Tmic
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Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2009-08-05 14:22:29 UTC
Update Date2014-12-24 20:26:08 UTC
Accession NumberT3D3551
Identification
Common NameSodium nitrite
ClassSmall Molecule
DescriptionSodium nitrite is a chemical compound of sodium and nitrite ions. It is used mainly as a color fixative and preservative in meats and fish. Sodium nitrite may also be used in organic synthesis, in dyeing and printing textile fabrics, in photography, as a laboratory reagent and a corrosion inhibitor, and in the manufacture of rubber chemicals. Sodium nitrite also has been used in human and veterinary medicine as a vasodilator, a bronchodilator, and an antidote for cyanide poisoning. Nitrite is a toxic compound known to cause methemoglobinemia. (4, 6)
Compound Type
  • Food Toxin
  • Household Toxin
  • Industrial/Workplace Toxin
  • Inorganic Compound
  • Nitrite
  • Preservative
  • Synthetic Compound
Chemical Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Synonym
Acidified sodium nitrite (asn)
Anti-rust
Azotyn sodowy
Diazoting salts
Diazotizing salts
Dusitan sodny
Erinitrit
Filmerine
NaNO2
Natrium nitrit
Nitrite anion
Nitrite de sodium
Nitrite ion
Nitrite ion standard solution
Nitrite sodium
Nitrito sodico
Nitrogen dioxide
Nitrogen dioxide ion
Nitrogen peroxide ion
Nitrous acid
Nitrous acid sodium salt
Sodium nitrite preparation
Sodium nitrite solution
Sodium nitrite(dot)
Synfat 1004
Chemical FormulaNNaO2
Average Molecular Mass68.995 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass68.983 g/mol
CAS Registry Number7632-00-0
IUPAC Namesodium nitrite
Traditional Namesodium nitrite
SMILES[Na+].[O-]N=O
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/HNO2.Na/c2-1-3;/h(H,2,3);/q;+1/p-1
InChI KeyInChIKey=LPXPTNMVRIOKMN-UHFFFAOYSA-M
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of inorganic compounds known as alkali metal nitrites. These are inorganic compounds in which the largest oxoanion is nitrite, and in which the heaviest atom not in an oxoanion is an alkali metal.
KingdomInorganic compounds
Super ClassMixed metal/non-metal compounds
ClassAlkali metal oxoanionic compounds
Sub ClassAlkali metal nitrites
Direct ParentAlkali metal nitrites
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Alkali metal nitrite
  • Inorganic nitrite
  • Inorganic sodium salt
  • Inorganic oxide
  • Inorganic salt
Molecular FrameworkNot Available
External Descriptors
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
OriginExogenous
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationsNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
Applications
Biological Roles
Chemical Roles
Physical Properties
StateSolid
AppearanceWhite powder.
Experimental Properties
PropertyValue
Melting PointNot Available
Boiling PointNot Available
SolubilityNot Available
LogPNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP0.17ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Acidic)3.32ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-3.5ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area52.49 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity7.6 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability2.44 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-014i-9000000000-9f30cf5313b48e1993c8View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-014i-9000000000-1ee624a65c08dcecac9bView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-014i-9000000000-5e2e92773f3c17549130View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-014i-9000000000-a87ee670e6d73d57a26bView in MoNA
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureOral (4) ; inhalation (4)
Mechanism of ToxicityNitrite causes the autocatalytic oxidation of oxyhemoglobin to hydrogen peroxide and methemoglobin. This elevation of methemoglobin levels is a condition known as methemoglobinemia, and is characterized by tissue hypoxia, as methemoglobin cannot bind oxygen. (1, 5)
MetabolismNitrites and their metabolites are excreted in the urine. (4)
Toxicity ValuesLD50: 158 mg/kg (Intraperitoneal, Mouse) (2) LD50: 65 mg/kg (Intravenous, Rat) (2) LD50: 85 mg/kg (Oral, Rat) (2) LC50: 5.5 mg/L over 4 hours (Inhalation, Rat) (2)
Lethal Dose10 to 100 mg/kg for an adult human. (7)
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)Ingested nitrate or nitrite under conditions that result in endogenous nitrosation is probably carcinogenic to humans (Group 2A). (3)
Uses/SourcesSodium nitrite is used mainly as a color fixative and preservative in meats and fish. Sodium nitrite may also be used in organic synthesis, in dyeing and printing textile fabrics, in photography, as a laboratory reagent and a corrosion inhibitor, and in the manufacture of rubber chemicals. Sodium nitrite also has been used in human and veterinary medicine as a vasodilator, a bronchodilator, and an antidote for cyanide poisoning. (6)
Minimum Risk LevelNot Available
Health EffectsNitrite poisoning causes methemoglobinemia. Nitrites may cause pregnancy complications and developmental effects. They may also be carcinogenic. (4)
SymptomsNitrite poisoning causes methemoglobinemia. Symptoms include cyanosis, cardiac dysrhythmias and circulatory failure, and progressive central nervous system (CNS) effects. CNS effects can range from mild dizziness and lethargy to coma and convulsions. (4)
TreatmentMethemoglobinemia can be treated with supplemental oxygen and methylene blue 1% solution administered intravenously slowly over five minutes followed by IV flush with normal saline. Methylene blue restores the iron in hemoglobin to its normal (reduced) oxygen-carrying state. (5)
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDNot Available
HMDB IDNot Available
PubChem Compound ID23668193
ChEMBL IDNot Available
ChemSpider IDNot Available
KEGG IDC00088
UniProt IDNot Available
OMIM ID
ChEBI ID16301
BioCyc IDNITRITE
CTD IDNot Available
Stitch IDSodium nitrite
PDB IDNot Available
ACToR ID962
Wikipedia LinkSodium_nitrite
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
MSDST3D3551.pdf
General References
  1. Keszler A, Piknova B, Schechter AN, Hogg N: The reaction between nitrite and oxyhemoglobin: a mechanistic study. J Biol Chem. 2008 Apr 11;283(15):9615-22. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M705630200. Epub 2008 Jan 17. [18203719 ]
  2. Lewis RJ Sr. (ed) (2004). Sax's Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials. 11th Edition. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Interscience, Wiley & Sons, Inc.
  3. International Agency for Research on Cancer (2014). IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. [Link]
  4. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2007). Case Studies in Environmental Medicine. Nitrate/Nitrite Toxicity. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
  5. Wikipedia. Methemoglobinemia. Last Updated 22 July 2009. [Link]
  6. Wikipedia. Sodium nitrite. Last Updated 4 August 2009. [Link]
  7. International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS) INCHEM (1996). Poison Information Monograph for Nitrates and Nitrites. [Link]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated Genes
GeneGene SymbolGene IDInteractionChromosomeDetails
Down-Regulated Genes
GeneGene SymbolGene IDInteractionChromosomeDetails

Targets

General Function:
Oxygen transporter activity
Specific Function:
Involved in oxygen transport from the lung to the various peripheral tissues.
Gene Name:
HBA1
Uniprot ID:
P69905
Molecular Weight:
15257.405 Da
References
  1. Keszler A, Piknova B, Schechter AN, Hogg N: The reaction between nitrite and oxyhemoglobin: a mechanistic study. J Biol Chem. 2008 Apr 11;283(15):9615-22. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M705630200. Epub 2008 Jan 17. [18203719 ]
  2. Wikipedia. Methemoglobinemia. Last Updated 22 July 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Oxygen transporter activity
Specific Function:
Involved in oxygen transport from the lung to the various peripheral tissues.LVV-hemorphin-7 potentiates the activity of bradykinin, causing a decrease in blood pressure.Spinorphin: functions as an endogenous inhibitor of enkephalin-degrading enzymes such as DPP3, and as a selective antagonist of the P2RX3 receptor which is involved in pain signaling, these properties implicate it as a regulator of pain and inflammation.
Gene Name:
HBB
Uniprot ID:
P68871
Molecular Weight:
15998.34 Da
References
  1. Keszler A, Piknova B, Schechter AN, Hogg N: The reaction between nitrite and oxyhemoglobin: a mechanistic study. J Biol Chem. 2008 Apr 11;283(15):9615-22. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M705630200. Epub 2008 Jan 17. [18203719 ]
  2. Wikipedia. Methemoglobinemia. Last Updated 22 July 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Oxygen transporter activity
Specific Function:
Involved in oxygen transport from the lung to the various peripheral tissues.
Gene Name:
HBD
Uniprot ID:
P02042
Molecular Weight:
16055.41 Da
References
  1. Keszler A, Piknova B, Schechter AN, Hogg N: The reaction between nitrite and oxyhemoglobin: a mechanistic study. J Biol Chem. 2008 Apr 11;283(15):9615-22. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M705630200. Epub 2008 Jan 17. [18203719 ]
  2. Wikipedia. Methemoglobinemia. Last Updated 22 July 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Oxygen transporter activity
Specific Function:
The epsilon chain is a beta-type chain of early mammalian embryonic hemoglobin.
Gene Name:
HBE1
Uniprot ID:
P02100
Molecular Weight:
16202.71 Da
References
  1. Keszler A, Piknova B, Schechter AN, Hogg N: The reaction between nitrite and oxyhemoglobin: a mechanistic study. J Biol Chem. 2008 Apr 11;283(15):9615-22. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M705630200. Epub 2008 Jan 17. [18203719 ]
  2. Wikipedia. Methemoglobinemia. Last Updated 22 July 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Oxygen transporter activity
Specific Function:
Gamma chains make up the fetal hemoglobin F, in combination with alpha chains.
Gene Name:
HBG1
Uniprot ID:
P69891
Molecular Weight:
16140.37 Da
References
  1. Keszler A, Piknova B, Schechter AN, Hogg N: The reaction between nitrite and oxyhemoglobin: a mechanistic study. J Biol Chem. 2008 Apr 11;283(15):9615-22. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M705630200. Epub 2008 Jan 17. [18203719 ]
  2. Wikipedia. Methemoglobinemia. Last Updated 22 July 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Gamma chains make up the fetal hemoglobin F, in combination with alpha chains.
Specific Function:
Heme binding
Gene Name:
HBG2
Uniprot ID:
P69892
Molecular Weight:
16126.35 Da
References
  1. Keszler A, Piknova B, Schechter AN, Hogg N: The reaction between nitrite and oxyhemoglobin: a mechanistic study. J Biol Chem. 2008 Apr 11;283(15):9615-22. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M705630200. Epub 2008 Jan 17. [18203719 ]
  2. Wikipedia. Methemoglobinemia. Last Updated 22 July 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Oxygen transporter activity
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
HBM
Uniprot ID:
Q6B0K9
Molecular Weight:
15617.97 Da
References
  1. Keszler A, Piknova B, Schechter AN, Hogg N: The reaction between nitrite and oxyhemoglobin: a mechanistic study. J Biol Chem. 2008 Apr 11;283(15):9615-22. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M705630200. Epub 2008 Jan 17. [18203719 ]
  2. Wikipedia. Methemoglobinemia. Last Updated 22 July 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Oxygen transporter activity
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
HBQ1
Uniprot ID:
P09105
Molecular Weight:
15507.575 Da
References
  1. Keszler A, Piknova B, Schechter AN, Hogg N: The reaction between nitrite and oxyhemoglobin: a mechanistic study. J Biol Chem. 2008 Apr 11;283(15):9615-22. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M705630200. Epub 2008 Jan 17. [18203719 ]
  2. Wikipedia. Methemoglobinemia. Last Updated 22 July 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Oxygen transporter activity
Specific Function:
The zeta chain is an alpha-type chain of mammalian embryonic hemoglobin.
Gene Name:
HBZ
Uniprot ID:
P02008
Molecular Weight:
15636.845 Da
References
  1. Keszler A, Piknova B, Schechter AN, Hogg N: The reaction between nitrite and oxyhemoglobin: a mechanistic study. J Biol Chem. 2008 Apr 11;283(15):9615-22. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M705630200. Epub 2008 Jan 17. [18203719 ]
  2. Wikipedia. Methemoglobinemia. Last Updated 22 July 2009. [Link]