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Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2009-07-30 17:58:25 UTC
Update Date2014-12-24 20:26:04 UTC
Accession NumberT3D3454
Identification
Common Name2,2,4-Trimethylpentane
ClassSmall Molecule
Description2,2,4-Trimethylpentane is a hydrocarbon and one of the isomers of octane. Octanes may be found in gasoline. (5)
Compound Type
  • Gasoline Additive/Component
  • Industrial/Workplace Toxin
  • Organic Compound
  • Pollutant
  • Synthetic Compound
Chemical Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Synonym
(CH3)2CHCH2C(CH3)3
Iso-octane
Isobutyltrimethylethane
Isobutyltrimethylmethane
Isooctane
Trimethylpentane
Chemical FormulaC8H18
Average Molecular Mass114.229 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass114.141 g/mol
CAS Registry Number540-84-1
IUPAC Name2,2,4-trimethylpentane
Traditional Nameisooctane
SMILESCC(C)CC(C)(C)C
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/C8H18/c1-7(2)6-8(3,4)5/h7H,6H2,1-5H3
InChI KeyInChIKey=NHTMVDHEPJAVLT-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as branched alkanes. These are acyclic branched hydrocarbons having the general formula CnH2n+2.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassHydrocarbons
ClassSaturated hydrocarbons
Sub ClassAlkanes
Direct ParentBranched alkanes
Alternative ParentsNot Available
Substituents
  • Branched alkane
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
OriginExogenous
Cellular Locations
  • Membrane
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationsNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
Applications
Biological Roles
Chemical Roles
Physical Properties
StateLiquid
AppearanceColorless liquid.
Experimental Properties
PropertyValue
Melting Point-107.3°C
Boiling PointNot Available
Solubility0.00244 mg/mL at 25°C [YALKOWSKY,SH & DANNENFELSER,RM (1992)]
LogPNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.0083 g/LALOGPS
logP4.49ALOGPS
logP3.56ChemAxon
logS-4.1ALOGPS
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area0 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count2ChemAxon
Refractivity38.38 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability15.66 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-014i-1900000000-df9c4228348c0e60b3f7JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-014i-3900000000-5ed02e962691f66db928JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0535-9100000000-af8307b1fd7610d90d06JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-03di-0900000000-6c2521ef3e59b3971ff7JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-03di-0900000000-13e99ac19c0edb2650bbJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-01ot-9400000000-ba54ddd5172bbd0c6b0cJSpectraViewer
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-0a4i-9000000000-f08ccc9324e967cfe09dJSpectraViewer | MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureOral (7) ; inhalation (7) ; dermal (7)
Mechanism of ToxicityPetroleum distillates are central nervous system depressants and cause pulmonary damage. (1)
MetabolismVolatile hydrocarbons are absorbed mainly through the lungs, and may also enter the body after ingestion via aspiration. (1)
Toxicity ValuesNot Available
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)2,2,4-Trimethylpentane is found in gasoline, which is possibly carcinogenic to humans (Group 2B). (8)
Uses/SourcesOctanes may be found in gasoline. (5)
Minimum Risk LevelNot Available
Health EffectsPetroleum distillates are aspiration hazards and may cause pulmonary damage, central nervous system depression, and cardiac effects such as cardiac arrhythmias. They may also affect the blood, immune system, liver, and kidney. (1, 6)
SymptomsPetroleum distillate poisoning may cause nausea, vomiting, cough, pulmonary irritation progressing to pulmonary edema, bloody sputum, and bronchial pneumonia. At high amounts, central nervous system depression may also occur, with symptoms such as weakness, dizziness, slow and shallow respiration, unconsciousness, and convulsions. Petroleum distillates are also irritating to the skin. (2)
TreatmentTreatment is mainly symptomatic and supportive. Gastric lavage, emesis, and the administration of activated charcoal should be avoided, as vomiting increases the risk of aspiration. (1)
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDNot Available
HMDB IDNot Available
PubChem Compound ID10907
ChEMBL IDCHEMBL1797261
ChemSpider ID10445
KEGG IDNot Available
UniProt IDNot Available
OMIM ID
ChEBI ID62805
BioCyc IDCPD-285
CTD IDNot Available
Stitch ID2,2,4-Trimethylpentane
PDB IDNot Available
ACToR ID3762
Wikipedia Link2,2,4-Trimethylpentane
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
MSDST3D3454.pdf
General References
  1. Gunther S, McMillan PJ, Wallace LJ, Muller S: Plasmodium falciparum possesses organelle-specific alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase complexes and lipoylation pathways. Biochem Soc Trans. 2005 Nov;33(Pt 5):977-80. [16246025 ]
  2. Perham RN: Swinging arms and swinging domains in multifunctional enzymes: catalytic machines for multistep reactions. Annu Rev Biochem. 2000;69:961-1004. [10966480 ]
  3. Dreisbach, RH (1983). Handbook of Poisoning. Los Altos, California: Lange Medical Publications.
  4. MICROMEDEX Thomson Health Care (2002). USPDI - Drug Information for the Health Care Professional. 22nd ed. Volume 1. Englewood, CO: MICROMEDEX Thomson Health Care. Content Reviewed and Approved by the U.S. Pharmacopeial Convention, Inc.
  5. Wikipedia. Octane. Last Updated 10 July 2009. [Link]
  6. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (1999). Toxicological profile for total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH). U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. [Link]
  7. Wikipedia. Lead telluride. Last Updated 8 May 2009. [Link]
  8. International Agency for Research on Cancer (2014). IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. [Link]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated GenesNot Available
Down-Regulated GenesNot Available