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Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2010-04-28 18:29:19 UTC
Update Date2014-12-24 20:26:23 UTC
Accession NumberT3D3701
Identification
Common Name15-Acetyl-4-deoxynivalenol
ClassSmall Molecule
Description15-Acetyl-4-deoxynivalenol is a mycotoxin produced by Fusarium graminearum and Gibberella zeae.
Compound Type
  • Ester
  • Ether
  • Food Toxin
  • Fungal Toxin
  • Lachrymator
  • Metabolite
  • Mycotoxin
  • Natural Compound
  • Organic Compound
Chemical Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Synonym
15-Acetoxy-12,13-epoxy-3,7-dihydroxy-9-trichothecen-8-one
15-Acetyldeoxynivalenol
15-Acetylvomitoxin
Chemical FormulaC17H22O7
Average Molecular Mass338.352 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass338.137 g/mol
CAS Registry Number88337-96-6
IUPAC Name3',10'-dihydroxy-1',5'-dimethyl-4'-oxo-8'-oxaspiro[oxirane-2,12'-tricyclo[7.2.1.0²,⁷]dodecan]-5'-en-2'-ylmethyl acetate
Traditional Name3',10'-dihydroxy-1',5'-dimethyl-4'-oxo-8'-oxaspiro[oxirane-2,12'-tricyclo[7.2.1.0²,⁷]dodecan]-5'-en-2'-ylmethyl acetate
SMILESCC(=O)OCC12C(O)C(=O)C(C)=CC1OC1C(O)CC2(C)C11CO1
InChI IdentifierInChI=1/C17H22O7/c1-8-4-11-16(6-22-9(2)18,13(21)12(8)20)15(3)5-10(19)14(24-11)17(15)7-23-17/h4,10-11,13-14,19,21H,5-7H2,1-3H3
InChI KeyInChIKey=IDGRYIRJIFKTAN-UHFFFAOYNA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as purine 2'-deoxyribonucleosides. Purine 2'-deoxyribonucleosides are compounds consisting of a purine linked to a ribose which lacks a hydroxyl group at position 2.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassNucleosides, nucleotides, and analogues
ClassPurine nucleosides
Sub ClassPurine 2'-deoxyribonucleosides
Direct ParentPurine 2'-deoxyribonucleosides
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Purine 2'-deoxyribonucleoside
  • 6-oxopurine
  • Hypoxanthine
  • Purinone
  • Imidazopyrimidine
  • Purine
  • Aminopyrimidine
  • Pyrimidone
  • N-substituted imidazole
  • Pyrimidine
  • Azole
  • Imidazole
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • Vinylogous amide
  • Tetrahydrofuran
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Oxacycle
  • Azacycle
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Amine
  • Primary amine
  • Primary alcohol
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organic oxide
  • Alcohol
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
OriginExogenous
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationsNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
ApplicationsNot Available
Biological RolesNot Available
Chemical RolesNot Available
Physical Properties
StateSolid
AppearanceWhite crystalline solid.
Experimental Properties
PropertyValue
Melting Point140 - 141°C
Boiling PointNot Available
SolubilityNot Available
LogPNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility6.31 g/LALOGPS
logP-0.54ALOGPS
logP-0.53ChemAxon
logS-1.7ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)12.74ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-3.2ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count6ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area105.59 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count3ChemAxon
Refractivity80.77 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability33.29 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings4ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyDeposition DateView
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-00kf-9533000000-9e92c62e115bae51f49e2017-09-01View Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (2 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-03dj-8793400000-6f954d334d561ef7154b2017-10-06View Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, PositiveNot Available2021-10-12View Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, PositiveNot Available2021-10-12View Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (TMS_1_1) - 70eV, PositiveNot Available2021-11-03View Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (TMS_1_2) - 70eV, PositiveNot Available2021-11-03View Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (TMS_1_3) - 70eV, PositiveNot Available2021-11-03View Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (TMS_2_2) - 70eV, PositiveNot Available2021-11-03View Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (TMS_2_3) - 70eV, PositiveNot Available2021-11-03View Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (TBDMS_1_1) - 70eV, PositiveNot Available2021-11-03View Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (TBDMS_1_2) - 70eV, PositiveNot Available2021-11-03View Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (TBDMS_1_3) - 70eV, PositiveNot Available2021-11-03View Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (TBDMS_2_1) - 70eV, PositiveNot Available2021-11-03View Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (TBDMS_2_2) - 70eV, PositiveNot Available2021-11-03View Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (TBDMS_2_3) - 70eV, PositiveNot Available2021-11-03View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-002r-0059000000-eec38a1db65e703277372016-06-03View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-01tc-1794000000-273e4cf88f3e2fb17ab32016-06-03View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-03fr-3490000000-74e06a431273614da2492016-06-03View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-000i-3029000000-d44fae66185e84efff102016-08-04View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-0a4i-9355000000-486ee4ce2d901d79ce4b2016-08-04View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0007-8900000000-70334a00b33bfad01a3e2016-08-04View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-000i-0019000000-49357b54d509c0134c7d2021-09-22View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-00kb-0091000000-5d6ae125da6443e1ca3b2021-09-22View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-002f-9532000000-3d5c24c7f40c6a56e0712021-09-22View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-000i-1039000000-2c18ea36fa21314790782021-09-23View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-0a4i-9032000000-fff6a0545ba4309b653e2021-09-23View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0596-9410000000-e71ae6b3f4dd216558ed2021-09-23View Spectrum
1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 100 MHz, D2O, predicted)Not Available2021-09-25View Spectrum
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 100 MHz, D2O, predicted)Not Available2021-09-25View Spectrum
1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 1000 MHz, D2O, predicted)Not Available2021-09-25View Spectrum
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 1000 MHz, D2O, predicted)Not Available2021-09-25View Spectrum
1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 200 MHz, D2O, predicted)Not Available2021-09-25View Spectrum
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 200 MHz, D2O, predicted)Not Available2021-09-25View Spectrum
1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 300 MHz, D2O, predicted)Not Available2021-09-25View Spectrum
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 300 MHz, D2O, predicted)Not Available2021-09-25View Spectrum
1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 400 MHz, D2O, predicted)Not Available2021-09-25View Spectrum
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 400 MHz, D2O, predicted)Not Available2021-09-25View Spectrum
1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 500 MHz, D2O, predicted)Not Available2021-09-25View Spectrum
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 500 MHz, D2O, predicted)Not Available2021-09-25View Spectrum
1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 600 MHz, D2O, predicted)Not Available2021-09-25View Spectrum
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 600 MHz, D2O, predicted)Not Available2021-09-25View Spectrum
1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 700 MHz, D2O, predicted)Not Available2021-09-25View Spectrum
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 700 MHz, D2O, predicted)Not Available2021-09-25View Spectrum
1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 800 MHz, D2O, predicted)Not Available2021-09-25View Spectrum
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 800 MHz, D2O, predicted)Not Available2021-09-25View Spectrum
1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 900 MHz, D2O, predicted)Not Available2021-09-25View Spectrum
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 900 MHz, D2O, predicted)Not Available2021-09-25View Spectrum
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureOral, dermal, inhalation, and parenteral (contaminated drugs). (5)
Mechanism of ToxicityUnlike many other mycotoxins, trichothecenes do not require metabolic activation to exert their biological activity, instead directly reacting with cellular components. Trichothecenes are cytotoxic to most eukaryotic cells due to their powerful ability to inhibit protein synthesis. They do this by freely moving across the plasma membrane and binding specifically to ribosomes with high-affinity. Specifically, they interfere with the active site of peptidyl transferase at the 3'-end of large 28S ribosomal RNA and inhibit the initiation, elongation or termination step of protein synthesis, as well as cause polyribosomal disaggregation. Protein synthesis is an essential function in all tissues, but tissues where cells are actively and rapidly growing and dividing are very susceptible to the toxins. Additionally, binding to ribosomes is thought to activate proteins in downstream signalling events related to immune response and apoptosis, such as mitogen-activated protein kinases. This is known as ribotoxic stress response. Trichothecenes may also induce some alterations in membrane structure, leading to increased lipid peroxidation and inhibition of electron transport activity in the mitochondria. They can further induce apoptosis through generation of reactive oxygen species. Further secondary effects of trichothecenes include inhibition of RNA and DNA synthesis, and also inhibition of mitosis. (10, 11, 1, 2, 3, 4)
MetabolismTrichothecenes are lipophilic and thus easily absorbed through the skin, gut, and pulmonary mucosa. They are metabolized mainly by cytochrome P-450 and trichothecene-specific carboxylesterase activity in the liver, although other tissues such as the kidney, spleen, and intestine also show some metabolic activity. Trichothecenes are metabolically transformed to less toxic metabolites by such reactions as hydrolysis, hydroxylation, de-epoxidation, and glucuronidation. Metabolites are excreted in the urine and feces. (9, 11)
Toxicity ValuesNot Available
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)No indication of carcinogenicity to humans (not listed by IARC).
Uses/SourcesTrichothecenes are a very large family of chemically related mycotoxins produced by various species of Fusarium, Myrothecium, Trichoderma, Trichothecium, Cephalosporium, Verticimonosporium, and Stachybotrys. They are produced on many different grains like wheat, oats or maize by various Fusarium species such as F. graminearum, F. sporotrichioides, F. poae and F. equiseti. Some molds that produce trichothecene mycotoxins, such as Stachybotrys chartarum, can grow in damp indoor environments and may contribute to health problems among building occupants. (10)
Minimum Risk LevelNot Available
Health EffectsTrichothecenes have multiorgan effects including anoerxia and weight loss, growth retardation, nervous disorders, cardiovascular alterations, immunodepression, hemostatic derangements, skin toxicity, decreased reproductive capacity, bone marrow damage, and alimentary toxic aleukia. (10, 11, 3)
SymptomsAfter direct dermal application or oral ingestion, the trichothecene mycotoxins can cause rapid irritation to the skin or intestinal mucosa, including skin irritation, burning and itching, rash or blisters, and bleeding. Eye contact can cause tearing, eye pain, conjunctivitis, burning sensations about the eyes, and blurred vision for up to 1 week. Symptoms also include nausea, vomiting, fatigue, dyspnea, and acute vascular effects leading to hypotension and shock. (10, 11)
TreatmentThere are no known antidotes to trichothecene mycotoxins. Treatments are directed at supporting hemopoietic abnormalities, gastrointestinal damage, and skin damage. Administer charcoal as a slurry in case of acute oral exposure. In case of inhalation: Move patient to fresh air. Monitor for respiratory distress. If cough or difficulty breathing develops, evaluate for respiratory tract irritation, bronchitis, or pneumonitis. Administer oxygen and assist ventilation as required. Treat bronchospasm with inhaled beta2 agonist and oral or parenteral corticosteroids. In case of eye exposure, Irrigate exposed eyes with copious amounts of room temperature water for at least 15 minutes. In case of dermal exposure, Remove contaminated clothing and wash exposed area thoroughly with soap and water. (6)
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDNot Available
HMDB IDHMDB33444
PubChem Compound ID536551
ChEMBL IDNot Available
ChemSpider ID467346
KEGG IDNot Available
UniProt IDNot Available
OMIM ID
ChEBI IDNot Available
BioCyc IDNot Available
CTD IDNot Available
Stitch IDNot Available
PDB IDNot Available
ACToR IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
MSDST3D3701.pdf
General References
  1. Pestka JJ: Mechanisms of deoxynivalenol-induced gene expression and apoptosis. Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess. 2008 Sep;25(9):1128-40. [19238623 ]
  2. Nusuetrong P, Pengsuparp T, Meksuriyen D, Tanitsu M, Kikuchi H, Mizugaki M, Shimazu K, Oshima Y, Nakahata N, Yoshida M: Satratoxin H generates reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxides in PC12 cells. Biol Pharm Bull. 2008 Jun;31(6):1115-20. [18520041 ]
  3. Rocha O, Ansari K, Doohan FM: Effects of trichothecene mycotoxins on eukaryotic cells: a review. Food Addit Contam. 2005 Apr;22(4):369-78. [16019807 ]
  4. Bae HK, Pestka JJ: Deoxynivalenol induces p38 interaction with the ribosome in monocytes and macrophages. Toxicol Sci. 2008 Sep;105(1):59-66. doi: 10.1093/toxsci/kfn102. Epub 2008 May 22. [18502741 ]
  5. Peraica M, Domijan AM: Contamination of food with mycotoxins and human health. Arh Hig Rada Toksikol. 2001 Mar;52(1):23-35. [11370295 ]
  6. Grond S, Sablotzki A: Clinical pharmacology of tramadol. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2004;43(13):879-923. [15509185 ]
  7. Rumack BH POISINDEX(R) Information System Micromedex, Inc., Englewood, CO, 2010; CCIS Volume 143, edition expires Feb, 2010. Hall AH & Rumack BH (Eds): TOMES(R) Information System Micromedex, Inc., Englewood, CO, 2010; CCIS Volume 143, edition expires Feb, 2010.
  8. Yannai, Shmuel. (2004) Dictionary of food compounds with CD-ROM: Additives, flavors, and ingredients. Boca Raton: Chapman & Hall/CRC.
  9. WHO; Environ Health Criteria 105: Selected Mycotoxins: Ochratoxins, Trichothecenes, Ergot (1990). [Link]
  10. Wikipedia. Trichothecene. Last Updated 30 March 2010. [Link]
  11. Wannemacher, R.W. JR., and Wiener, S.L. (1997). Chapter 34: Trichothecene Mycotoxins. In R. Zajtchuk (Ed.), Medical Aspects of Chemical and Biological Warfare. Maryland: Office of The Surgeon General. [Link]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated Genes
GeneGene SymbolGene IDInteractionChromosomeDetails
Down-Regulated Genes
GeneGene SymbolGene IDInteractionChromosomeDetails

Targets

General Function:
Structural constituent of ribosome
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
MRPS5
Uniprot ID:
P82675
Molecular Weight:
48006.135 Da
References
  1. Pestka JJ: Mechanisms of deoxynivalenol-induced gene expression and apoptosis. Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess. 2008 Sep;25(9):1128-40. [19238623 ]
  2. Bae HK, Pestka JJ: Deoxynivalenol induces p38 interaction with the ribosome in monocytes and macrophages. Toxicol Sci. 2008 Sep;105(1):59-66. doi: 10.1093/toxsci/kfn102. Epub 2008 May 22. [18502741 ]
  3. Wannemacher, R.W. JR., and Wiener, S.L. (1997). Chapter 34: Trichothecene Mycotoxins. In R. Zajtchuk (Ed.), Medical Aspects of Chemical and Biological Warfare. Maryland: Office of The Surgeon General. [Link]
General Function:
Temperature-gated cation channel activity
Specific Function:
Receptor-activated non-selective cation channel involved in detection of pain and possibly also in cold perception and inner ear function (PubMed:25389312, PubMed:25855297). Has a central role in the pain response to endogenous inflammatory mediators and to a diverse array of volatile irritants, such as mustard oil, cinnamaldehyde, garlic and acrolein, an irritant from tears gas and vehicule exhaust fumes (PubMed:25389312, PubMed:20547126). Is also activated by menthol (in vitro)(PubMed:25389312). Acts also as a ionotropic cannabinoid receptor by being activated by delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the psychoactive component of marijuana (PubMed:25389312). May be a component for the mechanosensitive transduction channel of hair cells in inner ear, thereby participating in the perception of sounds. Probably operated by a phosphatidylinositol second messenger system (By similarity).
Gene Name:
TRPA1
Uniprot ID:
O75762
Molecular Weight:
127499.88 Da
References
  1. Nilius B, Prenen J, Owsianik G: Irritating channels: the case of TRPA1. J Physiol. 2011 Apr 1;589(Pt 7):1543-9. doi: 10.1113/jphysiol.2010.200717. Epub 2010 Nov 15. [21078588 ]