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Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2009-07-23 18:26:19 UTC
Update Date2014-12-24 20:25:59 UTC
Accession NumberT3D3106
Identification
Common NameAcenocoumarol
ClassSmall Molecule
DescriptionAcenocoumarol is a coumarin derivative used as an anticoagulant. Coumarin derivatives inhibit the reduction of vitamin K by vitamin K reductase. This prevents carboxylation of vitamin K-dependent clotting factors, II, VII, XI and X, and interferes with coagulation. Hematocrit, hemoglobin, international normalized ratio and liver panel should be monitored. Patients on acenocoumarol are prohibited from giving blood.
Compound Type
  • Anticoagulant
  • Aromatic Hydrocarbon
  • Drug
  • Ester
  • Metabolite
  • Organic Compound
  • Synthetic Compound
Chemical Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Synonym
3-(alpha-(4'-Nitrophenyl)-beta-acetylethyl)-4-hydroxycoumarin
3-(alpha-(P-Nitrophenol)-beta-acetylethyl)-4-hydroxycoumarin
3-(alpha-Acetonyl-4-nitrobenzyl)-4-hydroxycoumarin
3-(alpha-Acetonyl-P-nitrobenzyl)-4-hydroxycoumarin
3-(alpha-P-Nitrophenyl-beta-acetylethyl)-4-hydroxycoumarin
4-Hydroxy-3-(1-(4-nitrophenyl)-3-oxobutyl)-2H-1-benzopyran-2-one
4-Hydroxy-3-[1-(4-nitrophenyl)-3-oxobutyl]-2H-chromen-2-one
Acenocoumarin
Acenocoumarolum
Acenocumarol
Acenocumarolo
Acenokumarin
Ascumar
Mini-sintrom
Nicoumalone
Nicumalon
Nitrophenylacetylethyl-4-hydroxycoumarine
Nitrovarfarian
Nitrowarfarin
Sinkumar
Sintrom
Chemical FormulaC19H15NO6
Average Molecular Mass353.326 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass353.090 g/mol
CAS Registry Number152-72-7
IUPAC Name4-hydroxy-3-[1-(4-nitrophenyl)-3-oxobutyl]-2H-chromen-2-one
Traditional Nameacenocumarolo
SMILESCC(=O)CC(C1=CC=C(C=C1)N(=O)=O)C1=C(O)C2=CC=CC=C2OC1=O
InChI IdentifierInChI=1/C19H15NO6/c1-11(21)10-15(12-6-8-13(9-7-12)20(24)25)17-18(22)14-4-2-3-5-16(14)26-19(17)23/h2-9,15,22H,10H2,1H3
InChI KeyInChIKey=VABCILAOYCMVPS-UHFFFAOYNA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as 4-hydroxycoumarins. These are coumarins that contain one or more hydroxyl groups attached to C4-position the coumarin skeleton.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassPhenylpropanoids and polyketides
ClassCoumarins and derivatives
Sub ClassHydroxycoumarins
Direct Parent4-hydroxycoumarins
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • 4-hydroxycoumarin
  • Benzopyran
  • 1-benzopyran
  • Nitrobenzene
  • Nitroaromatic compound
  • Pyranone
  • Monocyclic benzene moiety
  • Pyran
  • Benzenoid
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • Vinylogous acid
  • Ketone
  • Lactone
  • C-nitro compound
  • Organic nitro compound
  • Oxacycle
  • Organic oxoazanium
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Allyl-type 1,3-dipolar organic compound
  • Propargyl-type 1,3-dipolar organic compound
  • Organic 1,3-dipolar compound
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
OriginExogenous
Cellular Locations
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationsNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
Applications
Biological Roles
Chemical Roles
Physical Properties
StateSolid
AppearanceWhite powder.
Experimental Properties
PropertyValue
Melting Point196-199°C
Boiling PointNot Available
Solubilitypractically insoluble
LogP1.98
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.0106 mg/mLALOGPS
logP2.53ALOGPS
logP2.68ChemAxon
logS-4.5ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)5.79ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-6.8ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count5ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area109.42 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count5ChemAxon
Refractivity94.18 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability34.35 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings3ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSsplash10-0005-4394000000-cee5104d5911648240f0View in MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 TMS)splash10-0h90-9486300000-ff32bbb6638456fac0abView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-0udi-0009000000-a9c658b6227fbe717786View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-0a4r-0009000000-b7023b451fda1f0da396View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-000i-3509000000-10dd28ff6a33134ff631View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-0udi-1009000000-bb35e9834abd3581b7c9View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-0udi-2009000000-0b9b626833d64db8299cView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0a4i-9104000000-feadec6c8ab265c3c1b3View in MoNA
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureIngestion (10) ; dermal (10). Rapidly absorbed orally with greater than 60% bioavailability. Peak plasma levels are attained 1 to 3 hours following oral administration.
Mechanism of ToxicityAcenocoumarol inhibits vitamin K reductase, resulting in depletion of the reduced form of vitamin K (vitamin KH2). As vitamin K is a cofactor for the carboxylation of glutamate residues on the N-terminal regions of vitamin K-dependent proteins, this limits the gamma-carboxylation and subsequent activation of the vitamin K-dependent coagulant proteins. The synthesis of vitamin K-dependent coagulation factors II, VII, IX, and X and anticoagulant proteins C and S is inhibited. Depression of three of the four vitamin K-dependent coagulation factors (factors II, VII, and X) results in decresed prothrombin levels and a decrease in the amount of thrombin generated and bound to fibrin. This reduces the thrombogenicity of clots. (1)
MetabolismExtensively metabolized in the liver via oxidation forming two hydroxy metabolites and keto reduction producing two alcohol metabolites. Reduction of the nitro group produces an amino metabolite which is further transformed to an acetoamido metabolite. Metabolites do not appear to be pharmacologically active. Route of Elimination: Mostly via the kidney as metabolites Half Life: 8 to 11 hours.
Toxicity ValuesLD50: 1470 mg/kg (Oral, Mouse) (7) LD50: 115 mg/kg (Intraperitoneal, Mouse) (7)
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)No indication of carcinogenicity to humans (not listed by IARC).
Uses/SourcesAcenocoumarol is an anticoagulant drug derived from coumarin. (9) For the treatment and prevention of thromboembolic diseases. More specifically, it is indicated for the for the prevention of cerebral embolism, deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, thromboembolism in infarction and transient ischemic attacks. It is used for the treatment of deep vein thrombosis and myocardial infarction.
Minimum Risk LevelNot Available
Health EffectsAcenocoumarol is an anticoagulant and may cause internal bleeding, leading to shock, loss of consciousness, and eventually death. (8)
SymptomsThe onset and severity of the symptoms are dependent on the individual's sensitivity to oral anticoagulants, the severity of the overdosage, and the duration of treatment. Bleeding is the major sign of toxicity with oral anticoagulant drugs. The most frequent symptoms observed are: cutaneous bleeding (80%), haematuria (with renal colic) (52%), haematomas, gastrointestinal bleeding, haematemesis, uterine bleeding, epistaxis, gingival bleeding and bleeding into the joints. Further symptoms include tachycardia, hypotension, peripheral circulatory disorders due to loss of blood, nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea and abdominal pains.
TreatmentThe primary antidote to acenocoumarol poisoning is immediate administration of vitamin K1 (initially slow intravenous injections of 10-25 mg repeated all 3-6 hours until normalisation of the prothrombin time; then 10 mg orally four times daily as a "maintenance dose"). It is an extremely effective antidote, provided the poisoning is caught before too much damage has been done to the victim's circulatory system. At high doses acenocoumarol can affect the body for many months, and the antidote must be administered regularly for a long period of time. (8)
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDDB01418
HMDB IDHMDB15487
PubChem Compound ID54676537
ChEMBL IDCHEMBL397420
ChemSpider ID10443441
KEGG IDNot Available
UniProt IDNot Available
OMIM ID
ChEBI ID53766
BioCyc IDNot Available
CTD IDNot Available
Stitch IDAcenocoumarol
PDB IDNot Available
ACToR IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkAcenocoumarol
References
Synthesis Reference

Stoll, W. and Litvan, F.; U.S. Patent 2,648,682; August 11,1953; assigned to J.R. Geigy A.G.,
Switzerland.

MSDSLink
General References
  1. Wishart DS, Knox C, Guo AC, Cheng D, Shrivastava S, Tzur D, Gautam B, Hassanali M: DrugBank: a knowledgebase for drugs, drug actions and drug targets. Nucleic Acids Res. 2008 Jan;36(Database issue):D901-6. Epub 2007 Nov 29. [18048412 ]
  2. Cesar JM, Garcia-Avello A, Navarro JL, Herraez MV: Aging and oral anticoagulant therapy using acenocoumarol. Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis. 2004 Oct;15(8):673-6. [15613922 ]
  3. Lengyel M: [Warfarin or acenocoumarol is better in the anticoagulant treatment of chronic atrial fibrillation?]. Orv Hetil. 2004 Dec 26;145(52):2619-21. [15724697 ]
  4. Ufer M: Comparative pharmacokinetics of vitamin K antagonists: warfarin, phenprocoumon and acenocoumarol. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2005;44(12):1227-46. [16372822 ]
  5. Montes R, Ruiz de Gaona E, Martinez-Gonzalez MA, Alberca I, Hermida J: The c.-1639G > A polymorphism of the VKORC1 gene is a major determinant of the response to acenocoumarol in anticoagulated patients. Br J Haematol. 2006 Apr;133(2):183-7. [16611310 ]
  6. Girard P, Nony P, Erhardtsen E, Delair S, Ffrench P, Dechavanne M, Boissel JP: Population pharmacokinetics of recombinant factor VIIa in volunteers anticoagulated with acenocoumarol. Thromb Haemost. 1998 Jul;80(1):109-13. [9684795 ]
  7. Lewis RJ (1996). Sax's Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials. 9th ed. Volumes 1-3. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold.
  8. Wikipedia. Brodifacoum. Last Updated 22 June 2009. [Link]
  9. Wikipedia. Acenocoumarol. Last Updated 29 June 2009. [Link]
  10. Wikipedia. Phytotoxin. Last Updated 7 August 2009. [Link]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated GenesNot Available
Down-Regulated GenesNot Available

Targets

General Function:
Vitamin-k-epoxide reductase (warfarin-sensitive) activity
Specific Function:
Involved in vitamin K metabolism. Catalytic subunit of the vitamin K epoxide reductase (VKOR) complex which reduces inactive vitamin K 2,3-epoxide to active vitamin K. Vitamin K is required for the gamma-carboxylation of various proteins, including clotting factors, and is required for normal blood coagulation, but also for normal bone development.
Gene Name:
VKORC1
Uniprot ID:
Q9BQB6
Molecular Weight:
18234.3 Da
References
  1. Wishart DS, Knox C, Guo AC, Cheng D, Shrivastava S, Tzur D, Gautam B, Hassanali M: DrugBank: a knowledgebase for drugs, drug actions and drug targets. Nucleic Acids Res. 2008 Jan;36(Database issue):D901-6. Epub 2007 Nov 29. [18048412 ]
  2. Montes R, Ruiz de Gaona E, Martinez-Gonzalez MA, Alberca I, Hermida J: The c.-1639G > A polymorphism of the VKORC1 gene is a major determinant of the response to acenocoumarol in anticoagulated patients. Br J Haematol. 2006 Apr;133(2):183-7. [16611310 ]
  3. Bodin L, Verstuyft C, Tregouet DA, Robert A, Dubert L, Funck-Brentano C, Jaillon P, Beaune P, Laurent-Puig P, Becquemont L, Loriot MA: Cytochrome P450 2C9 (CYP2C9) and vitamin K epoxide reductase (VKORC1) genotypes as determinants of acenocoumarol sensitivity. Blood. 2005 Jul 1;106(1):135-40. Epub 2005 Mar 24. [15790782 ]
  4. Gonzalez-Conejero R, Corral J, Roldan V, Ferrer F, Sanchez-Serrano I, Sanchez-Blanco JJ, Marin F, Vicente V: The genetic interaction between VKORC1 c1173t and calumenin a29809g modulates the anticoagulant response of acenocoumarol. J Thromb Haemost. 2007 Aug;5(8):1701-6. Epub 2007 May 21. [17596133 ]
  5. Schalekamp T, Brasse BP, Roijers JF, Chahid Y, van Geest-Daalderop JH, de Vries-Goldschmeding H, van Wijk EM, Egberts AC, de Boer A: VKORC1 and CYP2C9 genotypes and acenocoumarol anticoagulation status: interaction between both genotypes affects overanticoagulation. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2006 Jul;80(1):13-22. [16815313 ]
  6. Rettie AE, Farin FM, Beri NG, Srinouanprachanh SL, Rieder MJ, Thijssen HH: A case study of acenocoumarol sensitivity and genotype-phenotype discordancy explained by combinations of polymorphisms in VKORC1 and CYP2C9. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2006 Nov;62(5):617-20. Epub 2006 Jul 21. [16869821 ]
General Function:
Not Available
Specific Function:
Functions as transport protein in the blood stream. Binds various ligands in the interior of its beta-barrel domain. Also binds synthetic drugs and influences their distribution and availability in the body. Appears to function in modulating the activity of the immune system during the acute-phase reaction.
Gene Name:
ORM1
Uniprot ID:
P02763
Molecular Weight:
23511.38 Da
References
  1. Hazai E, Visy J, Fitos I, Bikadi Z, Simonyi M: Selective binding of coumarin enantiomers to human alpha1-acid glycoprotein genetic variants. Bioorg Med Chem. 2006 Mar 15;14(6):1959-65. Epub 2005 Nov 15. [16290938 ]
  2. Fitos I, Visy J, Magyar A, Kajtar J, Simonyi M: Inverse stereoselectivity in the binding of acenocoumarol to human serum albumin and to alpha 1-acid glycoprotein. Biochem Pharmacol. 1989 Jul 15;38(14):2259-62. [2751692 ]
  3. Fitos I, Visy J, Simonyi M, Hermansson J: Stereoselective distribution of acenocoumarol enantiomers in human plasma: chiral chromatographic analysis of the ultrafiltrates. Chirality. 1993;5(5):346-9. [8398591 ]
General Function:
Toxic substance binding
Specific Function:
Serum albumin, the main protein of plasma, has a good binding capacity for water, Ca(2+), Na(+), K(+), fatty acids, hormones, bilirubin and drugs. Its main function is the regulation of the colloidal osmotic pressure of blood. Major zinc transporter in plasma, typically binds about 80% of all plasma zinc.
Gene Name:
ALB
Uniprot ID:
P02768
Molecular Weight:
69365.94 Da
References
  1. Fitos I, Visy J, Magyar A, Kajtar J, Simonyi M: Inverse stereoselectivity in the binding of acenocoumarol to human serum albumin and to alpha 1-acid glycoprotein. Biochem Pharmacol. 1989 Jul 15;38(14):2259-62. [2751692 ]
  2. Fitos I, Visy J, Simonyi M, Hermansson J: Stereoselective distribution of acenocoumarol enantiomers in human plasma: chiral chromatographic analysis of the ultrafiltrates. Chirality. 1993;5(5):346-9. [8398591 ]
  3. Otagiri M, Fleitman JS, Perrin JH: Investigations into the binding of phenprocoumon to albumin using fluorescence spectroscopy. J Pharm Pharmacol. 1980 Jul;32(7):478-82. [6105183 ]