You are using an unsupported browser. Please upgrade your browser to a newer version to get the best experience on Toxin, Toxin Target Database.
Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2009-12-04 03:13:09 UTC
Update Date2014-12-24 20:26:17 UTC
Accession NumberT3D3652
Identification
Common NameDimethyl phthalate
ClassSmall Molecule
DescriptionDimethyl phthalate is a phthalate ester. Phthalate esters are esters of phthalic acid and are mainly used as plasticizers, primarily used to soften polyvinyl chloride. They are found in a number of products, including glues, building materials, personal care products, detergents and surfactants, packaging, children's toys, paints, pharmaceuticals, food products, and textiles. Phthalates are hazardous due to their ability to act as endocrine disruptors. They are being phased out of many products in the United States and European Union due to these health concerns. (5)
Compound Type
  • Aromatic Hydrocarbon
  • Cosmetic Toxin
  • Ester
  • Ether
  • Food Toxin
  • Household Toxin
  • Industrial/Workplace Toxin
  • Organic Compound
  • Phthalate
  • Plasticizer
  • Pollutant
  • Synthetic Compound
Chemical Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Synonym
1, 2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid dimethyl ester
1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid 1,2-dimethyl ester
1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid dimethyl ester
1,2-dimethyl phthalate
Dimethyl 1,2-benzendicarboxylate
Dimethyl 1,2-benzenedicarboxylate
Dimethyl 1,2-benzenedicarboxylate acid
Dimethyl benzene-o-dicarboxylate
Dimethyl benzeneorthodicarboxylate
Dimethyl o-phthalate
Dimethyl orthophthalate
Dimethyl phthalic acid
Dimethylphthalate
Fermine
Kemester DMP
Kodaflex DMP
Methyl phthalate
Mipax
NTM
Phtalate de dimethyle
Phthalic acid dimethyl ester
Phthalic acid methyl ester
Phthalsaeuredimethylester
Repeftal
Solvanom
Solvarone
Chemical FormulaC10H10O4
Average Molecular Mass194.184 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass194.058 g/mol
CAS Registry Number131-11-3
IUPAC Name1,2-dimethyl benzene-1,2-dicarboxylate
Traditional Namedimethyl phthalate
SMILESCOC(=O)C1=CC=CC=C1C(=O)OC
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/C10H10O4/c1-13-9(11)7-5-3-4-6-8(7)10(12)14-2/h3-6H,1-2H3
InChI KeyInChIKey=NIQCNGHVCWTJSM-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of chemical entities known as benzoic acid esters. These are ester derivatives of benzoic acid.
KingdomChemical entities
Super ClassOrganic compounds
ClassBenzenoids
Sub ClassBenzene and substituted derivatives
Direct ParentBenzoic acid esters
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Benzoate ester
  • Benzoyl
  • Dicarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Methyl ester
  • Carboxylic acid ester
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Aromatic homomonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
OriginExogenous
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationsNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
ApplicationsNot Available
Biological RolesNot Available
Chemical RolesNot Available
Physical Properties
StateLiquid
AppearanceColorless liquid.
Experimental Properties
PropertyValue
Melting Point5.5°C
Boiling Point283 - 284 °C
Solubility4 mg/mL at 25°C
LogPNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility1.09 mg/mLALOGPS
logP1.96ALOGPS
logP1.98ChemAxon
logS-2.2ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Basic)-6.6ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area52.6 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count4ChemAxon
Refractivity50.11 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability19.39 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-Bsplash10-014i-4900000000-8f6b7990a7ff0c457426View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-Bsplash10-03di-4900000000-4b5a7315902788fc4921View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-Bsplash10-03di-4900000000-bf5f1bff942c9a67e0dcView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-Bsplash10-03di-1900000000-b47c903ab98e49f0056aView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - CI-Bsplash10-03dj-0900000000-a563da8e92c894b54d40View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-Bsplash10-03di-3900000000-e194a5ec6782fe9c8422View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-Bsplash10-03di-3900000000-cbc240470004eaf36e39View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positivesplash10-03di-0900000000-e28cad3fb0aa046c7359View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positivesplash10-03di-0900000000-6d3539313a4f94a36894View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positivesplash10-03di-0900000000-b83c6a1b33adc5b2b008View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positivesplash10-03di-0900000000-7a5db9a65e7ae849df28View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positivesplash10-08j0-4900000000-a2f666b3eb48d44433f2View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positivesplash10-0a74-9700000000-ca3df3c80bc8fb799ec7View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positivesplash10-002g-9100000000-c25dca7bd8a39ec5ab15View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positivesplash10-0iml-9000000000-fa059e88f109c84e6767View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positivesplash10-0ik9-9000000000-dffbad3fff43b73a5a74View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-0002-0900000000-83e4d9ddfd72538b7afeView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-01ot-0900000000-6a6b41107955a633d088View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-01q9-2900000000-ef9df520589a1781542aView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-0006-0900000000-c7e72bd53097e76f06f6View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-0006-0900000000-edff401c34fcbdc585fdView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-03e9-2900000000-8af8fb20c500572b7539View in MoNA
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-03di-5900000000-c9e53f21e2d71bd53b8fView in MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot Available
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureOral (5) ; inhalation (5) ; dermal (5)
Mechanism of ToxicityPhthalate esters are endocrine disruptors. They decrease foetal testis testosterone production and reduce the expression of steroidogenic genes by decreasing mRNA expression. Some phthalates have also been shown to reduce the expression of insulin-like peptide 3 (insl3), an important hormone secreted by the Leydig cell necessary for development of the gubernacular ligament. Animal studies have shown that these effects disrupt reproductive development and can cause a number of malformations in affected young. (1)
MetabolismPhthalate esters are first hydrolyzed to their monoester derivative. Once formed, the monoester derivative can be further hydrolyzed in vivo to phthalic acid or conjugated to glucuronide, both of which can then be excreted. The terminal or next-to-last carbon atom in the monoester can also be oxidized to an alcohol, which can be excreted as is or first oxidized to an aldehyde, ketone, or carboxylic acid. The monoester and oxidative metabolites are excreted in the urine and faeces. (2)
Toxicity ValuesLD50: 6800 mg/kg (Oral, Rat) (3) LD50: 3375 mg/kg (Intraperitoneal, Rat) (3) LD50: 38000 mg/kg (Dermal, Rat) (7) LD50: 324 mg/kg (Intravenous, Rat) (7)
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)No indication of carcinogenicity to humans (not listed by IARC).
Uses/SourcesDimethyl phthalate is an ectoparasiticide and has many other uses, including in solid rocket propellants, plastics, and insect repellants. (6)
Minimum Risk LevelNot Available
Health EffectsPhthalate esters are endocrine disruptors. Animal studies have shown that they disrupt reproductive development and can cause a number of malformations in affected young, such as reduced anogenital distance (AGD), cryptorchidism, hypospadias, and reduced fertility. The combination of effects associated with phthalates is called 'phthalate syndrome’. (1)
SymptomsPhthalate esters are endocrine disruptors and can cause a number of developmental malformations termed 'phthalate syndrome'. (1)
TreatmentNot Available
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDNot Available
HMDB IDNot Available
PubChem Compound ID8554
ChEMBL IDCHEMBL323348
ChemSpider ID13837329
KEGG IDC11233
UniProt IDNot Available
OMIM ID
ChEBI ID17747
BioCyc IDNot Available
CTD IDNot Available
Stitch IDNot Available
PDB IDNot Available
ACToR IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkDimethyl_phthalate
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
MSDST3D3652.pdf
General References
  1. Wilson VS, Blystone CR, Hotchkiss AK, Rider CV, Gray LE Jr: Diverse mechanisms of anti-androgen action: impact on male rat reproductive tract development. Int J Androl. 2008 Apr;31(2):178-87. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2605.2007.00861.x. [18315717 ]
  2. Wittassek M, Angerer J: Phthalates: metabolism and exposure. Int J Androl. 2008 Apr;31(2):131-8. Epub 2007 Dec 7. [18070048 ]
  3. Lewis RJ Sr. (ed) (2004). Sax's Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials. 11th Edition. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Interscience, Wiley & Sons, Inc.
  4. European Chemicals Bureau (2000). IUCLID Dataset, Dimethyl phthalate (131-11-3).
  5. Wikipedia. Phthalate. Last Updated 22 November 2009. [Link]
  6. Wikipedia. Dimethyl phthalate. Last Updated 28 July 2009. [Link]
  7. Drugs.com [Link]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated GenesNot Available
Down-Regulated GenesNot Available

Targets

General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Ligand-activated transcription factor. Key regulator of lipid metabolism. Activated by the endogenous ligand 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphocholine (16:0/18:1-GPC). Activated by oleylethanolamide, a naturally occurring lipid that regulates satiety. Receptor for peroxisome proliferators such as hypolipidemic drugs and fatty acids. Regulates the peroxisomal beta-oxidation pathway of fatty acids. Functions as transcription activator for the ACOX1 and P450 genes. Transactivation activity requires heterodimerization with RXRA and is antagonized by NR2C2. May be required for the propagation of clock information to metabolic pathways regulated by PER2.
Gene Name:
PPARA
Uniprot ID:
Q07869
Molecular Weight:
52224.595 Da
References
  1. Sarath Josh MK, Pradeep S, Vijayalekshmi Amma KS, Balachandran S, Abdul Jaleel UC, Doble M, Spener F, Benjamin S: Phthalates efficiently bind to human peroxisome proliferator activated receptor and retinoid X receptor alpha, beta, gamma subtypes: an in silico approach. J Appl Toxicol. 2014 Jul;34(7):754-65. doi: 10.1002/jat.2902. Epub 2013 Jul 11. [23843199 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Ligand-activated transcription factor. Receptor that binds peroxisome proliferators such as hypolipidemic drugs and fatty acids. Has a preference for poly-unsaturated fatty acids, such as gamma-linoleic acid and eicosapentanoic acid. Once activated by a ligand, the receptor binds to promoter elements of target genes. Regulates the peroxisomal beta-oxidation pathway of fatty acids. Functions as transcription activator for the acyl-CoA oxidase gene. Decreases expression of NPC1L1 once activated by a ligand.
Gene Name:
PPARD
Uniprot ID:
Q03181
Molecular Weight:
49902.99 Da
References
  1. Sarath Josh MK, Pradeep S, Vijayalekshmi Amma KS, Balachandran S, Abdul Jaleel UC, Doble M, Spener F, Benjamin S: Phthalates efficiently bind to human peroxisome proliferator activated receptor and retinoid X receptor alpha, beta, gamma subtypes: an in silico approach. J Appl Toxicol. 2014 Jul;34(7):754-65. doi: 10.1002/jat.2902. Epub 2013 Jul 11. [23843199 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Nuclear receptor that binds peroxisome proliferators such as hypolipidemic drugs and fatty acids. Once activated by a ligand, the nuclear receptor binds to DNA specific PPAR response elements (PPRE) and modulates the transcription of its target genes, such as acyl-CoA oxidase. It therefore controls the peroxisomal beta-oxidation pathway of fatty acids. Key regulator of adipocyte differentiation and glucose homeostasis. ARF6 acts as a key regulator of the tissue-specific adipocyte P2 (aP2) enhancer. Acts as a critical regulator of gut homeostasis by suppressing NF-kappa-B-mediated proinflammatory responses. Plays a role in the regulation of cardiovascular circadian rhythms by regulating the transcription of ARNTL/BMAL1 in the blood vessels (By similarity).
Gene Name:
PPARG
Uniprot ID:
P37231
Molecular Weight:
57619.58 Da
References
  1. Sarath Josh MK, Pradeep S, Vijayalekshmi Amma KS, Balachandran S, Abdul Jaleel UC, Doble M, Spener F, Benjamin S: Phthalates efficiently bind to human peroxisome proliferator activated receptor and retinoid X receptor alpha, beta, gamma subtypes: an in silico approach. J Appl Toxicol. 2014 Jul;34(7):754-65. doi: 10.1002/jat.2902. Epub 2013 Jul 11. [23843199 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Receptor for retinoic acid. Retinoic acid receptors bind as heterodimers to their target response elements in response to their ligands, all-trans or 9-cis retinoic acid, and regulate gene expression in various biological processes. The RAR/RXR heterodimers bind to the retinoic acid response elements (RARE) composed of tandem 5'-AGGTCA-3' sites known as DR1-DR5. The high affinity ligand for RXRs is 9-cis retinoic acid. RXRA serves as a common heterodimeric partner for a number of nuclear receptors. The RXR/RAR heterodimers bind to the retinoic acid response elements (RARE) composed of tandem 5'-AGGTCA-3' sites known as DR1-DR5. In the absence of ligand, the RXR-RAR heterodimers associate with a multiprotein complex containing transcription corepressors that induce histone acetylation, chromatin condensation and transcriptional suppression. On ligand binding, the corepressors dissociate from the receptors and associate with the coactivators leading to transcriptional activation. The RXRA/PPARA heterodimer is required for PPARA transcriptional activity on fatty acid oxidation genes such as ACOX1 and the P450 system genes.
Gene Name:
RXRA
Uniprot ID:
P19793
Molecular Weight:
50810.835 Da
References
  1. Sarath Josh MK, Pradeep S, Vijayalekshmi Amma KS, Balachandran S, Abdul Jaleel UC, Doble M, Spener F, Benjamin S: Phthalates efficiently bind to human peroxisome proliferator activated receptor and retinoid X receptor alpha, beta, gamma subtypes: an in silico approach. J Appl Toxicol. 2014 Jul;34(7):754-65. doi: 10.1002/jat.2902. Epub 2013 Jul 11. [23843199 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Receptor for retinoic acid. Retinoic acid receptors bind as heterodimers to their target response elements in response to their ligands, all-trans or 9-cis retinoic acid, and regulate gene expression in various biological processes. The RAR/RXR heterodimers bind to the retinoic acid response elements (RARE) composed of tandem 5'-AGGTCA-3' sites known as DR1-DR5 (By similarity). Specifically binds 9-cis retinoic acid (9C-RA).
Gene Name:
RXRB
Uniprot ID:
P28702
Molecular Weight:
56921.38 Da
References
  1. Sarath Josh MK, Pradeep S, Vijayalekshmi Amma KS, Balachandran S, Abdul Jaleel UC, Doble M, Spener F, Benjamin S: Phthalates efficiently bind to human peroxisome proliferator activated receptor and retinoid X receptor alpha, beta, gamma subtypes: an in silico approach. J Appl Toxicol. 2014 Jul;34(7):754-65. doi: 10.1002/jat.2902. Epub 2013 Jul 11. [23843199 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Receptor for retinoic acid. Retinoic acid receptors bind as heterodimers to their target response elements in response to their ligands, all-trans or 9-cis retinoic acid, and regulate gene expression in various biological processes. The RAR/RXR heterodimers bind to the retinoic acid response elements (RARE) composed of tandem 5'-AGGTCA-3' sites known as DR1-DR5. The high affinity ligand for RXRs is 9-cis retinoic acid (By similarity).
Gene Name:
RXRG
Uniprot ID:
P48443
Molecular Weight:
50870.72 Da
References
  1. Sarath Josh MK, Pradeep S, Vijayalekshmi Amma KS, Balachandran S, Abdul Jaleel UC, Doble M, Spener F, Benjamin S: Phthalates efficiently bind to human peroxisome proliferator activated receptor and retinoid X receptor alpha, beta, gamma subtypes: an in silico approach. J Appl Toxicol. 2014 Jul;34(7):754-65. doi: 10.1002/jat.2902. Epub 2013 Jul 11. [23843199 ]
General Function:
Monoamine transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Amine transporter. Terminates the action of dopamine by its high affinity sodium-dependent reuptake into presynaptic terminals.
Gene Name:
SLC6A3
Uniprot ID:
Q01959
Molecular Weight:
68494.255 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
IC50>100 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50090983
References
  1. Meltzer PC, Blundell P, Yong YF, Chen Z, George C, Gonzalez MD, Madras BK: 2-Carbomethoxy-3-aryl-8-bicyclo[3.2.1]octanes: potent non-nitrogen inhibitors of monoamine transporters. J Med Chem. 2000 Aug 10;43(16):2982-91. [10956207 ]
General Function:
Serotonin:sodium symporter activity
Specific Function:
Serotonin transporter whose primary function in the central nervous system involves the regulation of serotonergic signaling via transport of serotonin molecules from the synaptic cleft back into the pre-synaptic terminal for re-utilization. Plays a key role in mediating regulation of the availability of serotonin to other receptors of serotonergic systems. Terminates the action of serotonin and recycles it in a sodium-dependent manner.
Gene Name:
SLC6A4
Uniprot ID:
P31645
Molecular Weight:
70324.165 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
IC50>100 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50090983
References
  1. Meltzer PC, Blundell P, Yong YF, Chen Z, George C, Gonzalez MD, Madras BK: 2-Carbomethoxy-3-aryl-8-bicyclo[3.2.1]octanes: potent non-nitrogen inhibitors of monoamine transporters. J Med Chem. 2000 Aug 10;43(16):2982-91. [10956207 ]