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Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2009-12-03 21:16:18 UTC
Update Date2014-12-24 20:26:17 UTC
Accession NumberT3D3648
Identification
Common NameDiisononyl phthalate
ClassSmall Molecule
DescriptionDiisononyl phthalate is a phthalate ester. Phthalate esters are esters of phthalic acid and are mainly used as plasticizers, primarily used to soften polyvinyl chloride. They are found in a number of products, including glues, building materials, personal care products, detergents and surfactants, packaging, children's toys, paints, pharmaceuticals, food products, and textiles. Phthalates are hazardous due to their ability to act as endocrine disruptors. They are being phased out of many products in the United States and European Union due to these health concerns. (5)
Compound Type
  • Aromatic Hydrocarbon
  • Cosmetic Toxin
  • Ester
  • Ether
  • Food Toxin
  • Household Toxin
  • Industrial/Workplace Toxin
  • Organic Compound
  • Phthalate
  • Plasticizer
  • Synthetic Compound
Chemical Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Synonym
1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid 1,2-diisononyl ester
1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid diisononyl ester
Alpha-dinonyl phthalate
Bis(3,5,5-trimethylhexyl) phthalate
Bis-(3,5,5-trimethylhexyl) phthalate
Di-isononylphthalate
Diisononyl phthalic acid
Diisononylphthalate
Jay-dinp
Jayflex dinp
Phthalic acid dIIsononyl ester
Phthalisocizer dinp
Sansocizer dinp
Chemical FormulaC26H42O4
Average Molecular Mass418.609 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass418.308 g/mol
CAS Registry Number28553-12-0
IUPAC Name1,2-bis(3,5,5-trimethylhexyl) benzene-1,2-dicarboxylate
Traditional Name1,2-bis(3,5,5-trimethylhexyl) phthalate
SMILESCC(CCOC(=O)C1=CC=CC=C1C(=O)OCCC(C)CC(C)(C)C)CC(C)(C)C
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/C26H42O4/c1-19(17-25(3,4)5)13-15-29-23(27)21-11-9-10-12-22(21)24(28)30-16-14-20(2)18-26(6,7)8/h9-12,19-20H,13-18H2,1-8H3
InChI KeyInChIKey=GDJOUZYAIHWDCA-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as benzoic acid esters. These are ester derivatives of benzoic acid.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassBenzenoids
ClassBenzene and substituted derivatives
Sub ClassBenzoic acids and derivatives
Direct ParentBenzoic acid esters
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Benzoate ester
  • Benzoyl
  • Dicarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Carboxylic acid ester
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Aromatic homomonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External DescriptorsNot Available
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
OriginExogenous
Cellular Locations
  • Membrane
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationsNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
Applications
Biological RolesNot Available
Chemical RolesNot Available
Physical Properties
StateLiquid
AppearanceColorless liquid.
Experimental Properties
PropertyValue
Melting Point-48°C
Boiling Point244-252 °C
Solubility0.0002 mg/mL at 20°C
LogPNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.00016 g/LALOGPS
logP7.35ALOGPS
logP8.15ChemAxon
logS-6.4ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Basic)-6.7ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area52.6 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count14ChemAxon
Refractivity123.4 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability49.74 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Bioavailability0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-016r-1341900000-8fae2759c0389f328598JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-004i-3941100000-b470e7aab79ee905171eJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-002b-9720000000-c802b37798844f00029bJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-014i-0230900000-f5e0c667dfa6da82d68bJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-00r7-0690200000-a281232f9fc43bad46b4JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0101-1910000000-4eee141b544d2758f592JSpectraViewer
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureOral (5) ; inhalation (5) ; dermal (5)
Mechanism of ToxicityPhthalate esters are endocrine disruptors. They decrease foetal testis testosterone production and reduce the expression of steroidogenic genes by decreasing mRNA expression. Some phthalates have also been shown to reduce the expression of insulin-like peptide 3 (insl3), an important hormone secreted by the Leydig cell necessary for development of the gubernacular ligament. Animal studies have shown that these effects disrupt reproductive development and can cause a number of malformations in affected young. (1)
MetabolismPhthalate esters are first hydrolyzed to their monoester derivative. Once formed, the monoester derivative can be further hydrolyzed in vivo to phthalic acid or conjugated to glucuronide, both of which can then be excreted. The terminal or next-to-last carbon atom in the monoester can also be oxidized to an alcohol, which can be excreted as is or first oxidized to an aldehyde, ketone, or carboxylic acid. The monoester and oxidative metabolites are excreted in the urine and faeces. (2)
Toxicity ValuesLD50: >40000 mg/kg (Oral, Rat) (3) LD50: >9750 mg/kg (Intraperitoneal, Mouse) (3) LC50: >4.4 mg/L over 4 hours (Inhalation, Rat) (3)
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)No indication of carcinogenicity to humans (not listed by IARC).
Uses/SourcesPhthalate esters are mainly used as plasticizers, primarily used to soften polyvinyl chloride. They are found in a number of products, including glues, building materials, personal care products, detergents and surfactants, packaging, children's toys, paints, pharmaceuticals, food products, and textiles. Phthalates are used in a variety of household applications such as shower curtains, vinyl upholstery, adhesives, floor tiles, food containers and wrappers, and cleaning materials. Personal care items containing phthalates include perfume, eye shadow, moisturizer, nail polish, liquid soap, and hair spray. (5)
Minimum Risk LevelNot Available
Health EffectsPhthalate esters are endocrine disruptors. Animal studies have shown that they disrupt reproductive development and can cause a number of malformations in affected young, such as reduced anogenital distance (AGD), cryptorchidism, hypospadias, and reduced fertility. The combination of effects associated with phthalates is called 'phthalate syndrome’. (1)
SymptomsPhthalate esters are endocrine disruptors and can cause a number of developmental malformations termed 'phthalate syndrome'. (1)
TreatmentNot Available
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDNot Available
HMDB IDNot Available
PubChem Compound ID34277
ChEMBL IDNot Available
ChemSpider ID31580
KEGG IDC15221
UniProt IDNot Available
OMIM ID
ChEBI ID35459
BioCyc IDNot Available
CTD IDNot Available
Stitch IDNot Available
PDB IDNot Available
ACToR IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkDiisononyl_phthalate
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
MSDST3D3648.pdf
General References
  1. Wilson VS, Blystone CR, Hotchkiss AK, Rider CV, Gray LE Jr: Diverse mechanisms of anti-androgen action: impact on male rat reproductive tract development. Int J Androl. 2008 Apr;31(2):178-87. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2605.2007.00861.x. [18315717 ]
  2. Wittassek M, Angerer J: Phthalates: metabolism and exposure. Int J Androl. 2008 Apr;31(2):131-8. Epub 2007 Dec 7. [18070048 ]
  3. Ogier de Baulny H, Gerard M, Saudubray JM, Zittoun J: Remethylation defects: guidelines for clinical diagnosis and treatment. Eur J Pediatr. 1998 Apr;157 Suppl 2:S77-83. [9587031 ]
  4. European Chemicals Bureau (2000). IUCLID Dataset, Diisononyl phthalate (28553-12-0).
  5. Wikipedia. Phthalate. Last Updated 22 November 2009. [Link]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated GenesNot Available
Down-Regulated GenesNot Available

Targets

General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Nuclear receptor that binds and is activated by variety of endogenous and xenobiotic compounds. Transcription factor that activates the transcription of multiple genes involved in the metabolism and secretion of potentially harmful xenobiotics, drugs and endogenous compounds. Activated by the antibiotic rifampicin and various plant metabolites, such as hyperforin, guggulipid, colupulone, and isoflavones. Response to specific ligands is species-specific. Activated by naturally occurring steroids, such as pregnenolone and progesterone. Binds to a response element in the promoters of the CYP3A4 and ABCB1/MDR1 genes.
Gene Name:
NR1I2
Uniprot ID:
O75469
Molecular Weight:
49761.245 Da
References
  1. DeKeyser JG, Laurenzana EM, Peterson EC, Chen T, Omiecinski CJ: Selective phthalate activation of naturally occurring human constitutive androstane receptor splice variants and the pregnane X receptor. Toxicol Sci. 2011 Apr;120(2):381-91. doi: 10.1093/toxsci/kfq394. Epub 2011 Jan 12. [21227907 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Binds and transactivates the retinoic acid response elements that control expression of the retinoic acid receptor beta 2 and alcohol dehydrogenase 3 genes. Transactivates both the phenobarbital responsive element module of the human CYP2B6 gene and the CYP3A4 xenobiotic response element.
Gene Name:
NR1I3
Uniprot ID:
Q14994
Molecular Weight:
39942.145 Da
References
  1. DeKeyser JG, Laurenzana EM, Peterson EC, Chen T, Omiecinski CJ: Selective phthalate activation of naturally occurring human constitutive androstane receptor splice variants and the pregnane X receptor. Toxicol Sci. 2011 Apr;120(2):381-91. doi: 10.1093/toxsci/kfq394. Epub 2011 Jan 12. [21227907 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Ligand-activated transcription factor. Key regulator of lipid metabolism. Activated by the endogenous ligand 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphocholine (16:0/18:1-GPC). Activated by oleylethanolamide, a naturally occurring lipid that regulates satiety. Receptor for peroxisome proliferators such as hypolipidemic drugs and fatty acids. Regulates the peroxisomal beta-oxidation pathway of fatty acids. Functions as transcription activator for the ACOX1 and P450 genes. Transactivation activity requires heterodimerization with RXRA and is antagonized by NR2C2. May be required for the propagation of clock information to metabolic pathways regulated by PER2.
Gene Name:
PPARA
Uniprot ID:
Q07869
Molecular Weight:
52224.595 Da
References
  1. Sarath Josh MK, Pradeep S, Vijayalekshmi Amma KS, Balachandran S, Abdul Jaleel UC, Doble M, Spener F, Benjamin S: Phthalates efficiently bind to human peroxisome proliferator activated receptor and retinoid X receptor alpha, beta, gamma subtypes: an in silico approach. J Appl Toxicol. 2014 Jul;34(7):754-65. doi: 10.1002/jat.2902. Epub 2013 Jul 11. [23843199 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Ligand-activated transcription factor. Receptor that binds peroxisome proliferators such as hypolipidemic drugs and fatty acids. Has a preference for poly-unsaturated fatty acids, such as gamma-linoleic acid and eicosapentanoic acid. Once activated by a ligand, the receptor binds to promoter elements of target genes. Regulates the peroxisomal beta-oxidation pathway of fatty acids. Functions as transcription activator for the acyl-CoA oxidase gene. Decreases expression of NPC1L1 once activated by a ligand.
Gene Name:
PPARD
Uniprot ID:
Q03181
Molecular Weight:
49902.99 Da
References
  1. Sarath Josh MK, Pradeep S, Vijayalekshmi Amma KS, Balachandran S, Abdul Jaleel UC, Doble M, Spener F, Benjamin S: Phthalates efficiently bind to human peroxisome proliferator activated receptor and retinoid X receptor alpha, beta, gamma subtypes: an in silico approach. J Appl Toxicol. 2014 Jul;34(7):754-65. doi: 10.1002/jat.2902. Epub 2013 Jul 11. [23843199 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Nuclear receptor that binds peroxisome proliferators such as hypolipidemic drugs and fatty acids. Once activated by a ligand, the nuclear receptor binds to DNA specific PPAR response elements (PPRE) and modulates the transcription of its target genes, such as acyl-CoA oxidase. It therefore controls the peroxisomal beta-oxidation pathway of fatty acids. Key regulator of adipocyte differentiation and glucose homeostasis. ARF6 acts as a key regulator of the tissue-specific adipocyte P2 (aP2) enhancer. Acts as a critical regulator of gut homeostasis by suppressing NF-kappa-B-mediated proinflammatory responses. Plays a role in the regulation of cardiovascular circadian rhythms by regulating the transcription of ARNTL/BMAL1 in the blood vessels (By similarity).
Gene Name:
PPARG
Uniprot ID:
P37231
Molecular Weight:
57619.58 Da
References
  1. Sarath Josh MK, Pradeep S, Vijayalekshmi Amma KS, Balachandran S, Abdul Jaleel UC, Doble M, Spener F, Benjamin S: Phthalates efficiently bind to human peroxisome proliferator activated receptor and retinoid X receptor alpha, beta, gamma subtypes: an in silico approach. J Appl Toxicol. 2014 Jul;34(7):754-65. doi: 10.1002/jat.2902. Epub 2013 Jul 11. [23843199 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Receptor for retinoic acid. Retinoic acid receptors bind as heterodimers to their target response elements in response to their ligands, all-trans or 9-cis retinoic acid, and regulate gene expression in various biological processes. The RAR/RXR heterodimers bind to the retinoic acid response elements (RARE) composed of tandem 5'-AGGTCA-3' sites known as DR1-DR5. The high affinity ligand for RXRs is 9-cis retinoic acid. RXRA serves as a common heterodimeric partner for a number of nuclear receptors. The RXR/RAR heterodimers bind to the retinoic acid response elements (RARE) composed of tandem 5'-AGGTCA-3' sites known as DR1-DR5. In the absence of ligand, the RXR-RAR heterodimers associate with a multiprotein complex containing transcription corepressors that induce histone acetylation, chromatin condensation and transcriptional suppression. On ligand binding, the corepressors dissociate from the receptors and associate with the coactivators leading to transcriptional activation. The RXRA/PPARA heterodimer is required for PPARA transcriptional activity on fatty acid oxidation genes such as ACOX1 and the P450 system genes.
Gene Name:
RXRA
Uniprot ID:
P19793
Molecular Weight:
50810.835 Da
References
  1. Sarath Josh MK, Pradeep S, Vijayalekshmi Amma KS, Balachandran S, Abdul Jaleel UC, Doble M, Spener F, Benjamin S: Phthalates efficiently bind to human peroxisome proliferator activated receptor and retinoid X receptor alpha, beta, gamma subtypes: an in silico approach. J Appl Toxicol. 2014 Jul;34(7):754-65. doi: 10.1002/jat.2902. Epub 2013 Jul 11. [23843199 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Receptor for retinoic acid. Retinoic acid receptors bind as heterodimers to their target response elements in response to their ligands, all-trans or 9-cis retinoic acid, and regulate gene expression in various biological processes. The RAR/RXR heterodimers bind to the retinoic acid response elements (RARE) composed of tandem 5'-AGGTCA-3' sites known as DR1-DR5 (By similarity). Specifically binds 9-cis retinoic acid (9C-RA).
Gene Name:
RXRB
Uniprot ID:
P28702
Molecular Weight:
56921.38 Da
References
  1. Sarath Josh MK, Pradeep S, Vijayalekshmi Amma KS, Balachandran S, Abdul Jaleel UC, Doble M, Spener F, Benjamin S: Phthalates efficiently bind to human peroxisome proliferator activated receptor and retinoid X receptor alpha, beta, gamma subtypes: an in silico approach. J Appl Toxicol. 2014 Jul;34(7):754-65. doi: 10.1002/jat.2902. Epub 2013 Jul 11. [23843199 ]