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Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2009-07-21 20:28:51 UTC
Update Date2014-12-24 20:25:56 UTC
Accession NumberT3D3049
Identification
Common NameClotiazepam
ClassSmall Molecule
DescriptionClotiazepam is only found in individuals that have used or taken this drug. It is a benzodiazepine derivative, not approved for sale in the U.S. or Canada, but has been approved in the U.K. It is a schedule IV drug in Canada.Clotiazepam acts at the benzodiazepine receptors (BZD). This agonizes the action of GABA, increasing the frequency of opening of the channel chlorinates and penetration of the ions chlorinates through the ionophore. Increase in membrane polarization decreases the probability of discharge of neurons.
Compound Type
  • Amide
  • Amine
  • Anti-Anxiety Agent
  • Anticonvulsant
  • Benzodiazepine
  • Drug
  • Hypnotic and Sedative
  • Metabolite
  • Organic Compound
  • Organochloride
  • Synthetic Compound
Chemical Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Synonym
Clotiazepamum
Clozan
Distensan
Rize
Rizen
Tienor
Chemical FormulaC16H15ClN2OS
Average Molecular Mass318.821 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass318.059 g/mol
CAS Registry Number33671-46-4
IUPAC Name5-(2-chlorophenyl)-7-ethyl-1-methyl-1H,2H,3H-thieno[2,3-e][1,4]diazepin-2-one
Traditional NameRize
SMILESCCC1=CC2=C(S1)N(C)C(=O)CN=C2C1=CC=CC=C1Cl
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/C16H15ClN2OS/c1-3-10-8-12-15(11-6-4-5-7-13(11)17)18-9-14(20)19(2)16(12)21-10/h4-8H,3,9H2,1-2H3
InChI KeyInChIKey=CHBRHODLKOZEPZ-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as thienodiazepines. These are heteropolycyclic containing a thiophene ring fused to a diazepine ring. Thiophene is 5-membered ring consisting of four carbon and one sulfur atoms. Diazepine is a 7-membered ring consisting of five carbon and two nitrogen atoms.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganoheterocyclic compounds
ClassThienodiazepines
Sub ClassNot Available
Direct ParentThienodiazepines
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Alpha-amino acid or derivatives
  • Thieno-para-diazepine
  • 2,3,5-trisubstituted thiophene
  • Para-diazepine
  • Chlorobenzene
  • Halobenzene
  • Aryl chloride
  • Aryl halide
  • Monocyclic benzene moiety
  • Benzenoid
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • Thiophene
  • Tertiary carboxylic acid amide
  • Carboxamide group
  • Ketimine
  • Lactam
  • Azacycle
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Organic 1,3-dipolar compound
  • Propargyl-type 1,3-dipolar organic compound
  • Imine
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organic oxide
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organohalogen compound
  • Organochloride
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External DescriptorsNot Available
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
OriginExogenous
Cellular Locations
  • Membrane
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationsNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
ApplicationsNot Available
Biological RolesNot Available
Chemical RolesNot Available
Physical Properties
StateSolid
AppearanceWhite powder.
Experimental Properties
PropertyValue
Melting Point105-106°C
Boiling PointNot Available
Solubility5.37e-03 g/L
LogP3.18
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.0054 g/LALOGPS
logP3.58ALOGPS
logP4.11ChemAxon
logS-4.8ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Basic)2.39ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area32.67 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count2ChemAxon
Refractivity85.66 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability33.01 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings3ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0iki-0492000000-857499d04130284e4e31JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-014i-0049000000-45282a7515b9494775c7JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-014i-1159000000-1ff3be2c8d5ba546d7e8JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0a4i-9300000000-d8aa0cda66e62a6b96f7JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-014i-0029000000-e488e2ee1deb04a7e337JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-014i-2797000000-62a84846bdd05fc7140fJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0a6r-9660000000-74eeddd7f53b2ae0bde1JSpectraViewer
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-014u-3494000000-432038f1e527960b02fcJSpectraViewer | MoNA
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureOral
Mechanism of ToxicityClotiazepam acts at the benzodiazepine receptors (BZD). This agonizes the action of GABA, increasing the frequency of opening of the channel chlorinates and penetration of the ions chlorinates through the ionophore. Increase in membrane polarization decreases the probability of discharge of neurons.
MetabolismHepatic. Half Life: 4 hours
Toxicity ValuesNot Available
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)No indication of carcinogenicity to humans (not listed by IARC).
Uses/SourcesFor the treatment of anxiety disorders. Used as an anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, sedative and skeletal muscle relaxant.
Minimum Risk LevelNot Available
Health EffectsThey cause slurred speech, disorientation and "drunken" behavior. They are physically and psychologically addictive. May cause a potentially dangerous rash that may develop into Stevens Johnson syndrome, an extremely rare but potentially fatal skin disease.
SymptomsNot Available
TreatmentGeneral supportive measures should be employed, along with intravenous fluids, and an adequate airway maintained. Hypotension may be combated by the use of norepinephrine or metaraminol. Dialysis is of limited value. Flumazenil (Anexate) is a competitive benzodiazepine receptor antagonist that can be used as an antidote for benzodiazepine overdose. In particular, flumazenil is very effective at reversing the CNS depression associated with benzodiazepines but is less effective at reversing respiratory depression. Its use, however, is controversial as it has numerous contraindications. It is contraindicated in patients who are on long-term benzodiazepines, those who have ingested a substance that lowers the seizure threshold, or in patients who have tachycardia or a history of seizures. As a general rule, medical observation and supportive care are the mainstay of treatment of benzodiazepine overdose. Although benzodiazepines are absorbed by activated charcoal, gastric decontamination with activated charcoal is not beneficial in pure benzodiazepine overdose as the risk of adverse effects often outweigh any potential benefit from the procedure. It is recommended only if benzodiazepines have been taken in combination with other drugs that may benefit from decontamination. Gastric lavage (stomach pumping) or whole bowel irrigation are also not recommended.
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDDB01559
HMDB IDHMDB15512
PubChem Compound ID2811
ChEMBL IDCHEMBL1697737
ChemSpider ID2709
KEGG IDNot Available
UniProt IDNot Available
OMIM ID
ChEBI ID1178501
BioCyc IDNot Available
CTD IDNot Available
Stitch IDClotiazepam
PDB IDNot Available
ACToR IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkClotiazepam
References
Synthesis Reference

Nakanishi, M., Araki, K.,Tahara, T. and Shiroki, M.; US. Patent 3,849,405; November 19, 1974; assigned to Yoshitomi Pharmaceutical Industries, Ltd.

MSDST3D3049.pdf
General References
  1. Nakazawa Y, Kotorii M, Oshima M, Horikawa S, Tachibana H: Effects of thienodiazepine derivatives on human sleep as compared to those of benzodiazepine derivatives. Psychopharmacologia. 1975 Oct 31;44(2):165-71. [709 ]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated GenesNot Available
Down-Regulated GenesNot Available

Targets

General Function:
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
Component of the heteropentameric receptor for GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain. Functions also as histamine receptor and mediates cellular responses to histamine. Functions as receptor for diazepines and various anesthetics, such as pentobarbital; these are bound at a separate allosteric effector binding site. Functions as ligand-gated chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRG2
Uniprot ID:
P18507
Molecular Weight:
54161.78 Da
References
  1. Baburin I, Khom S, Timin E, Hohaus A, Sieghart W, Hering S: Estimating the efficiency of benzodiazepines on GABA(A) receptors comprising gamma1 or gamma2 subunits. Br J Pharmacol. 2008 Oct;155(3):424-33. doi: 10.1038/bjp.2008.271. Epub 2008 Jul 7. [18604239 ]
  2. Mandrioli R, Mercolini L, Raggi MA: Benzodiazepine metabolism: an analytical perspective. Curr Drug Metab. 2008 Oct;9(8):827-44. [18855614 ]
  3. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [10592235 ]
  4. Iorio LC, Barnett A, Billard W: Selective affinity of 1-N-trifluoroethyl benzodiazepines for cerebellar type 1 receptor sites. Life Sci. 1984 Jul 2;35(1):105-13. [6738302 ]
  5. Wamsley JK, Golden JS, Yamamura HI, Barnett A: Autoradiographic demonstration of the selectivity of two 1-N-trifluoroethyl benzodiazepines for the BZD-1 receptors in the rat brain. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1985 Dec;23(6):973-8. [2867566 ]
General Function:
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
Component of the heteropentameric receptor for GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain. Functions also as histamine receptor and mediates cellular responses to histamine. Functions as receptor for diazepines and various anesthetics, such as pentobarbital; these are bound at a separate allosteric effector binding site. Functions as ligand-gated chloride channel (By similarity).
Gene Name:
GABRA1
Uniprot ID:
P14867
Molecular Weight:
51801.395 Da
References
  1. Baburin I, Khom S, Timin E, Hohaus A, Sieghart W, Hering S: Estimating the efficiency of benzodiazepines on GABA(A) receptors comprising gamma1 or gamma2 subunits. Br J Pharmacol. 2008 Oct;155(3):424-33. doi: 10.1038/bjp.2008.271. Epub 2008 Jul 7. [18604239 ]
  2. Mandrioli R, Mercolini L, Raggi MA: Benzodiazepine metabolism: an analytical perspective. Curr Drug Metab. 2008 Oct;9(8):827-44. [18855614 ]
  3. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  4. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
General Function:
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRG1
Uniprot ID:
Q8N1C3
Molecular Weight:
53594.49 Da
References
  1. Baburin I, Khom S, Timin E, Hohaus A, Sieghart W, Hering S: Estimating the efficiency of benzodiazepines on GABA(A) receptors comprising gamma1 or gamma2 subunits. Br J Pharmacol. 2008 Oct;155(3):424-33. doi: 10.1038/bjp.2008.271. Epub 2008 Jul 7. [18604239 ]
  2. Mandrioli R, Mercolini L, Raggi MA: Benzodiazepine metabolism: an analytical perspective. Curr Drug Metab. 2008 Oct;9(8):827-44. [18855614 ]
  3. Iorio LC, Barnett A, Billard W: Selective affinity of 1-N-trifluoroethyl benzodiazepines for cerebellar type 1 receptor sites. Life Sci. 1984 Jul 2;35(1):105-13. [6738302 ]
  4. Wamsley JK, Golden JS, Yamamura HI, Barnett A: Autoradiographic demonstration of the selectivity of two 1-N-trifluoroethyl benzodiazepines for the BZD-1 receptors in the rat brain. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1985 Dec;23(6):973-8. [2867566 ]
General Function:
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRA2
Uniprot ID:
P47869
Molecular Weight:
51325.85 Da
References
  1. Mandrioli R, Mercolini L, Raggi MA: Benzodiazepine metabolism: an analytical perspective. Curr Drug Metab. 2008 Oct;9(8):827-44. [18855614 ]
  2. Iorio LC, Barnett A, Billard W: Selective affinity of 1-N-trifluoroethyl benzodiazepines for cerebellar type 1 receptor sites. Life Sci. 1984 Jul 2;35(1):105-13. [6738302 ]
  3. Wamsley JK, Golden JS, Yamamura HI, Barnett A: Autoradiographic demonstration of the selectivity of two 1-N-trifluoroethyl benzodiazepines for the BZD-1 receptors in the rat brain. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1985 Dec;23(6):973-8. [2867566 ]
General Function:
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRA3
Uniprot ID:
P34903
Molecular Weight:
55164.055 Da
References
  1. Mandrioli R, Mercolini L, Raggi MA: Benzodiazepine metabolism: an analytical perspective. Curr Drug Metab. 2008 Oct;9(8):827-44. [18855614 ]
  2. Iorio LC, Barnett A, Billard W: Selective affinity of 1-N-trifluoroethyl benzodiazepines for cerebellar type 1 receptor sites. Life Sci. 1984 Jul 2;35(1):105-13. [6738302 ]
  3. Wamsley JK, Golden JS, Yamamura HI, Barnett A: Autoradiographic demonstration of the selectivity of two 1-N-trifluoroethyl benzodiazepines for the BZD-1 receptors in the rat brain. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1985 Dec;23(6):973-8. [2867566 ]
General Function:
Transporter activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRA5
Uniprot ID:
P31644
Molecular Weight:
52145.645 Da
References
  1. Mandrioli R, Mercolini L, Raggi MA: Benzodiazepine metabolism: an analytical perspective. Curr Drug Metab. 2008 Oct;9(8):827-44. [18855614 ]
  2. Iorio LC, Barnett A, Billard W: Selective affinity of 1-N-trifluoroethyl benzodiazepines for cerebellar type 1 receptor sites. Life Sci. 1984 Jul 2;35(1):105-13. [6738302 ]
  3. Wamsley JK, Golden JS, Yamamura HI, Barnett A: Autoradiographic demonstration of the selectivity of two 1-N-trifluoroethyl benzodiazepines for the BZD-1 receptors in the rat brain. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1985 Dec;23(6):973-8. [2867566 ]
General Function:
Ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
Component of the heteropentameric receptor for GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain. Functions also as histamine receptor and mediates cellular responses to histamine. Functions as receptor for diazepines and various anesthetics, such as pentobarbital; these are bound at a separate allosteric effector binding site. Functions as ligand-gated chloride channel (By similarity).
Gene Name:
GABRB1
Uniprot ID:
P18505
Molecular Weight:
54234.085 Da
References
  1. Mandrioli R, Mercolini L, Raggi MA: Benzodiazepine metabolism: an analytical perspective. Curr Drug Metab. 2008 Oct;9(8):827-44. [18855614 ]
  2. Iorio LC, Barnett A, Billard W: Selective affinity of 1-N-trifluoroethyl benzodiazepines for cerebellar type 1 receptor sites. Life Sci. 1984 Jul 2;35(1):105-13. [6738302 ]
  3. Wamsley JK, Golden JS, Yamamura HI, Barnett A: Autoradiographic demonstration of the selectivity of two 1-N-trifluoroethyl benzodiazepines for the BZD-1 receptors in the rat brain. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1985 Dec;23(6):973-8. [2867566 ]
General Function:
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
Component of the heteropentameric receptor for GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain. Functions also as histamine receptor and mediates cellular responses to histamine. Functions as receptor for diazepines and various anesthetics, such as pentobarbital; these are bound at a separate allosteric effector binding site. Functions as ligand-gated chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRB2
Uniprot ID:
P47870
Molecular Weight:
59149.895 Da
References
  1. Baburin I, Khom S, Timin E, Hohaus A, Sieghart W, Hering S: Estimating the efficiency of benzodiazepines on GABA(A) receptors comprising gamma1 or gamma2 subunits. Br J Pharmacol. 2008 Oct;155(3):424-33. doi: 10.1038/bjp.2008.271. Epub 2008 Jul 7. [18604239 ]
  2. Iorio LC, Barnett A, Billard W: Selective affinity of 1-N-trifluoroethyl benzodiazepines for cerebellar type 1 receptor sites. Life Sci. 1984 Jul 2;35(1):105-13. [6738302 ]
  3. Wamsley JK, Golden JS, Yamamura HI, Barnett A: Autoradiographic demonstration of the selectivity of two 1-N-trifluoroethyl benzodiazepines for the BZD-1 receptors in the rat brain. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1985 Dec;23(6):973-8. [2867566 ]
General Function:
Gaba-gated chloride ion channel activity
Specific Function:
Component of the heteropentameric receptor for GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain. Functions also as histamine receptor and mediates cellular responses to histamine. Functions as receptor for diazepines and various anesthetics, such as pentobarbital; these are bound at a separate allosteric effector binding site. Functions as ligand-gated chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRB3
Uniprot ID:
P28472
Molecular Weight:
54115.04 Da
References
  1. Mandrioli R, Mercolini L, Raggi MA: Benzodiazepine metabolism: an analytical perspective. Curr Drug Metab. 2008 Oct;9(8):827-44. [18855614 ]
  2. Iorio LC, Barnett A, Billard W: Selective affinity of 1-N-trifluoroethyl benzodiazepines for cerebellar type 1 receptor sites. Life Sci. 1984 Jul 2;35(1):105-13. [6738302 ]
  3. Wamsley JK, Golden JS, Yamamura HI, Barnett A: Autoradiographic demonstration of the selectivity of two 1-N-trifluoroethyl benzodiazepines for the BZD-1 receptors in the rat brain. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1985 Dec;23(6):973-8. [2867566 ]
General Function:
Gaba-a receptor activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRD
Uniprot ID:
O14764
Molecular Weight:
50707.835 Da
References
  1. Mandrioli R, Mercolini L, Raggi MA: Benzodiazepine metabolism: an analytical perspective. Curr Drug Metab. 2008 Oct;9(8):827-44. [18855614 ]
  2. Iorio LC, Barnett A, Billard W: Selective affinity of 1-N-trifluoroethyl benzodiazepines for cerebellar type 1 receptor sites. Life Sci. 1984 Jul 2;35(1):105-13. [6738302 ]
  3. Wamsley JK, Golden JS, Yamamura HI, Barnett A: Autoradiographic demonstration of the selectivity of two 1-N-trifluoroethyl benzodiazepines for the BZD-1 receptors in the rat brain. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1985 Dec;23(6):973-8. [2867566 ]
General Function:
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRE
Uniprot ID:
P78334
Molecular Weight:
57971.175 Da
References
  1. Mandrioli R, Mercolini L, Raggi MA: Benzodiazepine metabolism: an analytical perspective. Curr Drug Metab. 2008 Oct;9(8):827-44. [18855614 ]
  2. Iorio LC, Barnett A, Billard W: Selective affinity of 1-N-trifluoroethyl benzodiazepines for cerebellar type 1 receptor sites. Life Sci. 1984 Jul 2;35(1):105-13. [6738302 ]
  3. Wamsley JK, Golden JS, Yamamura HI, Barnett A: Autoradiographic demonstration of the selectivity of two 1-N-trifluoroethyl benzodiazepines for the BZD-1 receptors in the rat brain. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1985 Dec;23(6):973-8. [2867566 ]
General Function:
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRG3
Uniprot ID:
Q99928
Molecular Weight:
54288.16 Da
References
  1. Mandrioli R, Mercolini L, Raggi MA: Benzodiazepine metabolism: an analytical perspective. Curr Drug Metab. 2008 Oct;9(8):827-44. [18855614 ]
  2. Iorio LC, Barnett A, Billard W: Selective affinity of 1-N-trifluoroethyl benzodiazepines for cerebellar type 1 receptor sites. Life Sci. 1984 Jul 2;35(1):105-13. [6738302 ]
  3. Wamsley JK, Golden JS, Yamamura HI, Barnett A: Autoradiographic demonstration of the selectivity of two 1-N-trifluoroethyl benzodiazepines for the BZD-1 receptors in the rat brain. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1985 Dec;23(6):973-8. [2867566 ]
General Function:
Gaba-a receptor activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel. In the uterus, the function of the receptor appears to be related to tissue contractility. The binding of this pI subunit with other GABA(A) receptor subunits alters the sensitivity of recombinant receptors to modulatory agents such as pregnanolone.
Gene Name:
GABRP
Uniprot ID:
O00591
Molecular Weight:
50639.735 Da
References
  1. Mandrioli R, Mercolini L, Raggi MA: Benzodiazepine metabolism: an analytical perspective. Curr Drug Metab. 2008 Oct;9(8):827-44. [18855614 ]
  2. Iorio LC, Barnett A, Billard W: Selective affinity of 1-N-trifluoroethyl benzodiazepines for cerebellar type 1 receptor sites. Life Sci. 1984 Jul 2;35(1):105-13. [6738302 ]
  3. Wamsley JK, Golden JS, Yamamura HI, Barnett A: Autoradiographic demonstration of the selectivity of two 1-N-trifluoroethyl benzodiazepines for the BZD-1 receptors in the rat brain. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1985 Dec;23(6):973-8. [2867566 ]
General Function:
Gaba-a receptor activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel. Rho-1 GABA receptor could play a role in retinal neurotransmission.
Gene Name:
GABRR1
Uniprot ID:
P24046
Molecular Weight:
55882.91 Da
References
  1. Mandrioli R, Mercolini L, Raggi MA: Benzodiazepine metabolism: an analytical perspective. Curr Drug Metab. 2008 Oct;9(8):827-44. [18855614 ]
  2. Iorio LC, Barnett A, Billard W: Selective affinity of 1-N-trifluoroethyl benzodiazepines for cerebellar type 1 receptor sites. Life Sci. 1984 Jul 2;35(1):105-13. [6738302 ]
  3. Wamsley JK, Golden JS, Yamamura HI, Barnett A: Autoradiographic demonstration of the selectivity of two 1-N-trifluoroethyl benzodiazepines for the BZD-1 receptors in the rat brain. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1985 Dec;23(6):973-8. [2867566 ]
General Function:
Gaba-a receptor activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel. Rho-2 GABA receptor could play a role in retinal neurotransmission.
Gene Name:
GABRR2
Uniprot ID:
P28476
Molecular Weight:
54150.41 Da
References
  1. Mandrioli R, Mercolini L, Raggi MA: Benzodiazepine metabolism: an analytical perspective. Curr Drug Metab. 2008 Oct;9(8):827-44. [18855614 ]
  2. Iorio LC, Barnett A, Billard W: Selective affinity of 1-N-trifluoroethyl benzodiazepines for cerebellar type 1 receptor sites. Life Sci. 1984 Jul 2;35(1):105-13. [6738302 ]
  3. Wamsley JK, Golden JS, Yamamura HI, Barnett A: Autoradiographic demonstration of the selectivity of two 1-N-trifluoroethyl benzodiazepines for the BZD-1 receptors in the rat brain. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1985 Dec;23(6):973-8. [2867566 ]
General Function:
Gaba-a receptor activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRR3
Uniprot ID:
A8MPY1
Molecular Weight:
54271.1 Da
References
  1. Mandrioli R, Mercolini L, Raggi MA: Benzodiazepine metabolism: an analytical perspective. Curr Drug Metab. 2008 Oct;9(8):827-44. [18855614 ]
  2. Iorio LC, Barnett A, Billard W: Selective affinity of 1-N-trifluoroethyl benzodiazepines for cerebellar type 1 receptor sites. Life Sci. 1984 Jul 2;35(1):105-13. [6738302 ]
  3. Wamsley JK, Golden JS, Yamamura HI, Barnett A: Autoradiographic demonstration of the selectivity of two 1-N-trifluoroethyl benzodiazepines for the BZD-1 receptors in the rat brain. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1985 Dec;23(6):973-8. [2867566 ]
General Function:
Cholesterol binding
Specific Function:
Can bind protoporphyrin IX and may play a role in the transport of porphyrins and heme (By similarity). Promotes the transport of cholesterol across mitochondrial membranes and may play a role in lipid metabolism (PubMed:24814875), but its precise physiological role is controversial. It is apparently not required for steroid hormone biosynthesis. Was initially identified as peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor; can also bind isoquinoline carboxamides (PubMed:1847678).
Gene Name:
TSPO
Uniprot ID:
P30536
Molecular Weight:
18827.81 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
18. GABA-A receptor (anion channel) (Protein Group)
General Function:
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
Component of the heteropentameric receptor for GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain. Functions also as histamine receptor and mediates cellular responses to histamine. Functions as receptor for diazepines and various anesthetics, such as pentobarbital; these are bound at a separate allosteric effector binding site. Functions as ligand-gated chloride channel (By similarity).
Included Proteins:
P14867 , P47869 , P34903 , P48169 , P31644 , Q16445 , P18505 , P47870 , P28472 , O14764 , P78334 , Q8N1C3 , P18507 , Q99928 , O00591 , Q9UN88