You are using an unsupported browser. Please upgrade your browser to a newer version to get the best experience on Toxin, Toxin Target Database.
Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2009-08-05 17:37:18 UTC
Update Date2014-12-24 20:26:10 UTC
Accession NumberT3D3574
Identification
Common NameSodium nitrate
ClassSmall Molecule
DescriptionSodium nitrate is a nitrate of sodium. It is used as an ingredient in fertilizers, pyrotechnics, as a food preservative, and as a solid rocket propellant, and also in glass and pottery enamels. Nitrite is a toxic compound known to cause methemoglobinemia. (5, 7)
Compound Type
  • Fertilizer
  • Food Toxin
  • Household Toxin
  • Industrial/Workplace Toxin
  • Inorganic Compound
  • Nitrate
  • Nitrite
  • Synthetic Compound
Chemical Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Synonym
Cubic niter
Etabisulfite
Natrum nitricum
Natrum Nitricum Liquid
Niter
Nitrate de sodium
Nitrate of soda
Nitratine
Nitric acid monosodium salt
Nitric acid sodium salt
Nitric acid sodium salt (1:1)
Nitric acid, sodium salt
Soda niter
Sodium nitrate(dot)
Sodium nitric acid
Sodium saltpeter
Sodium(I) nitrate (1:1)
Chemical FormulaNNaO3
Average Molecular Mass84.995 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass84.978 g/mol
CAS Registry Number7631-99-4
IUPAC Namesodium nitrate
Traditional Namesodium nitrate
SMILES[Na+].[O-][N+]([O-])=O
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/NO3.Na/c2-1(3)4;/q-1;+1
InChI KeyInChIKey=VWDWKYIASSYTQR-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of inorganic compounds known as alkali metal nitrates. These are inorganic compounds in which the largest oxoanion is nitrate, and in which the heaviest atom not in an oxoanion is an alkali metal.
KingdomInorganic compounds
Super ClassMixed metal/non-metal compounds
ClassAlkali metal oxoanionic compounds
Sub ClassAlkali metal nitrates
Direct ParentAlkali metal nitrates
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Alkali metal nitrate
  • Inorganic sodium salt
  • Inorganic oxide
  • Inorganic salt
Molecular FrameworkNot Available
External Descriptors
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
OriginExogenous
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationsNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
Applications
Biological RolesNot Available
Chemical RolesNot Available
Physical Properties
StateSolid
AppearanceWhite powder.
Experimental Properties
PropertyValue
Melting Point306.8°C
Boiling PointNot Available
Solubility730 mg/mL at 0°C [SHIU,WY et al. (1990)]
LogPNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP0.028ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Acidic)-1.4ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-6.1ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area68.88 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity9.85 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability3.24 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-000i-9000000000-faf1f373748af1e837f2JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-000i-9000000000-8743c260667878107089JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-000j-9000000000-0638dac105948d86af98JSpectraViewer
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureOral (5) ; inhalation (5)
Mechanism of ToxicityNitrate's toxicity is a result of it's conversion to nitrite once in the body. Nitrite causes the autocatalytic oxidation of oxyhemoglobin to hydrogen peroxide and methemoglobin. This elevation of methemoglobin levels is a condition known as methemoglobinemia, and is characterized by tissue hypoxia, as methemoglobin cannot bind oxygen. (1, 6)
MetabolismIntake of some amount of nitrates and nitrites is a normal part of the nitrogen cycle in humans. In vivo conversion of nitrates to nitrites can occur in the gastrointestional tract under the right conditions, significantly enhancing nitrates' toxic potency. The major metabolic pathway for nitrate is conversion to nitrite, and then to ammonia. Nitrites, nitrates, and their metabolites are excreted in the urine. (5)
Toxicity ValuesLD50: 1267 mg/kg (Oral, Rat) (2) LD50: 175 mg/kg (Intravenous, Rat) (2)
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)Ingested nitrate or nitrite under conditions that result in endogenous nitrosation is probably carcinogenic to humans (Group 2A). (3)
Uses/SourcesNot Available
Minimum Risk LevelNot Available
Health EffectsNitrate and nitrite poisoning causes methemoglobinemia. Nitrites may cause pregnancy complications and developmental effects. They may also be carcinogenic. (5)
SymptomsNitrate and nitrite poisoning causes methemoglobinemia. Symptoms include cyanosis, cardiac dysrhythmias and circulatory failure, and progressive central nervous system (CNS) effects. CNS effects can range from mild dizziness and lethargy to coma and convulsions. (5)
TreatmentMethemoglobinemia can be treated with supplemental oxygen and methylene blue 1% solution administered intravenously slowly over five minutes followed by IV flush with normal saline. Methylene blue restores the iron in hemoglobin to its normal (reduced) oxygen-carrying state. (6)
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDNot Available
HMDB IDNot Available
PubChem Compound ID24268
ChEMBL IDCHEMBL1644698
ChemSpider ID22688
KEGG IDNot Available
UniProt IDNot Available
OMIM ID
ChEBI ID63005
BioCyc IDNot Available
CTD IDNot Available
Stitch IDSodium nitrate
PDB IDNot Available
ACToR ID958
Wikipedia LinkSodium_nitrate
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
MSDST3D3574.pdf
General References
  1. Keszler A, Piknova B, Schechter AN, Hogg N: The reaction between nitrite and oxyhemoglobin: a mechanistic study. J Biol Chem. 2008 Apr 11;283(15):9615-22. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M705630200. Epub 2008 Jan 17. [18203719 ]
  2. Lewis RJ Sr. (ed) (2004). Sax's Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials. 11th Edition. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Interscience, Wiley & Sons, Inc.
  3. International Agency for Research on Cancer (2014). IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. [Link]
  4. The Physical and Theoretical Chemistry Laboratory of Oxford University (2008). Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) for hydrazine (anhydrous). [Link]
  5. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2007). Case Studies in Environmental Medicine. Nitrate/Nitrite Toxicity. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
  6. Wikipedia. Methemoglobinemia. Last Updated 22 July 2009. [Link]
  7. Wikipedia. Sodium nitrate. Last Updated 29 July 2009. [Link]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated GenesNot Available
Down-Regulated GenesNot Available

Targets

General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Essential for bone resorption and osteoclast differentiation (By similarity). Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. Can hydrate cyanamide to urea. Involved in the regulation of fluid secretion into the anterior chamber of the eye. Contributes to intracellular pH regulation in the duodenal upper villous epithelium during proton-coupled peptide absorption. Stimulates the chloride-bicarbonate exchange activity of SLC26A6.
Gene Name:
CA2
Uniprot ID:
P00918
Molecular Weight:
29245.895 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
Inhibitory35000 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50339816
References
  1. Cincinelli A, Martellini T, Innocenti A, Scozzafava A, Supuran CT: Purification and inhibition studies with anions and sulfonamides of an alpha-carbonic anhydrase from the Antarctic seal Leptonychotes weddellii. Bioorg Med Chem. 2011 Mar 15;19(6):1847-51. doi: 10.1016/j.bmc.2011.02.015. Epub 2011 Feb 13. [21377369 ]
  2. Vullo D, Nishimori I, Minakuchi T, Scozzafava A, Supuran CT: Inhibition studies with anions and small molecules of two novel beta-carbonic anhydrases from the bacterial pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2011 Jun 15;21(12):3591-5. doi: 10.1016/j.bmcl.2011.04.105. Epub 2011 Apr 28. [21570835 ]
  3. Vullo D, De Luca V, Scozzafava A, Carginale V, Rossi M, Supuran CT, Capasso C: Anion inhibition studies of the fastest carbonic anhydrase (CA) known, the extremo-CA from the bacterium Sulfurihydrogenibium azorense. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2012 Dec 1;22(23):7142-5. doi: 10.1016/j.bmcl.2012.09.065. Epub 2012 Sep 27. [23072866 ]
  4. Nishimori I, Vullo D, Minakuchi T, Scozzafava A, Capasso C, Supuran CT: Restoring catalytic activity to the human carbonic anhydrase (CA) related proteins VIII, X and XI affords isoforms with high catalytic efficiency and susceptibility to anion inhibition. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2013 Jan 1;23(1):256-60. doi: 10.1016/j.bmcl.2012.10.103. Epub 2012 Nov 9. [23200251 ]
  5. Monti SM, De Simone G, Dathan NA, Ludwig M, Vullo D, Scozzafava A, Capasso C, Supuran CT: Kinetic and anion inhibition studies of a beta-carbonic anhydrase (FbiCA 1) from the C4 plant Flaveria bidentis. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2013 Mar 15;23(6):1626-30. doi: 10.1016/j.bmcl.2013.01.087. Epub 2013 Jan 30. [23414801 ]
  6. Vullo D, Isik S, Del Prete S, De Luca V, Carginale V, Scozzafava A, Supuran CT, Capasso C: Anion inhibition studies of the alpha-carbonic anhydrase from the pathogenic bacterium Vibrio cholerae. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2013 Mar 15;23(6):1636-8. doi: 10.1016/j.bmcl.2013.01.084. Epub 2013 Jan 29. [23414807 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. Can hydrates cyanamide to urea.
Gene Name:
CA1
Uniprot ID:
P00915
Molecular Weight:
28870.0 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
Inhibitory7000 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50339816
References
  1. Cincinelli A, Martellini T, Innocenti A, Scozzafava A, Supuran CT: Purification and inhibition studies with anions and sulfonamides of an alpha-carbonic anhydrase from the Antarctic seal Leptonychotes weddellii. Bioorg Med Chem. 2011 Mar 15;19(6):1847-51. doi: 10.1016/j.bmc.2011.02.015. Epub 2011 Feb 13. [21377369 ]
  2. Vullo D, Nishimori I, Minakuchi T, Scozzafava A, Supuran CT: Inhibition studies with anions and small molecules of two novel beta-carbonic anhydrases from the bacterial pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2011 Jun 15;21(12):3591-5. doi: 10.1016/j.bmcl.2011.04.105. Epub 2011 Apr 28. [21570835 ]
  3. Vullo D, De Luca V, Scozzafava A, Carginale V, Rossi M, Supuran CT, Capasso C: Anion inhibition studies of the fastest carbonic anhydrase (CA) known, the extremo-CA from the bacterium Sulfurihydrogenibium azorense. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2012 Dec 1;22(23):7142-5. doi: 10.1016/j.bmcl.2012.09.065. Epub 2012 Sep 27. [23072866 ]
  4. Nishimori I, Vullo D, Minakuchi T, Scozzafava A, Capasso C, Supuran CT: Restoring catalytic activity to the human carbonic anhydrase (CA) related proteins VIII, X and XI affords isoforms with high catalytic efficiency and susceptibility to anion inhibition. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2013 Jan 1;23(1):256-60. doi: 10.1016/j.bmcl.2012.10.103. Epub 2012 Nov 9. [23200251 ]
  5. Vullo D, Isik S, Del Prete S, De Luca V, Carginale V, Scozzafava A, Supuran CT, Capasso C: Anion inhibition studies of the alpha-carbonic anhydrase from the pathogenic bacterium Vibrio cholerae. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2013 Mar 15;23(6):1636-8. doi: 10.1016/j.bmcl.2013.01.084. Epub 2013 Jan 29. [23414807 ]
General Function:
Oxygen transporter activity
Specific Function:
Involved in oxygen transport from the lung to the various peripheral tissues.
Gene Name:
HBA1
Uniprot ID:
P69905
Molecular Weight:
15257.405 Da
References
  1. Keszler A, Piknova B, Schechter AN, Hogg N: The reaction between nitrite and oxyhemoglobin: a mechanistic study. J Biol Chem. 2008 Apr 11;283(15):9615-22. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M705630200. Epub 2008 Jan 17. [18203719 ]
  2. Wikipedia. Methemoglobinemia. Last Updated 22 July 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Oxygen transporter activity
Specific Function:
Involved in oxygen transport from the lung to the various peripheral tissues.LVV-hemorphin-7 potentiates the activity of bradykinin, causing a decrease in blood pressure.Spinorphin: functions as an endogenous inhibitor of enkephalin-degrading enzymes such as DPP3, and as a selective antagonist of the P2RX3 receptor which is involved in pain signaling, these properties implicate it as a regulator of pain and inflammation.
Gene Name:
HBB
Uniprot ID:
P68871
Molecular Weight:
15998.34 Da
References
  1. Keszler A, Piknova B, Schechter AN, Hogg N: The reaction between nitrite and oxyhemoglobin: a mechanistic study. J Biol Chem. 2008 Apr 11;283(15):9615-22. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M705630200. Epub 2008 Jan 17. [18203719 ]
  2. Wikipedia. Methemoglobinemia. Last Updated 22 July 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Oxygen transporter activity
Specific Function:
Involved in oxygen transport from the lung to the various peripheral tissues.
Gene Name:
HBD
Uniprot ID:
P02042
Molecular Weight:
16055.41 Da
References
  1. Keszler A, Piknova B, Schechter AN, Hogg N: The reaction between nitrite and oxyhemoglobin: a mechanistic study. J Biol Chem. 2008 Apr 11;283(15):9615-22. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M705630200. Epub 2008 Jan 17. [18203719 ]
  2. Wikipedia. Methemoglobinemia. Last Updated 22 July 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Oxygen transporter activity
Specific Function:
The epsilon chain is a beta-type chain of early mammalian embryonic hemoglobin.
Gene Name:
HBE1
Uniprot ID:
P02100
Molecular Weight:
16202.71 Da
References
  1. Keszler A, Piknova B, Schechter AN, Hogg N: The reaction between nitrite and oxyhemoglobin: a mechanistic study. J Biol Chem. 2008 Apr 11;283(15):9615-22. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M705630200. Epub 2008 Jan 17. [18203719 ]
  2. Wikipedia. Methemoglobinemia. Last Updated 22 July 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Oxygen transporter activity
Specific Function:
Gamma chains make up the fetal hemoglobin F, in combination with alpha chains.
Gene Name:
HBG1
Uniprot ID:
P69891
Molecular Weight:
16140.37 Da
References
  1. Keszler A, Piknova B, Schechter AN, Hogg N: The reaction between nitrite and oxyhemoglobin: a mechanistic study. J Biol Chem. 2008 Apr 11;283(15):9615-22. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M705630200. Epub 2008 Jan 17. [18203719 ]
  2. Wikipedia. Methemoglobinemia. Last Updated 22 July 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Gamma chains make up the fetal hemoglobin F, in combination with alpha chains.
Specific Function:
Heme binding
Gene Name:
HBG2
Uniprot ID:
P69892
Molecular Weight:
16126.35 Da
References
  1. Keszler A, Piknova B, Schechter AN, Hogg N: The reaction between nitrite and oxyhemoglobin: a mechanistic study. J Biol Chem. 2008 Apr 11;283(15):9615-22. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M705630200. Epub 2008 Jan 17. [18203719 ]
  2. Wikipedia. Methemoglobinemia. Last Updated 22 July 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Oxygen transporter activity
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
HBM
Uniprot ID:
Q6B0K9
Molecular Weight:
15617.97 Da
References
  1. Keszler A, Piknova B, Schechter AN, Hogg N: The reaction between nitrite and oxyhemoglobin: a mechanistic study. J Biol Chem. 2008 Apr 11;283(15):9615-22. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M705630200. Epub 2008 Jan 17. [18203719 ]
  2. Wikipedia. Methemoglobinemia. Last Updated 22 July 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Oxygen transporter activity
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
HBQ1
Uniprot ID:
P09105
Molecular Weight:
15507.575 Da
References
  1. Keszler A, Piknova B, Schechter AN, Hogg N: The reaction between nitrite and oxyhemoglobin: a mechanistic study. J Biol Chem. 2008 Apr 11;283(15):9615-22. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M705630200. Epub 2008 Jan 17. [18203719 ]
  2. Wikipedia. Methemoglobinemia. Last Updated 22 July 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Oxygen transporter activity
Specific Function:
The zeta chain is an alpha-type chain of mammalian embryonic hemoglobin.
Gene Name:
HBZ
Uniprot ID:
P02008
Molecular Weight:
15636.845 Da
References
  1. Keszler A, Piknova B, Schechter AN, Hogg N: The reaction between nitrite and oxyhemoglobin: a mechanistic study. J Biol Chem. 2008 Apr 11;283(15):9615-22. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M705630200. Epub 2008 Jan 17. [18203719 ]
  2. Wikipedia. Methemoglobinemia. Last Updated 22 July 2009. [Link]