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Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2009-08-12 21:34:04 UTC
Update Date2014-12-24 20:26:11 UTC
Accession NumberT3D3585
Identification
Common Namebeta-Amanitin
ClassProtein
Descriptionbeta-Amanitin is one of a group of at least eight Amatoxins found in several genera of poisonous mushrooms, most notably Amanita phalloides and several other members of the genus Amanita, as well as some Conocybe, Galerina and Lepiota mushroom species. (3)
Compound Type
  • Amide
  • Amine
  • Fungal Toxin
  • Mycotoxin
  • Natural Compound
  • Organic Compound
  • Protein
Protein StructureT3d3585
Synonyms
Synonym
AMA2
b-Amanitin
Chemical FormulaNot Available
Average Molecular Mass3445.915 g/mol
CAS Registry Number21150-22-1
SequenceNot Available
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionNot Available
KingdomOrganic Compounds
Super ClassOrganic Acids
ClassCarboxylic Acids and Derivatives
Sub ClassAmino Acids, Peptides, and Analogues
Direct ParentPeptides
Alternative ParentsNot Available
SubstituentsNot Available
Molecular FrameworkNot Available
External DescriptorsNot Available
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
OriginExogenous
Cellular LocationsNot Available
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationsNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
ApplicationsNot Available
Biological RolesNot Available
Chemical RolesNot Available
Physical Properties
StateLiquid
AppearanceClear solution.
Experimental Properties
PropertyValue
Melting PointNot Available
Boiling PointNot Available
Solubility>10 mg/mL
LogPNot Available
Predicted PropertiesNot Available
Spectra
SpectraNot Available
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureOral, dermal, inhalation, and parenteral (contaminated drugs). (1)
Mechanism of ToxicityThe major toxic mechanism of amatoxins is the inhibition of RNA polymerase II, a vital enzyme in the synthesis of messenger RNA (mRNA), microRNA, and small nuclear RNA (snRNA). Without mRNA, essential protein synthesis, and hence cell metabolism, grind to a halt and the cell dies. (3)
MetabolismFree toxin may be removed by opsonization via the reticuloendothelial system (primarily the liver and kidneys) or it may be degraded through cellular internalization via the lysosomes. Lysosomes are membrane-enclosed organelles that contain an array of digestive enzymes, including several proteases.
Toxicity ValuesLD50: 0.5 mg/kg (Mouse) (2)
Lethal Dose0.1 mg/kg for an adult human. (3)
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)No indication of carcinogenicity to humans (not listed by IARC).
Uses/SourcesAmatoxins are a subgroup of at least eight toxic compounds found in several genera of poisonous mushrooms, most notably Amanita phalloides and several other members of the genus Amanita, as well as some Conocybe, Galerina and Lepiota mushroom species. (3)
Minimum Risk LevelNot Available
Health EffectsAmatoxins cause liver damage. They may also affect the kidneys. The most severe effects are toxic hepatitis with centrolobular necrosis and hepatic steatosis, as well as acute tubulointerstitial nephropathy, which altogether induce a severe hepatorenal syndrome. (3)
SymptomsDiarrhea and cramps are the first symptoms. (4)
TreatmentTreatment involves high dose penicillin as well as supportive care in cases of hepatic and renal injury. Cautious attention is given to maintaining hemodynamic stability, although if hepatorenal syndrome has developed the prognosis is guarded at best. (3)
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDNot Available
HMDB IDNot Available
PubChem Compound ID2276
ChEMBL IDCHEMBL1978871
ChemSpider ID2189
KEGG IDNot Available
UniProt IDA8W7P1
OMIM ID
ChEBI IDNot Available
BioCyc IDNot Available
CTD IDNot Available
Stitch IDbeta-Amanitin
PDB IDNot Available
ACToR IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkBeta-Amanitin
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
MSDSNot Available
General References
  1. Peraica M, Domijan AM: Contamination of food with mycotoxins and human health. Arh Hig Rada Toksikol. 2001 Mar;52(1):23-35. [11370295 ]
  2. Deshpande SS (2002). Handbook of food toxicology. New York, NY: Marcel Dekker Inc.
  3. Wikipedia. Amatoxin. Last Updated 31 July 2009. [Link]
  4. Wikipedia. alpha-Amanitin. Last Updated 25 May 2009. [Link]
  5. Wikipedia. Mushroom poisoning. Last Updated 10 August 2009. [Link]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated GenesNot Available
Down-Regulated GenesNot Available

Targets

General Function:
Ubiquitin protein ligase binding
Specific Function:
DNA-dependent RNA polymerase catalyzes the transcription of DNA into RNA using the four ribonucleoside triphosphates as substrates. Largest and catalytic component of RNA polymerase II which synthesizes mRNA precursors and many functional non-coding RNAs. Forms the polymerase active center together with the second largest subunit. Pol II is the central component of the basal RNA polymerase II transcription machinery. It is composed of mobile elements that move relative to each other. RPB1 is part of the core element with the central large cleft, the clamp element that moves to open and close the cleft and the jaws that are thought to grab the incoming DNA template. At the start of transcription, a single-stranded DNA template strand of the promoter is positioned within the central active site cleft of Pol II. A bridging helix emanates from RPB1 and crosses the cleft near the catalytic site and is thought to promote translocation of Pol II by acting as a ratchet that moves the RNA-DNA hybrid through the active site by switching from straight to bent conformations at each step of nucleotide addition. During transcription elongation, Pol II moves on the template as the transcript elongates. Elongation is influenced by the phosphorylation status of the C-terminal domain (CTD) of Pol II largest subunit (RPB1), which serves as a platform for assembly of factors that regulate transcription initiation, elongation, termination and mRNA processing. Acts as an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase when associated with small delta antigen of Hepatitis delta virus, acting both as a replicate and transcriptase for the viral RNA circular genome.
Gene Name:
POLR2A
Uniprot ID:
P24928
Molecular Weight:
217174.235 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Amatoxin. Last Updated 31 July 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Lrr domain binding
Specific Function:
DNA-dependent RNA polymerase catalyzes the transcription of DNA into RNA using the four ribonucleoside triphosphates as substrates. Component of RNA polymerase II which synthesizes mRNA precursors and many functional non-coding RNAs. Pol II is the central component of the basal RNA polymerase II transcription machinery. It is composed of mobile elements that move relative to each other. RPB11 is part of the core element with the central large cleft (By similarity).
Gene Name:
POLR2J
Uniprot ID:
P52435
Molecular Weight:
13293.19 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Amatoxin. Last Updated 31 July 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Dna-directed rna polymerase activity
Specific Function:
DNA-dependent RNA polymerase catalyzes the transcription of DNA into RNA using the four ribonucleoside triphosphates as substrates. Component of RNA polymerase II which synthesizes mRNA precursors and many functional non-coding RNAs. Pol II is the central component of the basal RNA polymerase II transcription machinery. It is composed of mobile elements that move relative to each other. RPB11 is part of the core element with the central large cleft (By similarity).
Gene Name:
POLR2J2
Uniprot ID:
Q9GZM3
Molecular Weight:
13088.14 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Amatoxin. Last Updated 31 July 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Dna-directed rna polymerase activity
Specific Function:
DNA-dependent RNA polymerase catalyzes the transcription of DNA into RNA using the four ribonucleoside triphosphates as substrates. Component of RNA polymerase II which synthesizes mRNA precursors and many functional non-coding RNAs. Pol II is the central component of the basal RNA polymerase II transcription machinery. It is composed of mobile elements that move relative to each other. RPB11 is part of the core element with the central large cleft (By similarity).
Gene Name:
POLR2J3
Uniprot ID:
Q9H1A7
Molecular Weight:
13092.11 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Amatoxin. Last Updated 31 July 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Ribonucleoside binding
Specific Function:
DNA-dependent RNA polymerase catalyzes the transcription of DNA into RNA using the four ribonucleoside triphosphates as substrates. Second largest component of RNA polymerase II which synthesizes mRNA precursors and many functional non-coding RNAs. Proposed to contribute to the polymerase catalytic activity and forms the polymerase active center together with the largest subunit. Pol II is the central component of the basal RNA polymerase II transcription machinery. It is composed of mobile elements that move relative to each other. RPB2 is part of the core element with the central large cleft, the clamp element that moves to open and close the cleft and the jaws that are thought to grab the incoming DNA template (By similarity).
Gene Name:
POLR2B
Uniprot ID:
P30876
Molecular Weight:
133895.435 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Amatoxin. Last Updated 31 July 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Dna-directed rna polymerase activity
Specific Function:
DNA-dependent RNA polymerase catalyzes the transcription of DNA into RNA using the four ribonucleoside triphosphates as substrates. Component of RNA polymerase II which synthesizes mRNA precursors and many functional non-coding RNAs. Pol II is the central component of the basal RNA polymerase II transcription machinery. It is composed of mobile elements that move relative to each other. RPB3 is part of the core element with the central large cleft and the clamp element that moves to open and close the cleft (By similarity).
Gene Name:
POLR2C
Uniprot ID:
P19387
Molecular Weight:
31440.86 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Amatoxin. Last Updated 31 July 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Translation initiation factor binding
Specific Function:
DNA-dependent RNA polymerase catalyzes the transcription of DNA into RNA using the four ribonucleoside triphosphates as substrates. Component of RNA polymerase II which synthesizes mRNA precursors and many functional non-coding RNAs. Pol II is the central component of the basal RNA polymerase II transcription machinery. It is composed of mobile elements that move relative to each other. RPB4 is part of a subcomplex with RPB7 that binds to a pocket formed by RPB1, RPB2 and RPB6 at the base of the clamp element. The RBP4-RPB7 subcomplex seems to lock the clamp via RPB7 in the closed conformation thus preventing double-stranded DNA to enter the active site cleft. The RPB4-RPB7 subcomplex binds single-stranded DNA and RNA (By similarity).
Gene Name:
POLR2D
Uniprot ID:
O15514
Molecular Weight:
16311.105 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Amatoxin. Last Updated 31 July 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Translation initiation factor binding
Specific Function:
DNA-dependent RNA polymerase catalyzes the transcription of DNA into RNA using the four ribonucleoside triphosphates as substrates. Component of RNA polymerase II which synthesizes mRNA precursors and many functional non-coding RNAs. Pol II is the central component of the basal RNA polymerase II transcription machinery. It is composed of mobile elements that move relative to each other. RPB7 is part of a subcomplex with RPB4 that binds to a pocket formed by RPB1, RPB2 and RPB6 at the base of the clamp element. The RBP4-RPB7 subcomplex seems to lock the clamp via RPB7 in the closed conformation thus preventing double-stranded DNA to enter the active site cleft. The RPB4-RPB7 subcomplex binds single-stranded DNA and RNA (By similarity). Binds RNA.
Gene Name:
POLR2G
Uniprot ID:
P62487
Molecular Weight:
19294.195 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Amatoxin. Last Updated 31 July 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
DNA-dependent RNA polymerase catalyzes the transcription of DNA into RNA using the four ribonucleoside triphosphates as substrates. Component of RNA polymerase II which synthesizes mRNA precursors and many functional non-coding RNAs. Pol II is the central component of the basal RNA polymerase II transcription machinery. It is composed of mobile elements that move relative to each other. RPB9 is part of the upper jaw surrounding the central large cleft and thought to grab the incoming DNA template (By similarity).
Gene Name:
POLR2I
Uniprot ID:
P36954
Molecular Weight:
14523.1 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Amatoxin. Last Updated 31 July 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Dna-directed rna polymerase activity
Specific Function:
DNA-dependent RNA polymerase catalyzes the transcription of DNA into RNA using the four ribonucleoside triphosphates as substrates. Common component of RNA polymerases I, II and III which synthesize ribosomal RNA precursors, mRNA precursors and many functional non-coding RNAs, and small RNAs, such as 5S rRNA and tRNAs, respectively. Pol II is the central component of the basal RNA polymerase II transcription machinery. Pols are composed of mobile elements that move relative to each other. In Pol II, POLR2E/RPB5 is part of the lower jaw surrounding the central large cleft and thought to grab the incoming DNA template. Seems to be the major component in this process (By similarity).
Gene Name:
POLR2E
Uniprot ID:
P19388
Molecular Weight:
24551.075 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Amatoxin. Last Updated 31 July 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Dna-directed rna polymerase activity
Specific Function:
DNA-dependent RNA polymerases catalyze the transcription of DNA into RNA using the four ribonucleoside triphosphates as substrates. Common component of RNA polymerases I, II, and III which synthesize ribosomal RNA precursors, mRNA precursors and many functional non-coding RNAs, and small RNAs, such as 5S rRNA and tRNAs, respectively. Pol II is the central component of the basal RNA polymerase II transcription machinery. Pols are composed of mobile elements that move relative to each other. In Pol II, POLR2F/RPB6 is part of the clamp element and together with parts of RPB1 and RPB2 forms a pocket to which the RPB4-RPB7 subcomplex binds (By similarity).
Gene Name:
POLR2F
Uniprot ID:
P61218
Molecular Weight:
14477.92 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Amatoxin. Last Updated 31 July 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Dna-directed rna polymerase activity
Specific Function:
DNA-dependent RNA polymerase catalyzes the transcription of DNA into RNA using the four ribonucleoside triphosphates as substrates. Common component of RNA polymerases I, II and III which synthesize ribosomal RNA precursors, mRNA precursors and many functional non-coding RNAs, and small RNAs, such as 5S rRNA and tRNAs, respectively.
Gene Name:
POLR2H
Uniprot ID:
P52434
Molecular Weight:
17143.115 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Amatoxin. Last Updated 31 July 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
DNA-dependent RNA polymerase catalyzes the transcription of DNA into RNA using the four ribonucleoside triphosphates as substrates. Common component of RNA polymerases I, II and III which synthesize ribosomal RNA precursors, mRNA precursors and many functional non-coding RNAs, and a small RNAs, such as 5S rRNA and tRNAs, respectively.
Gene Name:
POLR2K
Uniprot ID:
P53803
Molecular Weight:
7004.145 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Amatoxin. Last Updated 31 July 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
DNA-dependent RNA polymerase catalyzes the transcription of DNA into RNA using the four ribonucleoside triphosphates as substrates. Common component of RNA polymerases I, II and III which synthesize ribosomal RNA precursors, mRNA precursors and many functional non-coding RNAs, and a small RNAs, such as 5S rRNA and tRNAs, respectively. Pol II is the central component of the basal RNA polymerase II transcription machinery. Pols are composed of mobile elements that move relative to each other. In Pol II, POLR2L/RBP10 is part of the core element with the central large cleft (By similarity).
Gene Name:
POLR2L
Uniprot ID:
P62875
Molecular Weight:
7645.02 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Amatoxin. Last Updated 31 July 2009. [Link]