Chem. 2008 Oct 15;16(20):9101-5. doi: 10.1016/j.bmc.2008.09.028. Epub 2008 Sep 13. [18819808 ]
General Function:
Not Available
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular Weight:
43652.79 Da
  1. Alfonso LF, Srivenugopal KS, Bhat GJ: Does aspirin acetylate multiple cellular proteins? (Review). Mol Med Rep. 2009 Jul-Aug;2(4):533-7. doi: 10.3892/mmr_00000132. [21475861 ]
General Function:
Phosphatidylinositol phospholipase c activity
Specific Function:
Receptor for endothelin-1. Mediates its action by association with G proteins that activate a phosphatidylinositol-calcium second messenger system. The rank order of binding affinities for ET-A is: ET1 > ET2 >> ET3.
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular Weight:
48721.76 Da
  1. Talbodec A, Berkane N, Blandin V, Breittmayer JP, Ferrari E, Frelin C, Vigne P: Aspirin and sodium salicylate inhibit endothelin ETA receptors by an allosteric type of mechanism. Mol Pharmacol. 2000 Apr;57(4):797-804. [10727528 ]
General Function:
Glutathione hydrolase activity
Specific Function:
Cleaves the gamma-glutamyl bond of extracellular glutathione (gamma-Glu-Cys-Gly), glutathione conjugates, and other gamma-glutamyl compounds. The metabolism of glutathione releases free glutamate and the dipeptide, cysteinyl-glycine, which is hydrolyzed to cysteine and glycine by dipeptidases. In the presence of high concentrations of dipeptides and some amino acids, can also catalyze a transpeptidation reaction, transferring the gamma-glutamyl moiety to an acceptor amino acid to form a new gamma-glutamyl compound. Initiates extracellular glutathione (GSH) breakdown, provides cells with a local cysteine supply and contributes to maintain intracellular GSH level. It is part of the cell antioxidant defense mechanism. Isoform 3 seems to be inactive.
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular Weight:
61409.67 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
IC5036 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 22360
  1. Sadanandam YS, Shetty MM, Rao AB, Rambabu Y: 10H-Phenothiazines: a new class of enzyme inhibitors for inflammatory diseases. Eur J Med Chem. 2009 Jan;44(1):197-202. doi: 10.1016/j.ejmech.2008.02.028. Epub 2008 Mar 7. [18400337 ]
General Function:
Scaffold protein binding
Specific Function:
Serine kinase that plays an essential role in the NF-kappa-B signaling pathway which is activated by multiple stimuli such as inflammatory cytokines, bacterial or viral products, DNA damages or other cellular stresses. Acts as part of the canonical IKK complex in the conventional pathway of NF-kappa-B activation and phosphorylates inhibitors of NF-kappa-B on 2 critical serine residues. These modifications allow polyubiquitination of the inhibitors and subsequent degradation by the proteasome. In turn, free NF-kappa-B is translocated into the nucleus and activates the transcription of hundreds of genes involved in immune response, growth control, or protection against apoptosis. In addition to the NF-kappa-B inhibitors, phosphorylates several other components of the signaling pathway including NEMO/IKBKG, NF-kappa-B subunits RELA and NFKB1, as well as IKK-related kinases TBK1 and IKBKE. IKK-related kinase phosphorylations may prevent the overproduction of inflammatory mediators since they exert a negative regulation on canonical IKKs. Phosphorylates FOXO3, mediating the TNF-dependent inactivation of this pro-apoptotic transcription factor. Also phosphorylates other substrates including NCOA3, BCL10 and IRS1. Within the nucleus, acts as an adapter protein for NFKBIA degradation in UV-induced NF-kappa-B activation.
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular Weight:
86563.245 Da
  1. Yin MJ, Yamamoto Y, Gaynor RB: The anti-inflammatory agents aspirin and salicylate inhibit the activity of I(kappa)B kinase-beta. Nature. 1998 Nov 5;396(6706):77-80. [9817203 ]
General Function:
Metal ion binding
Specific Function:
Integrin alpha-IIb/beta-3 is a receptor for fibronectin, fibrinogen, plasminogen, prothrombin, thrombospondin and vitronectin. It recognizes the sequence R-G-D in a wide array of ligands. It recognizes the sequence H-H-L-G-G-G-A-K-Q-A-G-D-V in fibrinogen gamma chain. Following activation integrin alpha-IIb/beta-3 brings about platelet/platelet interaction through binding of soluble fibrinogen. This step leads to rapid platelet aggregation which physically plugs ruptured endothelial cell surface.
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular Weight:
113375.96 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
IC505 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 22360
IC50>100 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 22360
  1. Sanfilippo PJ, Urbanski MJ, Beers KN, Eckardt A, Falotico R, Ginsberg MH, Offord S, Press JB, Tighe J, Tomko K, et al.: Novel thiazole-based heterocycles as selective inhibitors of fibrinogen-mediated platelet aggregation. J Med Chem. 1995 Jan 6;38(1):34-41. [7837237 ]
General Function:
Ubiquitin protein ligase binding
Specific Function:
Inhibits the activity of dimeric NF-kappa-B/REL complexes by trapping REL dimers in the cytoplasm through masking of their nuclear localization signals. On cellular stimulation by immune and proinflammatory responses, becomes phosphorylated promoting ubiquitination and degradation, enabling the dimeric RELA to translocate to the nucleus and activate transcription.
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular Weight:
35608.65 Da
  1. Stevenson MA, Zhao MJ, Asea A, Coleman CN, Calderwood SK: Salicylic acid and aspirin inhibit the activity of RSK2 kinase and repress RSK2-dependent transcription of cyclic AMP response element binding protein- and NF-kappa B-responsive genes. J Immunol. 1999 Nov 15;163(10):5608-16. [10553090 ]
General Function:
Transcriptional activator activity, rna polymerase ii core promoter proximal region sequence-specific binding
Specific Function:
NF-kappa-B is a pleiotropic transcription factor present in almost all cell types and is the endpoint of a series of signal transduction events that are initiated by a vast array of stimuli related to many biological processes such as inflammation, immunity, differentiation, cell growth, tumorigenesis and apoptosis. NF-kappa-B is a homo- or heterodimeric complex formed by the Rel-like domain-containing proteins RELA/p65, RELB, NFKB1/p105, NFKB1/p50, REL and NFKB2/p52. The dimers bind at kappa-B sites in the DNA of their target genes and the individual dimers have distinct preferences for different kappa-B sites that they can bind with distinguishable affinity and specificity. Different dimer combinations act as transcriptional activators or repressors, respectively. NF-kappa-B is controlled by various mechanisms of post-translational modification and subcellular compartmentalization as well as by interactions with other cofactors or corepressors. NF-kappa-B complexes are held in the cytoplasm in an inactive state complexed with members of the NF-kappa-B inhibitor (I-kappa-B) family. In a conventional activation pathway, I-kappa-B is phosphorylated by I-kappa-B kinases (IKKs) in response to different activators, subsequently degraded thus liberating the active NF-kappa-B complex which translocates to the nucleus. In a non-canonical activation pathway, the MAP3K14-activated CHUK/IKKA homodimer phosphorylates NFKB2/p100 associated with RelB, inducing its proteolytic processing to NFKB2/p52 and the formation of NF-kappa-B RelB-p52 complexes. The NF-kappa-B heterodimeric RelB-p52 complex is a transcriptional activator. The NF-kappa-B p52-p52 homodimer is a transcriptional repressor. NFKB2 appears to have dual functions such as cytoplasmic retention of attached NF-kappa-B proteins by p100 and generation of p52 by a cotranslational processing. The proteasome-mediated process ensures the production of both p52 and p100 and preserves their independent function. p52 binds to the kappa-B consensus sequence 5'-GGRNNYYCC-3', located in the enhancer region of genes involved in immune response and acute phase reactions. p52 and p100 are respectively the minor and major form; the processing of p100 being relatively poor. Isoform p49 is a subunit of the NF-kappa-B protein complex, which stimulates the HIV enhancer in synergy with p65. In concert with RELB, regulates the circadian clock by repressing the transcriptional activator activity of the CLOCK-ARNTL/BMAL1 heterodimer.
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular Weight:
96748.355 Da
  1. Kopp E, Ghosh S: Inhibition of NF-kappa B by sodium salicylate and aspirin. Science. 1994 Aug 12;265(5174):956-9. [8052854 ]
General Function:
Ribosomal protein s6 kinase activity
Specific Function:
Serine/threonine-protein kinase that acts downstream of ERK (MAPK1/ERK2 and MAPK3/ERK1) signaling and mediates mitogenic and stress-induced activation of the transcription factors CREB1, ETV1/ER81 and NR4A1/NUR77, regulates translation through RPS6 and EIF4B phosphorylation, and mediates cellular proliferation, survival, and differentiation by modulating mTOR signaling and repressing pro-apoptotic function of BAD and DAPK1. In fibroblast, is required for EGF-stimulated phosphorylation of CREB1 and histone H3 at 'Ser-10', which results in the subsequent transcriptional activation of several immediate-early genes. In response to mitogenic stimulation (EGF and PMA), phosphorylates and activates NR4A1/NUR77 and ETV1/ER81 transcription factors and the cofactor CREBBP. Upon insulin-derived signal, acts indirectly on the transcription regulation of several genes by phosphorylating GSK3B at 'Ser-9' and inhibiting its activity. Phosphorylates RPS6 in response to serum or EGF via an mTOR-independent mechanism and promotes translation initiation by facilitating assembly of the preinitiation complex. In response to insulin, phosphorylates EIF4B, enhancing EIF4B affinity for the EIF3 complex and stimulating cap-dependent translation. Is involved in the mTOR nutrient-sensing pathway by directly phosphorylating TSC2 at 'Ser-1798', which potently inhibits TSC2 ability to suppress mTOR signaling, and mediates phosphorylation of RPTOR, which regulates mTORC1 activity and may promote rapamycin-sensitive signaling independently of the PI3K/AKT pathway. Mediates cell survival by phosphorylating the pro-apoptotic proteins BAD and DAPK1 and suppressing their pro-apoptotic function. Promotes the survival of hepatic stellate cells by phosphorylating CEBPB in response to the hepatotoxin carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). Is involved in cell cycle regulation by phosphorylating the CDK inhibitor CDKN1B, which promotes CDKN1B association with 14-3-3 proteins and prevents its translocation to the nucleus and inhibition of G1 progression. In LPS-stimulated dendritic cells, is involved in TLR4-induced macropinocytosis, and in myeloma cells, acts as effector of FGFR3-mediated transformation signaling, after direct phosphorylation at Tyr-529 by FGFR3. Phosphorylates DAPK1.
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular Weight:
83735.325 Da
  1. Stevenson MA, Zhao MJ, Asea A, Coleman CN, Calderwood SK: Salicylic acid and aspirin inhibit the activity of RSK2 kinase and repress RSK2-dependent transcription of cyclic AMP response element binding protein- and NF-kappa B-responsive genes. J Immunol. 1999 Nov 15;163(10):5608-16. [10553090 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Isoform Alpha-1: Nuclear hormone receptor that can act as a repressor or activator of transcription. High affinity receptor for thyroid hormones, including triiodothyronine and thyroxine.Isoform Alpha-2: Does not bind thyroid hormone and functions as a weak dominant negative inhibitor of thyroid hormone action.
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular Weight:
54815.055 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC500.96 uMATG_THRa1_TRANSAttagene
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]