Tmic
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Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2010-05-04 17:21:10 UTC
Update Date2014-12-24 20:26:27 UTC
Accession NumberT3D3728
Identification
Common NameAlternariol methyl ether
ClassSmall Molecule
DescriptionAlternariol methyl ether is an altertoxin, which is a mycotoxin of Alternaria fungi. Altertoxins are important contaminants in cereals, vegetables, and fruits, as well as in the ground, on wood or walls. Studies have shown altertoxins to be toxic, genotoxic, mutagenic, and carcinogenic. In particular, they have been associated with esophageal cancer in humans. (1, 3)
Compound Type
  • Ester
  • Ether
  • Fungal Toxin
  • Mycotoxin
  • Natural Compound
  • Organic Compound
Chemical Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Synonym
2-Biphenylcarboxylic acid, 2',3',4'-trihydroxy-5-methoxy-6'-methyl-, delta-lactone
2-Biphenylcarboxylic acid, 2',3',4'-trihydroxy-5-methoxy-6'-methyl-, delta-lactone (6CI)
3,7-Dihydroxy-9-methoxy-1-methyl-6H-benzo[c]chromen-6-one
3,7-Dihydroxy-9-methoxy-1-methyl-6H-dibenzo(b,d)pyran-6-one
alternariol 5-O-methyl ether
Alternariol monomethyl ether
Alternariol monomethylether
Alternariol-9-methyl ether
AME
Djalonensone
Chemical FormulaC15H12O5
Average Molecular Mass272.253 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass272.068 g/mol
CAS Registry Number23452-05-3
IUPAC Name3,7-dihydroxy-9-methoxy-1-methyl-6H-benzo[c]chromen-6-one
Traditional Name3,7-dihydroxy-9-methoxy-1-methylbenzo[c]chromen-6-one
SMILESCOC1=CC(O)=C2C(=O)OC3=C(C(C)=CC(O)=C3)C2=C1
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/C15H12O5/c1-7-3-8(16)4-12-13(7)10-5-9(19-2)6-11(17)14(10)15(18)20-12/h3-6,16-17H,1-2H3
InChI KeyInChIKey=LCSDQFNUYFTXMT-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as coumarins and derivatives. These are polycyclic aromatic compounds containing a 1-benzopyran moiety with a ketone group at the C2 carbon atom (1-benzopyran-2-one).
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassPhenylpropanoids and polyketides
ClassCoumarins and derivatives
Sub ClassNot Available
Direct ParentCoumarins and derivatives
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Coumarin
  • Isocoumarin
  • Benzopyran
  • 2-benzopyran
  • 1-benzopyran
  • Anisole
  • 1-hydroxy-4-unsubstituted benzenoid
  • 1-hydroxy-2-unsubstituted benzenoid
  • Alkyl aryl ether
  • Pyranone
  • Benzenoid
  • Pyran
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • Vinylogous acid
  • Lactone
  • Oxacycle
  • Ether
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organic oxide
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External DescriptorsNot Available
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
OriginExogenous
Cellular Locations
  • Membrane
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationsNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
ApplicationsNot Available
Biological RolesNot Available
Chemical RolesNot Available
Physical Properties
StateSolid
AppearanceWhite powder.
Experimental Properties
PropertyValue
Melting PointNot Available
Boiling PointNot Available
SolubilityNot Available
LogPNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.09 g/LALOGPS
logP2.25ALOGPS
logP3.32ChemAxon
logS-3.5ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)7.71ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-4.1ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area75.99 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count1ChemAxon
Refractivity72.41 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability27.25 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings3ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-00di-0090000000-9dff801a2758792e7269View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-00di-0090000000-607a288b5f5a34f0a6c9View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0a6u-1090000000-f0add938f0e76c07dcceView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-00di-0090000000-7173b22425d15c235102View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-00di-0090000000-68d751616f54427bceabView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-006y-2290000000-c7c7120ed9225f2b0ec5View in MoNA
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureOral, dermal, inhalation, and parenteral (contaminated drugs). (5)
Mechanism of ToxicityAlternariol methyl ether has been shown to have genotoxic and mutagenic properties. It has demonstrated DNA-damaging activities such as single-strand and double-strand DNA breaks, DNA-intercalating, and DNA cross-linking, as well as induction of DNA repair synthesis and inhibition of DNA replication. These effects are thought to be at least partially due to its ability to bind to the DNA minor groove with high affinity, which inhibits the activity of DNA-acting enzymes such as topoisomerase. (1, 2, 3)
MetabolismAlternariol methyl ether is metabolized by microsomes in the liver, preferentially at aromatic positions. It is also demethylated to alternariol. The products of aromatic hydroxylation are either catechols or hydroquinones, which may form reactive semiquinones and quinones or undergo redox cycling. (4)
Toxicity ValuesNot Available
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)Not listed by IARC.
Uses/SourcesAlternariol methyl ether is an altertoxin, which is a mycotoxin of Alternaria fungi. Altertoxins are important contaminants in cereals, vegetables, and fruits, as well as in the ground, on wood or walls. (1, 3)
Minimum Risk LevelNot Available
Health EffectsAltertoxins have been shown to be toxic, genotoxic, mutagenic, and carcinogenic. In particular, they have been associated with esophageal cancer in humans. (1, 3)
SymptomsNot Available
TreatmentNot Available
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDNot Available
HMDB IDNot Available
PubChem Compound ID5360741
ChEMBL IDCHEMBL483526
ChemSpider ID4514573
KEGG IDNot Available
UniProt IDNot Available
OMIM ID
ChEBI IDNot Available
BioCyc IDNot Available
CTD IDNot Available
Stitch IDNot Available
PDB IDNot Available
ACToR IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
MSDST3D3728.pdf
General References
  1. Fehr M, Pahlke G, Fritz J, Christensen MO, Boege F, Altemoller M, Podlech J, Marko D: Alternariol acts as a topoisomerase poison, preferentially affecting the IIalpha isoform. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2009 Apr;53(4):441-51. doi: 10.1002/mnfr.200700379. [18727009 ]
  2. Brugger EM, Wagner J, Schumacher DM, Koch K, Podlech J, Metzler M, Lehmann L: Mutagenicity of the mycotoxin alternariol in cultured mammalian cells. Toxicol Lett. 2006 Jul 14;164(3):221-30. Epub 2006 Feb 7. [16464542 ]
  3. Lehmann L, Wagner J, Metzler M: Estrogenic and clastogenic potential of the mycotoxin alternariol in cultured mammalian cells. Food Chem Toxicol. 2006 Mar;44(3):398-408. Epub 2005 Sep 27. [16194592 ]
  4. Pfeiffer E, Schebb NH, Podlech J, Metzler M: Novel oxidative in vitro metabolites of the mycotoxins alternariol and alternariol methyl ether. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2007 Mar;51(3):307-16. [17340575 ]
  5. Peraica M, Domijan AM: Contamination of food with mycotoxins and human health. Arh Hig Rada Toksikol. 2001 Mar;52(1):23-35. [11370295 ]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated GenesNot Available
Down-Regulated GenesNot Available

Targets

General Function:
Poly(a) rna binding
Specific Function:
Releases the supercoiling and torsional tension of DNA introduced during the DNA replication and transcription by transiently cleaving and rejoining one strand of the DNA duplex. Introduces a single-strand break via transesterification at a target site in duplex DNA. The scissile phosphodiester is attacked by the catalytic tyrosine of the enzyme, resulting in the formation of a DNA-(3'-phosphotyrosyl)-enzyme intermediate and the expulsion of a 5'-OH DNA strand. The free DNA strand then undergoes passage around the unbroken strand thus removing DNA supercoils. Finally, in the religation step, the DNA 5'-OH attacks the covalent intermediate to expel the active-site tyrosine and restore the DNA phosphodiester backbone (By similarity). Regulates the alternative splicing of tissue factor (F3) pre-mRNA in endothelial cells. Involved in the circadian transcription of the core circadian clock component ARNTL/BMAL1 by altering the chromatin structure around the ROR response elements (ROREs) on the ARNTL/BMAL1 promoter.
Gene Name:
TOP1
Uniprot ID:
P11387
Molecular Weight:
90725.19 Da
References
  1. Fehr M, Pahlke G, Fritz J, Christensen MO, Boege F, Altemoller M, Podlech J, Marko D: Alternariol acts as a topoisomerase poison, preferentially affecting the IIalpha isoform. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2009 Apr;53(4):441-51. doi: 10.1002/mnfr.200700379. [18727009 ]
  2. Brugger EM, Wagner J, Schumacher DM, Koch K, Podlech J, Metzler M, Lehmann L: Mutagenicity of the mycotoxin alternariol in cultured mammalian cells. Toxicol Lett. 2006 Jul 14;164(3):221-30. Epub 2006 Feb 7. [16464542 ]
  3. Lehmann L, Wagner J, Metzler M: Estrogenic and clastogenic potential of the mycotoxin alternariol in cultured mammalian cells. Food Chem Toxicol. 2006 Mar;44(3):398-408. Epub 2005 Sep 27. [16194592 ]
2. DNA
General Function:
Used for biological information storage.
Specific Function:
DNA contains the instructions needed for an organism to develop, survive and reproduce.
Molecular Weight:
2.15 x 1012 Da
References
  1. Brugger EM, Wagner J, Schumacher DM, Koch K, Podlech J, Metzler M, Lehmann L: Mutagenicity of the mycotoxin alternariol in cultured mammalian cells. Toxicol Lett. 2006 Jul 14;164(3):221-30. Epub 2006 Feb 7. [16464542 ]
  2. Lehmann L, Wagner J, Metzler M: Estrogenic and clastogenic potential of the mycotoxin alternariol in cultured mammalian cells. Food Chem Toxicol. 2006 Mar;44(3):398-408. Epub 2005 Sep 27. [16194592 ]
  3. Fehr M, Pahlke G, Fritz J, Christensen MO, Boege F, Altemoller M, Podlech J, Marko D: Alternariol acts as a topoisomerase poison, preferentially affecting the IIalpha isoform. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2009 Apr;53(4):441-51. doi: 10.1002/mnfr.200700379. [18727009 ]
General Function:
Ubiquitin binding
Specific Function:
Control of topological states of DNA by transient breakage and subsequent rejoining of DNA strands. Topoisomerase II makes double-strand breaks. Essential during mitosis and meiosis for proper segregation of daughter chromosomes. May play a role in regulating the period length of ARNTL/BMAL1 transcriptional oscillation (By similarity).
Gene Name:
TOP2A
Uniprot ID:
P11388
Molecular Weight:
174383.88 Da
References
  1. Fehr M, Pahlke G, Fritz J, Christensen MO, Boege F, Altemoller M, Podlech J, Marko D: Alternariol acts as a topoisomerase poison, preferentially affecting the IIalpha isoform. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2009 Apr;53(4):441-51. doi: 10.1002/mnfr.200700379. [18727009 ]
  2. Brugger EM, Wagner J, Schumacher DM, Koch K, Podlech J, Metzler M, Lehmann L: Mutagenicity of the mycotoxin alternariol in cultured mammalian cells. Toxicol Lett. 2006 Jul 14;164(3):221-30. Epub 2006 Feb 7. [16464542 ]
  3. Lehmann L, Wagner J, Metzler M: Estrogenic and clastogenic potential of the mycotoxin alternariol in cultured mammalian cells. Food Chem Toxicol. 2006 Mar;44(3):398-408. Epub 2005 Sep 27. [16194592 ]
General Function:
Protein kinase c binding
Specific Function:
Control of topological states of DNA by transient breakage and subsequent rejoining of DNA strands. Topoisomerase II makes double-strand breaks.
Gene Name:
TOP2B
Uniprot ID:
Q02880
Molecular Weight:
183265.825 Da
References
  1. Fehr M, Pahlke G, Fritz J, Christensen MO, Boege F, Altemoller M, Podlech J, Marko D: Alternariol acts as a topoisomerase poison, preferentially affecting the IIalpha isoform. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2009 Apr;53(4):441-51. doi: 10.1002/mnfr.200700379. [18727009 ]
  2. Brugger EM, Wagner J, Schumacher DM, Koch K, Podlech J, Metzler M, Lehmann L: Mutagenicity of the mycotoxin alternariol in cultured mammalian cells. Toxicol Lett. 2006 Jul 14;164(3):221-30. Epub 2006 Feb 7. [16464542 ]
  3. Lehmann L, Wagner J, Metzler M: Estrogenic and clastogenic potential of the mycotoxin alternariol in cultured mammalian cells. Food Chem Toxicol. 2006 Mar;44(3):398-408. Epub 2005 Sep 27. [16194592 ]