You are using an unsupported browser. Please upgrade your browser to a newer version to get the best experience on Toxin, Toxin Target Database.
Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2009-07-23 18:26:23 UTC
Update Date2014-12-24 20:25:59 UTC
Accession NumberT3D3114
Identification
Common NameMyristicin
ClassSmall Molecule
DescriptionMyristicin is found in anise. Myristicin is a constituent of dill, nutmeg, parsley and many other essential oils. May be responsible for psychotic effects of nutmeg at large doses Myristicin, 3-methoxy,4,5-methylendioxy-allylbenzene, is a natural organic compound present in the essential oil of nutmeg and to a lesser extent in other spices such as parsley and dill. Myristicin is a naturally occurring insecticide and acaricide with possible neurotoxic effects on dopaminergic neurons[citation needed]. It has hallucinogenic properties at doses much higher than used in cooking. Myristicin is a weak inhibitor of monoamine oxidase. Myristicin has been shown to exhibit apoptotic and hepatoprotective functions (1, 2). Myristicin belongs to the family of Benzodioxoles. These are organic compounds containing a benzene ring fused to either isomers of dioxole.
Compound Type
  • Ether
  • Food Toxin
  • Metabolite
  • Natural Compound
  • Organic Compound
  • Pesticide
  • Plant Toxin
Chemical Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Synonym
1,3-Benzodioxole, 4-methoxy-6-(2-propenyl)- (9CI)
1-Allyl-3-methoxy-4,5-methylenedioxybenzene
1-Methoxy-2,3-methylenedioxy-5-(2-propenyl)benzene
4-Methoxy-6-(2-propenyl)-1,3-Benzodioxole
4-Methoxy-6-(2-propenyl)-1,3-benzodioxole, 9CI
4-Methoxy-6-[2-propenyl]-1,3-benzodioxole
5-Allyl-1-methoxy-2,3-(methylenedioxy)-Benzene
5-Allyl-1-methoxy-2,3-(methylenedioxy)benzene
5-Allyl-2,3-(methylendioxy)anisole
6-Allyl-4-methoxy-1,3-benzodioxole
Myristicin (6CI)
Myristicin from parsley leaf oil
Myristicine
Chemical FormulaC11H12O3
Average Molecular Mass192.211 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass192.079 g/mol
CAS Registry Number607-91-0
IUPAC Name4-methoxy-6-(prop-2-en-1-yl)-2H-1,3-benzodioxole
Traditional Namemyristicin
SMILESCOC1=C2OCOC2=CC(CC=C)=C1
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/C11H12O3/c1-3-4-8-5-9(12-2)11-10(6-8)13-7-14-11/h3,5-6H,1,4,7H2,2H3
InChI KeyInChIKey=BNWJOHGLIBDBOB-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as benzodioxoles. These are organic compounds containing a benzene ring fused to either isomers of dioxole. Dioxole is a five-membered unsaturated ring of two oxygen atoms and three carbon atoms.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganoheterocyclic compounds
ClassBenzodioxoles
Sub ClassNot Available
Direct ParentBenzodioxoles
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Benzodioxole
  • Anisole
  • Alkyl aryl ether
  • Benzenoid
  • Oxacycle
  • Ether
  • Acetal
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
OriginExogenous
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationsNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
ApplicationsNot Available
Biological RolesNot Available
Chemical RolesNot Available
Physical Properties
StateLiquid
AppearanceNot Available
Experimental Properties
PropertyValue
Melting Point< -20°C
Boiling PointNot Available
SolubilityNot Available
LogPNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.828 mg/mLALOGPS
logP2.47ALOGPS
logP2.54ChemAxon
logS-2.4ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Basic)-4.5ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area27.69 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count3ChemAxon
Refractivity52.58 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability20.23 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSsplash10-03fr-1900000000-f2a18c6e6e42ac39f661View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - , positivesplash10-0api-2900000000-351fe6c26efba614a881View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-0006-0900000000-ac75cb6f6c3586da7aeaView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-0006-1900000000-b85689ec228e938e0eccView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-00lu-5900000000-b81250e22454ed5d59d3View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-0006-0900000000-3477a22f9a26a9c1d389View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-0006-0900000000-d7d0d133097da9fb4ec3View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-005i-4900000000-223806e9de1823c5a6e2View in MoNA
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-0006-5900000000-371b2263b19500bf8f81View in MoNA
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureOral (ingestion) (6) ; dermal (6)
Mechanism of ToxicityMyristicin exerts possible neurotoxic effects on dopaminergic neurons and is a weak inhibitor of monoamine oxidase. (4)
MetabolismNot Available
Toxicity ValuesLD50: 3000 mg/kg (Oral, Mouse) (5) LD50: 340 mg/kg (Intraperitoneal, Mouse) (5) LD50: 5610 mg/kg (Dermal, Rat) (5) LD50: 1470 mg/kg (Subcutaneous, Mouse) (5) LD50: 8000 mg/kg (Intramuscular, Mouse) (5)
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)No indication of carcinogenicity to humans (not listed by IARC).
Uses/SourcesMyristicin is a plant toxin found in the essential oil of nutmeg and to a lesser extent in other spices such as parsley and dill. It is a naturally occurring insecticide and acaricide. (4)
Minimum Risk LevelNot Available
Health EffectsMyristicin has neurotoxic effects and hallucinogenic properties. (4)
SymptomsMyristicin produces a semi-conscious state, and may also cause euphoria, bloodshot eyes, and memory disturbances. It is also known to induce psychoactive effects such as visual distortions. (4)
TreatmentNot Available
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDNot Available
HMDB IDHMDB35873
PubChem Compound ID4276
ChEMBL IDCHEMBL481044
ChemSpider ID4125
KEGG IDC10480
UniProt IDNot Available
OMIM ID
ChEBI IDNot Available
BioCyc IDNot Available
CTD IDNot Available
Stitch IDMyristicin
PDB IDNot Available
ACToR IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkMyristicin
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
MSDST3D3114.pdf
General References
  1. Lee BK, Kim JH, Jung JW, Choi JW, Han ES, Lee SH, Ko KH, Ryu JH: Myristicin-induced neurotoxicity in human neuroblastoma SK-N-SH cells. Toxicol Lett. 2005 May 16;157(1):49-56. [15795093 ]
  2. Morita T, Jinno K, Kawagishi H, Arimoto Y, Suganuma H, Inakuma T, Sugiyama K: Hepatoprotective effect of myristicin from nutmeg (Myristica fragrans) on lipopolysaccharide/d-galactosamine-induced liver injury. J Agric Food Chem. 2003 Mar 12;51(6):1560-5. [12617584 ]
  3. Yannai, Shmuel. (2004) Dictionary of food compounds with CD-ROM: Additives, flavors, and ingredients. Boca Raton: Chapman & Hall/CRC.
  4. Wikipedia. Myristicin. Last Updated 14 June 2009. [Link]
  5. Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (2002). Screening Information Data Set for Linalool (78-70-6). [Link]
  6. Wikipedia. Phytotoxin. Last Updated 7 August 2009. [Link]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated Genes
GeneGene SymbolGene IDInteractionChromosomeDetails
Down-Regulated Genes
GeneGene SymbolGene IDInteractionChromosomeDetails

Targets

General Function:
Serotonin binding
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the oxidative deamination of biogenic and xenobiotic amines and has important functions in the metabolism of neuroactive and vasoactive amines in the central nervous system and peripheral tissues. MAOA preferentially oxidizes biogenic amines such as 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), norepinephrine and epinephrine.
Gene Name:
MAOA
Uniprot ID:
P21397
Molecular Weight:
59681.27 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Myristicin. Last Updated 14 June 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Primary amine oxidase activity
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the oxidative deamination of biogenic and xenobiotic amines and has important functions in the metabolism of neuroactive and vasoactive amines in the central nervous system and peripheral tissues. MAOB preferentially degrades benzylamine and phenylethylamine.
Gene Name:
MAOB
Uniprot ID:
P27338
Molecular Weight:
58762.475 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Myristicin. Last Updated 14 June 2009. [Link]