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Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2010-05-20 15:21:17 UTC
Update Date2014-12-24 20:26:30 UTC
Accession NumberT3D3766
Identification
Common NameJanthitrem G
ClassSmall Molecule
DescriptionJanthitrem G is produced by Penicillium janthinellum. Tremorgenic mycotoxin Janthitrem G belongs to the family of Diterpenes. These are terpene compounds formed by four isoprene units.
Compound Type
  • Ester
  • Ether
  • Food Toxin
  • Fungal Toxin
  • Metabolite
  • Mycotoxin
  • Natural Compound
  • Organic Compound
Chemical Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Synonym
(2S,3R,4bS,6aS,9aS,15bS,15cR,17aS)-4b-hydroxy-2-(2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)-10,10,12,12,15b,15c-hexamethyl-3,4b,5,6,6a,7,9,9a,10,12,15,15b,15c,16,17,17a-hexadecahydro-2H-chromeno[5',6':6,7]indeno[1,2-b]pyrano[4',3':3,4]cyclopenta[1,2-f]indol-3-yl acetate
Chemical FormulaC39H51NO6
Average Molecular Mass629.825 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass629.372 g/mol
CAS Registry Number90986-51-9
IUPAC Name12-hydroxy-8-(2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)-2,3,23,23,25,25-hexamethyl-7,24-dioxa-31-azaoctacyclo[15.14.0.0²,¹⁵.0³,¹².0⁶,¹¹.0¹⁸,³⁰.0²⁰,²⁸.0²²,²⁷]hentriaconta-1(17),10,18(30),19,26,28-hexaen-9-yl acetate
Traditional Name12-hydroxy-8-(2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)-2,3,23,23,25,25-hexamethyl-7,24-dioxa-31-azaoctacyclo[15.14.0.0²,¹⁵.0³,¹².0⁶,¹¹.0¹⁸,³⁰.0²⁰,²⁸.0²²,²⁷]hentriaconta-1(17),10,18(30),19,26,28-hexaen-9-yl acetate
SMILESCC(=O)OC1C=C2C(CCC3(C)C4(C)C(CC5=C4NC4=C5C=C5CC6C(=CC(C)(C)OC6(C)C)C5=C4)CCC23O)OC1C(C)(C)O
InChI IdentifierInChI=1/C39H51NO6/c1-20(41)44-31-18-28-30(45-33(31)35(4,5)42)11-12-37(8)38(9)22(10-13-39(28,37)43)16-25-24-14-21-15-27-26(19-34(2,3)46-36(27,6)7)23(21)17-29(24)40-32(25)38/h14,17-19,22,27,30-31,33,40,42-43H,10-13,15-16H2,1-9H3
InChI KeyInChIKey=PGYSJEQVCATFBQ-UHFFFAOYNA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as cyclic depsipeptides. These are natural or synthetic compounds having sequences of amino and hydroxy carboxylic acid residues (usually α-amino and α-hydroxy acids) connected in a ring. The residues are commonly but not necessarily regularly alternating.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic acids and derivatives
ClassPeptidomimetics
Sub ClassDepsipeptides
Direct ParentCyclic depsipeptides
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Cyclic depsipeptide
  • Macrolide lactam
  • Alpha-amino acid ester
  • Macrolactam
  • Macrolide
  • Alpha-amino acid or derivatives
  • Monocyclic benzene moiety
  • Benzenoid
  • Amino acid or derivatives
  • Secondary carboxylic acid amide
  • Carboxamide group
  • Carboxylic acid ester
  • Lactam
  • Lactone
  • Azacycle
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Oxacycle
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Primary alcohol
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Primary amine
  • Carbonyl group
  • Alcohol
  • Organic oxide
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Amine
  • Primary aliphatic amine
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Aromatic heteromonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External DescriptorsNot Available
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
OriginExogenous
Cellular Locations
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationsNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
ApplicationsNot Available
Biological RolesNot Available
Chemical RolesNot Available
Physical Properties
StateSolid
AppearanceWhite powder.
Experimental Properties
PropertyValue
Melting PointNot Available
Boiling PointNot Available
SolubilityNot Available
LogPNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.00025 g/LALOGPS
logP6.16ALOGPS
logP5.12ChemAxon
logS-6.4ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)13.61ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-3.1ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count5ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count3ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area101.01 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count3ChemAxon
Refractivity178.79 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability74.83 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings8ChemAxon
Bioavailability0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0c0u-6001396000-bcf00a7be951a3b83b97JSpectraViewer
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (TMS_1_1) - 70eV, PositiveNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (TMS_1_2) - 70eV, PositiveNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (TMS_1_3) - 70eV, PositiveNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (TMS_2_1) - 70eV, PositiveNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (TMS_2_2) - 70eV, PositiveNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (TMS_2_3) - 70eV, PositiveNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (TBDMS_1_1) - 70eV, PositiveNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (TBDMS_1_2) - 70eV, PositiveNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (TBDMS_1_3) - 70eV, PositiveNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (TBDMS_2_1) - 70eV, PositiveNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (TBDMS_2_2) - 70eV, PositiveNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (TBDMS_2_3) - 70eV, PositiveNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS ("Janthitrem G,1TMS,#1" TMS) - 70eV, PositiveNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-03e9-1000198000-9cc3c3fc759d71bd01f5JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-00di-0000090000-5e79491898c50ee1f8c4JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-00xr-4002950000-df54d69583fda30f6b0dJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-004i-4000069000-768eacf04f771ce6d228JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-07y0-5000194000-dc72c776c640d64a3ae7JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0a4i-9100430000-2e7232a75660a0526512JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-05p9-2000093000-a7179a1ecad58edbd2b7JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-0a4i-9000000000-c01bbbf5bed889264ddbJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0a6u-9100030000-e223a97f62dc5c33ddb7JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-001i-0000049000-8fb9d34d8d88788e364dJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-001i-0002197000-dd28a8307b7420127a90JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0api-9045581000-ea143d166d2d9fdbc23eJSpectraViewer
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureOral, dermal, inhalation, and parenteral (contaminated drugs). (3)
Mechanism of ToxicityTremorgenic mycotoxins exert their toxic effects by interfering with neurotransmitter release, possibly by causing degeneration of nerve terminals. They are thought to inhibit gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors, both pre- and postsynaptic, as well as inhibit transmitter breakdown at the GABA-T receptors. This would initially increase neurotransmitter levels, potentiating the GABA-induced chloride current, then lead to decreased levels of neurotransmitter in the synapse. (1)
MetabolismNot Available
Toxicity ValuesNot Available
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)No indication of carcinogenicity to humans (not listed by IARC).
Uses/SourcesJanthitrems are tremorgenic mycotoxins that have been found in the fungus Penicillium janthinellum. They may be found in contaminated cereal crops such as oats, barley, millet, corn and rice. (1, 2)
Minimum Risk LevelNot Available
Health EffectsTremorgenic mycotoxins affect central nervous system activity. They cause a neurological disease of cattle known as "staggers syndrome". (1)
SymptomsTremorgenic mycotoxins affect central nervous system activity, inducing neurologic symptoms including mental confusion, paralysis, tremors, seizures, and death. They cause a neurological disease of cattle known as "staggers syndrome", which is characterized by muscle tremors, hyperexcitability, convulsions and ataxia. (1)
TreatmentTo control severe tremors caused by tremorgenic mycotoxins, methocarbamol should be administered. Generalized seizures may be treated with diazepam followed by methocarbamol or a barbiturate such as pentobarbital sodium. Gastric lavage should be performed and activated charcoal administered to limit further absorption of toxins. (4)
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDNot Available
HMDB IDHMDB30531
PubChem Compound ID10394234
ChEMBL IDNot Available
ChemSpider ID8569675
KEGG IDNot Available
UniProt IDNot Available
OMIM ID
ChEBI IDNot Available
BioCyc IDNot Available
CTD IDNot Available
Stitch IDNot Available
PDB IDNot Available
ACToR IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
MSDSNot Available
General References
  1. Selala MI, Daelemans F, Schepens PJ: Fungal tremorgens: the mechanism of action of single nitrogen containing toxins--a hypothesis. Drug Chem Toxicol. 1989 Sep-Dec;12(3-4):237-57. [2698801 ]
  2. Gallagher RT, Latch GC, Keogh RG: The janthitrems: fluorescent tremorgenic toxins produced by Penicillium janthinellum isolates from ryegrass pastures. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1980 Jan;39(1):272-3. [7356319 ]
  3. Peraica M, Domijan AM: Contamination of food with mycotoxins and human health. Arh Hig Rada Toksikol. 2001 Mar;52(1):23-35. [11370295 ]
  4. Prevention of stroke by antihypertensive drug treatment in older persons with isolated systolic hypertension. Final results of the Systolic Hypertension in the Elderly Program (SHEP). SHEP Cooperative Research Group. JAMA. 1991 Jun 26;265(24):3255-64. [2046107 ]
  5. Schell MM. Tremorgenic mycotoxin intoxication. Veterinary Medicine. 2000.
  6. Yannai, Shmuel. (2004) Dictionary of food compounds with CD-ROM: Additives, flavors, and ingredients. Boca Raton: Chapman & Hall/CRC.
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated GenesNot Available
Down-Regulated GenesNot Available

Targets

General Function:
Succinate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase binding
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the conversion of gamma-aminobutyrate and L-beta-aminoisobutyrate to succinate semialdehyde and methylmalonate semialdehyde, respectively. Can also convert delta-aminovalerate and beta-alanine.
Gene Name:
ABAT
Uniprot ID:
P80404
Molecular Weight:
56438.405 Da
References
  1. Selala MI, Daelemans F, Schepens PJ: Fungal tremorgens: the mechanism of action of single nitrogen containing toxins--a hypothesis. Drug Chem Toxicol. 1989 Sep-Dec;12(3-4):237-57. [2698801 ]
General Function:
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
Component of the heteropentameric receptor for GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain. Functions also as histamine receptor and mediates cellular responses to histamine. Functions as receptor for diazepines and various anesthetics, such as pentobarbital; these are bound at a separate allosteric effector binding site. Functions as ligand-gated chloride channel (By similarity).
Gene Name:
GABRA1
Uniprot ID:
P14867
Molecular Weight:
51801.395 Da
References
  1. Selala MI, Daelemans F, Schepens PJ: Fungal tremorgens: the mechanism of action of single nitrogen containing toxins--a hypothesis. Drug Chem Toxicol. 1989 Sep-Dec;12(3-4):237-57. [2698801 ]
General Function:
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRA2
Uniprot ID:
P47869
Molecular Weight:
51325.85 Da
References
  1. Selala MI, Daelemans F, Schepens PJ: Fungal tremorgens: the mechanism of action of single nitrogen containing toxins--a hypothesis. Drug Chem Toxicol. 1989 Sep-Dec;12(3-4):237-57. [2698801 ]
General Function:
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRA3
Uniprot ID:
P34903
Molecular Weight:
55164.055 Da
References
  1. Selala MI, Daelemans F, Schepens PJ: Fungal tremorgens: the mechanism of action of single nitrogen containing toxins--a hypothesis. Drug Chem Toxicol. 1989 Sep-Dec;12(3-4):237-57. [2698801 ]
General Function:
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRA4
Uniprot ID:
P48169
Molecular Weight:
61622.645 Da
References
  1. Selala MI, Daelemans F, Schepens PJ: Fungal tremorgens: the mechanism of action of single nitrogen containing toxins--a hypothesis. Drug Chem Toxicol. 1989 Sep-Dec;12(3-4):237-57. [2698801 ]
General Function:
Transporter activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRA5
Uniprot ID:
P31644
Molecular Weight:
52145.645 Da
References
  1. Selala MI, Daelemans F, Schepens PJ: Fungal tremorgens: the mechanism of action of single nitrogen containing toxins--a hypothesis. Drug Chem Toxicol. 1989 Sep-Dec;12(3-4):237-57. [2698801 ]
General Function:
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRA6
Uniprot ID:
Q16445
Molecular Weight:
51023.69 Da
References
  1. Selala MI, Daelemans F, Schepens PJ: Fungal tremorgens: the mechanism of action of single nitrogen containing toxins--a hypothesis. Drug Chem Toxicol. 1989 Sep-Dec;12(3-4):237-57. [2698801 ]
General Function:
Ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
Component of the heteropentameric receptor for GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain. Functions also as histamine receptor and mediates cellular responses to histamine. Functions as receptor for diazepines and various anesthetics, such as pentobarbital; these are bound at a separate allosteric effector binding site. Functions as ligand-gated chloride channel (By similarity).
Gene Name:
GABRB1
Uniprot ID:
P18505
Molecular Weight:
54234.085 Da
References
  1. Selala MI, Daelemans F, Schepens PJ: Fungal tremorgens: the mechanism of action of single nitrogen containing toxins--a hypothesis. Drug Chem Toxicol. 1989 Sep-Dec;12(3-4):237-57. [2698801 ]
General Function:
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
Component of the heteropentameric receptor for GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain. Functions also as histamine receptor and mediates cellular responses to histamine. Functions as receptor for diazepines and various anesthetics, such as pentobarbital; these are bound at a separate allosteric effector binding site. Functions as ligand-gated chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRB2
Uniprot ID:
P47870
Molecular Weight:
59149.895 Da
References
  1. Selala MI, Daelemans F, Schepens PJ: Fungal tremorgens: the mechanism of action of single nitrogen containing toxins--a hypothesis. Drug Chem Toxicol. 1989 Sep-Dec;12(3-4):237-57. [2698801 ]
General Function:
Gaba-gated chloride ion channel activity
Specific Function:
Component of the heteropentameric receptor for GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain. Functions also as histamine receptor and mediates cellular responses to histamine. Functions as receptor for diazepines and various anesthetics, such as pentobarbital; these are bound at a separate allosteric effector binding site. Functions as ligand-gated chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRB3
Uniprot ID:
P28472
Molecular Weight:
54115.04 Da
References
  1. Selala MI, Daelemans F, Schepens PJ: Fungal tremorgens: the mechanism of action of single nitrogen containing toxins--a hypothesis. Drug Chem Toxicol. 1989 Sep-Dec;12(3-4):237-57. [2698801 ]
General Function:
Gaba-a receptor activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRD
Uniprot ID:
O14764
Molecular Weight:
50707.835 Da
References
  1. Selala MI, Daelemans F, Schepens PJ: Fungal tremorgens: the mechanism of action of single nitrogen containing toxins--a hypothesis. Drug Chem Toxicol. 1989 Sep-Dec;12(3-4):237-57. [2698801 ]
General Function:
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRE
Uniprot ID:
P78334
Molecular Weight:
57971.175 Da
References
  1. Selala MI, Daelemans F, Schepens PJ: Fungal tremorgens: the mechanism of action of single nitrogen containing toxins--a hypothesis. Drug Chem Toxicol. 1989 Sep-Dec;12(3-4):237-57. [2698801 ]
General Function:
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRG1
Uniprot ID:
Q8N1C3
Molecular Weight:
53594.49 Da
References
  1. Selala MI, Daelemans F, Schepens PJ: Fungal tremorgens: the mechanism of action of single nitrogen containing toxins--a hypothesis. Drug Chem Toxicol. 1989 Sep-Dec;12(3-4):237-57. [2698801 ]
General Function:
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
Component of the heteropentameric receptor for GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain. Functions also as histamine receptor and mediates cellular responses to histamine. Functions as receptor for diazepines and various anesthetics, such as pentobarbital; these are bound at a separate allosteric effector binding site. Functions as ligand-gated chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRG2
Uniprot ID:
P18507
Molecular Weight:
54161.78 Da
References
  1. Selala MI, Daelemans F, Schepens PJ: Fungal tremorgens: the mechanism of action of single nitrogen containing toxins--a hypothesis. Drug Chem Toxicol. 1989 Sep-Dec;12(3-4):237-57. [2698801 ]
General Function:
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRG3
Uniprot ID:
Q99928
Molecular Weight:
54288.16 Da
References
  1. Selala MI, Daelemans F, Schepens PJ: Fungal tremorgens: the mechanism of action of single nitrogen containing toxins--a hypothesis. Drug Chem Toxicol. 1989 Sep-Dec;12(3-4):237-57. [2698801 ]
General Function:
Gaba-a receptor activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel. In the uterus, the function of the receptor appears to be related to tissue contractility. The binding of this pI subunit with other GABA(A) receptor subunits alters the sensitivity of recombinant receptors to modulatory agents such as pregnanolone.
Gene Name:
GABRP
Uniprot ID:
O00591
Molecular Weight:
50639.735 Da
References
  1. Selala MI, Daelemans F, Schepens PJ: Fungal tremorgens: the mechanism of action of single nitrogen containing toxins--a hypothesis. Drug Chem Toxicol. 1989 Sep-Dec;12(3-4):237-57. [2698801 ]
General Function:
Gaba-a receptor activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel. Rho-1 GABA receptor could play a role in retinal neurotransmission.
Gene Name:
GABRR1
Uniprot ID:
P24046
Molecular Weight:
55882.91 Da
References
  1. Selala MI, Daelemans F, Schepens PJ: Fungal tremorgens: the mechanism of action of single nitrogen containing toxins--a hypothesis. Drug Chem Toxicol. 1989 Sep-Dec;12(3-4):237-57. [2698801 ]
General Function:
Gaba-a receptor activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel. Rho-2 GABA receptor could play a role in retinal neurotransmission.
Gene Name:
GABRR2
Uniprot ID:
P28476
Molecular Weight:
54150.41 Da
References
  1. Selala MI, Daelemans F, Schepens PJ: Fungal tremorgens: the mechanism of action of single nitrogen containing toxins--a hypothesis. Drug Chem Toxicol. 1989 Sep-Dec;12(3-4):237-57. [2698801 ]
General Function:
Gaba-a receptor activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRR3
Uniprot ID:
A8MPY1
Molecular Weight:
54271.1 Da
References
  1. Selala MI, Daelemans F, Schepens PJ: Fungal tremorgens: the mechanism of action of single nitrogen containing toxins--a hypothesis. Drug Chem Toxicol. 1989 Sep-Dec;12(3-4):237-57. [2698801 ]
General Function:
Transmembrane signaling receptor activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRQ
Uniprot ID:
Q9UN88
Molecular Weight:
72020.875 Da
References
  1. Selala MI, Daelemans F, Schepens PJ: Fungal tremorgens: the mechanism of action of single nitrogen containing toxins--a hypothesis. Drug Chem Toxicol. 1989 Sep-Dec;12(3-4):237-57. [2698801 ]
General Function:
G-protein coupled gaba receptor activity
Specific Function:
Component of a heterodimeric G-protein coupled receptor for GABA, formed by GABBR1 and GABBR2. Within the heterodimeric GABA receptor, only GABBR1 seems to bind agonists, while GABBR2 mediates coupling to G proteins. Ligand binding causes a conformation change that triggers signaling via guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) and modulates the activity of down-stream effectors, such as adenylate cyclase. Signaling inhibits adenylate cyclase, stimulates phospholipase A2, activates potassium channels, inactivates voltage-dependent calcium-channels and modulates inositol phospholipid hydrolysis. Calcium is required for high affinity binding to GABA. Plays a critical role in the fine-tuning of inhibitory synaptic transmission. Pre-synaptic GABA receptor inhibits neurotransmitter release by down-regulating high-voltage activated calcium channels, whereas postsynaptic GABA receptor decreases neuronal excitability by activating a prominent inwardly rectifying potassium (Kir) conductance that underlies the late inhibitory postsynaptic potentials. Not only implicated in synaptic inhibition but also in hippocampal long-term potentiation, slow wave sleep, muscle relaxation and antinociception. Activated by (-)-baclofen, cgp27492 and blocked by phaclofen.Isoform 1E may regulate the formation of functional GABBR1/GABBR2 heterodimers by competing for GABBR2 binding. This could explain the observation that certain small molecule ligands exhibit differential affinity for central versus peripheral sites.
Gene Name:
GABBR1
Uniprot ID:
Q9UBS5
Molecular Weight:
108319.4 Da
References
  1. Selala MI, Daelemans F, Schepens PJ: Fungal tremorgens: the mechanism of action of single nitrogen containing toxins--a hypothesis. Drug Chem Toxicol. 1989 Sep-Dec;12(3-4):237-57. [2698801 ]
General Function:
G-protein coupled gaba receptor activity
Specific Function:
Component of a heterodimeric G-protein coupled receptor for GABA, formed by GABBR1 and GABBR2. Within the heterodimeric GABA receptor, only GABBR1 seems to bind agonists, while GABBR2 mediates coupling to G proteins. Ligand binding causes a conformation change that triggers signaling via guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) and modulates the activity of down-stream effectors, such as adenylate cyclase. Signaling inhibits adenylate cyclase, stimulates phospholipase A2, activates potassium channels, inactivates voltage-dependent calcium-channels and modulates inositol phospholipid hydrolysis. Plays a critical role in the fine-tuning of inhibitory synaptic transmission. Pre-synaptic GABA receptor inhibits neurotransmitter release by down-regulating high-voltage activated calcium channels, whereas postsynaptic GABA receptor decreases neuronal excitability by activating a prominent inwardly rectifying potassium (Kir) conductance that underlies the late inhibitory postsynaptic potentials. Not only implicated in synaptic inhibition but also in hippocampal long-term potentiation, slow wave sleep, muscle relaxation and antinociception.
Gene Name:
GABBR2
Uniprot ID:
O75899
Molecular Weight:
105820.52 Da
References
  1. Selala MI, Daelemans F, Schepens PJ: Fungal tremorgens: the mechanism of action of single nitrogen containing toxins--a hypothesis. Drug Chem Toxicol. 1989 Sep-Dec;12(3-4):237-57. [2698801 ]