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Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2010-06-10 15:41:06 UTC
Update Date2014-12-24 20:26:32 UTC
Accession NumberT3D3782
Identification
Common NameVerruculogen
ClassSmall Molecule
DescriptionVerruculogen is a tremorgenic mycotoxin that has been found in fungi of the genera Penicillium and Aspergillus. It may be found in contaminated cereal crops such as oats, barley, millet, corn and rice. Tremorgenic mycotoxins affect central nervous system activity and have been implicated in a number of neurologic diseases of cattle collectively known as "staggers syndromes". (1)
Compound Type
  • Amide
  • Amine
  • Ether
  • Fungal Toxin
  • Mycotoxin
  • Natural Compound
  • Organic Compound
Chemical Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Synonym
(5R-(5alpha,10 alpha,10aalpha,14aalpha,15balpha))-1,10,10a,14,14a,15b-Hexahydro-10,10a-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-2,2-dimethyl-5-(2-methyl-1-propenyl)-5H,12H-3,4-dioxa-5a,11a,15a-triaza cyclooct (1m) indeno (5,6-b)fluorene-11,15(2H,13H)-dione
TR1
Verruculogen TR 1
Chemical FormulaC27H33N3O7
Average Molecular Mass511.567 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass511.232 g/mol
CAS Registry Number12771-72-1
IUPAC Name23,24-dihydroxy-5-methoxy-12,12-dimethyl-9-(2-methylprop-1-en-1-yl)-10,11-dioxa-8,15,21-triazahexacyclo[12.10.1.0²,⁷.0⁸,²⁵.0¹⁵,²³.0¹⁷,²¹]pentacosa-1(25),2(7),3,5-tetraene-16,22-dione
Traditional Name23,24-dihydroxy-5-methoxy-12,12-dimethyl-9-(2-methylprop-1-en-1-yl)-10,11-dioxa-8,15,21-triazahexacyclo[12.10.1.0²,⁷.0⁸,²⁵.0¹⁵,²³.0¹⁷,²¹]pentacosa-1(25),2(7),3,5-tetraene-16,22-dione
SMILESCOC1=CC2=C(C=C1)C1=C3C(CC(C)(C)OOC(C=C(C)C)N23)N2C(=O)C3CCCN3C(=O)C2(O)C1O
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/C27H33N3O7/c1-14(2)11-20-29-18-12-15(35-5)8-9-16(18)21-22(29)19(13-26(3,4)37-36-20)30-24(32)17-7-6-10-28(17)25(33)27(30,34)23(21)31/h8-9,11-12,17,19-20,23,31,34H,6-7,10,13H2,1-5H3
InChI KeyInChIKey=LRXYHMMJJCTUMY-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as beta carbolines. Beta carbolines are compounds containing a 9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole moiety.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganoheterocyclic compounds
ClassIndoles and derivatives
Sub ClassPyridoindoles
Direct ParentBeta carbolines
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Beta-carboline
  • Alpha-amino acid or derivatives
  • 3-alkylindole
  • Indole
  • Anisole
  • Dioxopiperazine
  • 2,5-dioxopiperazine
  • Alkyl aryl ether
  • N-alkylpiperazine
  • 1,4-diazinane
  • Piperazine
  • Benzenoid
  • Tertiary carboxylic acid amide
  • Pyrrolidine
  • Pyrrole
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Dialkyl peroxide
  • Lactam
  • Carboxamide group
  • Oxacycle
  • Alkanolamine
  • Azacycle
  • Ether
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Alcohol
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Carbonyl group
  • Organic oxide
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External DescriptorsNot Available
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
OriginExogenous
Cellular Locations
  • Membrane
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationsNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
Applications
Biological Roles
Chemical RolesNot Available
Physical Properties
StateSolid
AppearanceWhite powder.
Experimental Properties
PropertyValue
Melting PointNot Available
Boiling PointNot Available
SolubilityNot Available
LogPNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility1.18 g/LALOGPS
logP1.72ALOGPS
logP2.43ChemAxon
logS-2.6ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)10.13ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-3.8ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count7ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area113.7 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count2ChemAxon
Refractivity133.03 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability54.71 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings6ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-03di-1000390000-06960e48023870a5a6fdJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-01vo-9000720000-54a03b1c30fee56ff7aaJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0g4m-9000000000-ef61f644fec3fdce5974JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-03di-1000390000-682343583a758eb772c6JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-06sc-9008410000-b0d20ddea1ac07aea0d8JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0a4i-9001000000-e322e9b4e4ce3f9875f1JSpectraViewer
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureOral, dermal, inhalation, and parenteral (contaminated drugs). (4)
Mechanism of ToxicityTremorgenic mycotoxins exert their toxic effects by interfering with neurotransmitter release, possibly by causing degeneration of nerve terminals. They are thought to inhibit gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors, both pre- and postsynaptic, as well as inhibit transmitter breakdown at the GABA-T receptors. This would initially increase neurotransmitter levels, potentiating the GABA-induced chloride current, then lead to decreased levels of neurotransmitter in the synapse. In addition, verruculogen inhibits presynaptic high-conductance Ca+2 activated maxi-K+ channels in the smooth muscle. Verruculogen is also genotoxic and causes DNA damage. (1, 2, 3)
MetabolismNot Available
Toxicity ValuesNot Available
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)No indication of carcinogenicity to humans (not listed by IARC).
Uses/SourcesVerruculogen is a tremorgenic mycotoxin that has been found in fungi of the genera Penicillium and Aspergillus. It may be found in contaminated cereal crops such as oats, barley, millet, corn and rice. (1)
Minimum Risk LevelNot Available
Health EffectsTremorgenic mycotoxins affect central nervous system activity. They cause a neurological disease of cattle known as "staggers syndrome". (1)
SymptomsTremorgenic mycotoxins affect central nervous system activity, inducing neurologic symptoms including mental confusion, paralysis, tremors, seizures, and death. They cause a neurological disease of cattle known as "staggers syndrome", which is characterized by muscle tremors, hyperexcitability, convulsions and ataxia. (1)
TreatmentTo control severe tremors caused by tremorgenic mycotoxins, methocarbamol should be administered. Generalized seizures may be treated with diazepam followed by methocarbamol or a barbiturate such as pentobarbital sodium. Gastric lavage should be performed and activated charcoal administered to limit further absorption of toxins. (5)
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDNot Available
HMDB IDNot Available
PubChem Compound ID104862
ChEMBL IDNot Available
ChemSpider ID94649
KEGG IDNot Available
UniProt IDNot Available
OMIM ID
ChEBI IDNot Available
BioCyc IDNot Available
CTD IDNot Available
Stitch IDNot Available
PDB IDNot Available
ACToR IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
MSDST3D3782.pdf
General References
  1. Selala MI, Daelemans F, Schepens PJ: Fungal tremorgens: the mechanism of action of single nitrogen containing toxins--a hypothesis. Drug Chem Toxicol. 1989 Sep-Dec;12(3-4):237-57. [2698801 ]
  2. Knaus HG, McManus OB, Lee SH, Schmalhofer WA, Garcia-Calvo M, Helms LM, Sanchez M, Giangiacomo K, Reuben JP, Smith AB 3rd, et al.: Tremorgenic indole alkaloids potently inhibit smooth muscle high-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels. Biochemistry. 1994 May 17;33(19):5819-28. [7514038 ]
  3. Sabater-Vilar M, Nijmeijer S, Fink-Gremmels J: Genotoxicity assessment of five tremorgenic mycotoxins (fumitremorgen B, paxilline, penitrem A, verruculogen, and verrucosidin) produced by molds isolated from fermented meats. J Food Prot. 2003 Nov;66(11):2123-9. [14627292 ]
  4. Peraica M, Domijan AM: Contamination of food with mycotoxins and human health. Arh Hig Rada Toksikol. 2001 Mar;52(1):23-35. [11370295 ]
  5. Prevention of stroke by antihypertensive drug treatment in older persons with isolated systolic hypertension. Final results of the Systolic Hypertension in the Elderly Program (SHEP). SHEP Cooperative Research Group. JAMA. 1991 Jun 26;265(24):3255-64. [2046107 ]
  6. Schell MM. Tremorgenic mycotoxin intoxication. Veterinary Medicine. 2000.
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated GenesNot Available
Down-Regulated GenesNot Available

Targets

General Function:
Succinate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase binding
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the conversion of gamma-aminobutyrate and L-beta-aminoisobutyrate to succinate semialdehyde and methylmalonate semialdehyde, respectively. Can also convert delta-aminovalerate and beta-alanine.
Gene Name:
ABAT
Uniprot ID:
P80404
Molecular Weight:
56438.405 Da
References
  1. Selala MI, Daelemans F, Schepens PJ: Fungal tremorgens: the mechanism of action of single nitrogen containing toxins--a hypothesis. Drug Chem Toxicol. 1989 Sep-Dec;12(3-4):237-57. [2698801 ]
General Function:
Voltage-gated potassium channel activity
Specific Function:
Potassium channel activated by both membrane depolarization or increase in cytosolic Ca(2+) that mediates export of K(+). It is also activated by the concentration of cytosolic Mg(2+). Its activation dampens the excitatory events that elevate the cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration and/or depolarize the cell membrane. It therefore contributes to repolarization of the membrane potential. Plays a key role in controlling excitability in a number of systems, such as regulation of the contraction of smooth muscle, the tuning of hair cells in the cochlea, regulation of transmitter release, and innate immunity. In smooth muscles, its activation by high level of Ca(2+), caused by ryanodine receptors in the sarcoplasmic reticulum, regulates the membrane potential. In cochlea cells, its number and kinetic properties partly determine the characteristic frequency of each hair cell and thereby helps to establish a tonotopic map. Kinetics of KCNMA1 channels are determined by alternative splicing, phosphorylation status and its combination with modulating beta subunits. Highly sensitive to both iberiotoxin (IbTx) and charybdotoxin (CTX).
Gene Name:
KCNMA1
Uniprot ID:
Q12791
Molecular Weight:
137558.115 Da
References
  1. Knaus HG, McManus OB, Lee SH, Schmalhofer WA, Garcia-Calvo M, Helms LM, Sanchez M, Giangiacomo K, Reuben JP, Smith AB 3rd, et al.: Tremorgenic indole alkaloids potently inhibit smooth muscle high-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels. Biochemistry. 1994 May 17;33(19):5819-28. [7514038 ]
General Function:
Potassium channel regulator activity
Specific Function:
Regulatory subunit of the calcium activated potassium KCNMA1 (maxiK) channel. Modulates the calcium sensitivity and gating kinetics of KCNMA1, thereby contributing to KCNMA1 channel diversity. Increases the apparent Ca(2+)/voltage sensitivity of the KCNMA1 channel. It also modifies KCNMA1 channel kinetics and alters its pharmacological properties. It slows down the activation and the deactivation kinetics of the channel. Acts as a negative regulator of smooth muscle contraction by enhancing the calcium sensitivity to KCNMA1. Its presence is also a requirement for internal binding of the KCNMA1 channel opener dehydrosoyasaponin I (DHS-1) triterpene glycoside and for external binding of the agonist hormone 17-beta-estradiol (E2). Increases the binding activity of charybdotoxin (CTX) toxin to KCNMA1 peptide blocker by increasing the CTX association rate and decreasing the dissociation rate.
Gene Name:
KCNMB1
Uniprot ID:
Q16558
Molecular Weight:
21797.27 Da
References
  1. Knaus HG, McManus OB, Lee SH, Schmalhofer WA, Garcia-Calvo M, Helms LM, Sanchez M, Giangiacomo K, Reuben JP, Smith AB 3rd, et al.: Tremorgenic indole alkaloids potently inhibit smooth muscle high-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels. Biochemistry. 1994 May 17;33(19):5819-28. [7514038 ]
General Function:
Potassium channel regulator activity
Specific Function:
Regulatory subunit of the calcium activated potassium KCNMA1 (maxiK) channel. Modulates the calcium sensitivity and gating kinetics of KCNMA1, thereby contributing to KCNMA1 channel diversity. Acts as a negative regulator that confers rapid and complete inactivation of KCNMA1 channel complex. May participate in KCNMA1 inactivation in chromaffin cells of the adrenal gland or in hippocampal CA1 neurons.
Gene Name:
KCNMB2
Uniprot ID:
Q9Y691
Molecular Weight:
27129.37 Da
References
  1. Knaus HG, McManus OB, Lee SH, Schmalhofer WA, Garcia-Calvo M, Helms LM, Sanchez M, Giangiacomo K, Reuben JP, Smith AB 3rd, et al.: Tremorgenic indole alkaloids potently inhibit smooth muscle high-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels. Biochemistry. 1994 May 17;33(19):5819-28. [7514038 ]
General Function:
Potassium channel regulator activity
Specific Function:
Regulatory subunit of the calcium activated potassium KCNMA1 (maxiK) channel. Modulates the calcium sensitivity and gating kinetics of KCNMA1, thereby contributing to KCNMA1 channel diversity. Alters the functional properties of the current expressed by the KCNMA1 channel. Isoform 2, isoform 3 and isoform 4 partially inactivate the current of KCNBMA. Isoform 4 induces a fast and incomplete inactivation of KCNMA1 channel that is detectable only at large depolarizations. In contrast, isoform 1 does not induce detectable inactivation of KCNMA1. Two or more subunits of KCNMB3 are required to block the KCNMA1 tetramer.
Gene Name:
KCNMB3
Uniprot ID:
Q9NPA1
Molecular Weight:
31603.26 Da
References
  1. Knaus HG, McManus OB, Lee SH, Schmalhofer WA, Garcia-Calvo M, Helms LM, Sanchez M, Giangiacomo K, Reuben JP, Smith AB 3rd, et al.: Tremorgenic indole alkaloids potently inhibit smooth muscle high-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels. Biochemistry. 1994 May 17;33(19):5819-28. [7514038 ]
General Function:
Potassium channel regulator activity
Specific Function:
Regulatory subunit of the calcium activated potassium KCNMA1 (maxiK) channel. Modulates the calcium sensitivity and gating kinetics of KCNMA1, thereby contributing to KCNMA1 channel diversity. Decreases the gating kinetics and calcium sensitivity of the KCNMA1 channel, but with fast deactivation kinetics. May decrease KCNMA1 channel openings at low calcium concentrations but increases channel openings at high calcium concentrations. Makes KCNMA1 channel resistant to 100 nM charybdotoxin (CTX) toxin concentrations.
Gene Name:
KCNMB4
Uniprot ID:
Q86W47
Molecular Weight:
23948.465 Da
References
  1. Knaus HG, McManus OB, Lee SH, Schmalhofer WA, Garcia-Calvo M, Helms LM, Sanchez M, Giangiacomo K, Reuben JP, Smith AB 3rd, et al.: Tremorgenic indole alkaloids potently inhibit smooth muscle high-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels. Biochemistry. 1994 May 17;33(19):5819-28. [7514038 ]
7. DNA
General Function:
Used for biological information storage.
Specific Function:
DNA contains the instructions needed for an organism to develop, survive and reproduce.
Molecular Weight:
2.15 x 1012 Da
References
  1. Sabater-Vilar M, Nijmeijer S, Fink-Gremmels J: Genotoxicity assessment of five tremorgenic mycotoxins (fumitremorgen B, paxilline, penitrem A, verruculogen, and verrucosidin) produced by molds isolated from fermented meats. J Food Prot. 2003 Nov;66(11):2123-9. [14627292 ]
General Function:
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
Component of the heteropentameric receptor for GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain. Functions also as histamine receptor and mediates cellular responses to histamine. Functions as receptor for diazepines and various anesthetics, such as pentobarbital; these are bound at a separate allosteric effector binding site. Functions as ligand-gated chloride channel (By similarity).
Gene Name:
GABRA1
Uniprot ID:
P14867
Molecular Weight:
51801.395 Da
References
  1. Selala MI, Daelemans F, Schepens PJ: Fungal tremorgens: the mechanism of action of single nitrogen containing toxins--a hypothesis. Drug Chem Toxicol. 1989 Sep-Dec;12(3-4):237-57. [2698801 ]
General Function:
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRA2
Uniprot ID:
P47869
Molecular Weight:
51325.85 Da
References
  1. Selala MI, Daelemans F, Schepens PJ: Fungal tremorgens: the mechanism of action of single nitrogen containing toxins--a hypothesis. Drug Chem Toxicol. 1989 Sep-Dec;12(3-4):237-57. [2698801 ]
General Function:
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRA3
Uniprot ID:
P34903
Molecular Weight:
55164.055 Da
References
  1. Selala MI, Daelemans F, Schepens PJ: Fungal tremorgens: the mechanism of action of single nitrogen containing toxins--a hypothesis. Drug Chem Toxicol. 1989 Sep-Dec;12(3-4):237-57. [2698801 ]
General Function:
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRA4
Uniprot ID:
P48169
Molecular Weight:
61622.645 Da
References
  1. Selala MI, Daelemans F, Schepens PJ: Fungal tremorgens: the mechanism of action of single nitrogen containing toxins--a hypothesis. Drug Chem Toxicol. 1989 Sep-Dec;12(3-4):237-57. [2698801 ]
General Function:
Transporter activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRA5
Uniprot ID:
P31644
Molecular Weight:
52145.645 Da
References
  1. Selala MI, Daelemans F, Schepens PJ: Fungal tremorgens: the mechanism of action of single nitrogen containing toxins--a hypothesis. Drug Chem Toxicol. 1989 Sep-Dec;12(3-4):237-57. [2698801 ]
General Function:
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRA6
Uniprot ID:
Q16445
Molecular Weight:
51023.69 Da
References
  1. Selala MI, Daelemans F, Schepens PJ: Fungal tremorgens: the mechanism of action of single nitrogen containing toxins--a hypothesis. Drug Chem Toxicol. 1989 Sep-Dec;12(3-4):237-57. [2698801 ]
General Function:
Ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
Component of the heteropentameric receptor for GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain. Functions also as histamine receptor and mediates cellular responses to histamine. Functions as receptor for diazepines and various anesthetics, such as pentobarbital; these are bound at a separate allosteric effector binding site. Functions as ligand-gated chloride channel (By similarity).
Gene Name:
GABRB1
Uniprot ID:
P18505
Molecular Weight:
54234.085 Da
References
  1. Selala MI, Daelemans F, Schepens PJ: Fungal tremorgens: the mechanism of action of single nitrogen containing toxins--a hypothesis. Drug Chem Toxicol. 1989 Sep-Dec;12(3-4):237-57. [2698801 ]
General Function:
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
Component of the heteropentameric receptor for GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain. Functions also as histamine receptor and mediates cellular responses to histamine. Functions as receptor for diazepines and various anesthetics, such as pentobarbital; these are bound at a separate allosteric effector binding site. Functions as ligand-gated chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRB2
Uniprot ID:
P47870
Molecular Weight:
59149.895 Da
References
  1. Selala MI, Daelemans F, Schepens PJ: Fungal tremorgens: the mechanism of action of single nitrogen containing toxins--a hypothesis. Drug Chem Toxicol. 1989 Sep-Dec;12(3-4):237-57. [2698801 ]
General Function:
Gaba-gated chloride ion channel activity
Specific Function:
Component of the heteropentameric receptor for GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain. Functions also as histamine receptor and mediates cellular responses to histamine. Functions as receptor for diazepines and various anesthetics, such as pentobarbital; these are bound at a separate allosteric effector binding site. Functions as ligand-gated chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRB3
Uniprot ID:
P28472
Molecular Weight:
54115.04 Da
References
  1. Selala MI, Daelemans F, Schepens PJ: Fungal tremorgens: the mechanism of action of single nitrogen containing toxins--a hypothesis. Drug Chem Toxicol. 1989 Sep-Dec;12(3-4):237-57. [2698801 ]
General Function:
Gaba-a receptor activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRD
Uniprot ID:
O14764
Molecular Weight:
50707.835 Da
References
  1. Selala MI, Daelemans F, Schepens PJ: Fungal tremorgens: the mechanism of action of single nitrogen containing toxins--a hypothesis. Drug Chem Toxicol. 1989 Sep-Dec;12(3-4):237-57. [2698801 ]
General Function:
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRE
Uniprot ID:
P78334
Molecular Weight:
57971.175 Da
References
  1. Selala MI, Daelemans F, Schepens PJ: Fungal tremorgens: the mechanism of action of single nitrogen containing toxins--a hypothesis. Drug Chem Toxicol. 1989 Sep-Dec;12(3-4):237-57. [2698801 ]
General Function:
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRG1
Uniprot ID:
Q8N1C3
Molecular Weight:
53594.49 Da
References
  1. Selala MI, Daelemans F, Schepens PJ: Fungal tremorgens: the mechanism of action of single nitrogen containing toxins--a hypothesis. Drug Chem Toxicol. 1989 Sep-Dec;12(3-4):237-57. [2698801 ]
General Function:
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
Component of the heteropentameric receptor for GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain. Functions also as histamine receptor and mediates cellular responses to histamine. Functions as receptor for diazepines and various anesthetics, such as pentobarbital; these are bound at a separate allosteric effector binding site. Functions as ligand-gated chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRG2
Uniprot ID:
P18507
Molecular Weight:
54161.78 Da
References
  1. Selala MI, Daelemans F, Schepens PJ: Fungal tremorgens: the mechanism of action of single nitrogen containing toxins--a hypothesis. Drug Chem Toxicol. 1989 Sep-Dec;12(3-4):237-57. [2698801 ]
General Function:
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRG3
Uniprot ID:
Q99928
Molecular Weight:
54288.16 Da
References
  1. Selala MI, Daelemans F, Schepens PJ: Fungal tremorgens: the mechanism of action of single nitrogen containing toxins--a hypothesis. Drug Chem Toxicol. 1989 Sep-Dec;12(3-4):237-57. [2698801 ]
General Function:
Gaba-a receptor activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel. In the uterus, the function of the receptor appears to be related to tissue contractility. The binding of this pI subunit with other GABA(A) receptor subunits alters the sensitivity of recombinant receptors to modulatory agents such as pregnanolone.
Gene Name:
GABRP
Uniprot ID:
O00591
Molecular Weight:
50639.735 Da
References
  1. Selala MI, Daelemans F, Schepens PJ: Fungal tremorgens: the mechanism of action of single nitrogen containing toxins--a hypothesis. Drug Chem Toxicol. 1989 Sep-Dec;12(3-4):237-57. [2698801 ]
General Function:
Gaba-a receptor activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel. Rho-1 GABA receptor could play a role in retinal neurotransmission.
Gene Name:
GABRR1
Uniprot ID:
P24046
Molecular Weight:
55882.91 Da
References
  1. Selala MI, Daelemans F, Schepens PJ: Fungal tremorgens: the mechanism of action of single nitrogen containing toxins--a hypothesis. Drug Chem Toxicol. 1989 Sep-Dec;12(3-4):237-57. [2698801 ]
General Function:
Gaba-a receptor activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel. Rho-2 GABA receptor could play a role in retinal neurotransmission.
Gene Name:
GABRR2
Uniprot ID:
P28476
Molecular Weight:
54150.41 Da
References
  1. Selala MI, Daelemans F, Schepens PJ: Fungal tremorgens: the mechanism of action of single nitrogen containing toxins--a hypothesis. Drug Chem Toxicol. 1989 Sep-Dec;12(3-4):237-57. [2698801 ]
General Function:
Gaba-a receptor activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRR3
Uniprot ID:
A8MPY1
Molecular Weight:
54271.1 Da
References
  1. Selala MI, Daelemans F, Schepens PJ: Fungal tremorgens: the mechanism of action of single nitrogen containing toxins--a hypothesis. Drug Chem Toxicol. 1989 Sep-Dec;12(3-4):237-57. [2698801 ]
General Function:
Transmembrane signaling receptor activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRQ
Uniprot ID:
Q9UN88
Molecular Weight:
72020.875 Da
References
  1. Selala MI, Daelemans F, Schepens PJ: Fungal tremorgens: the mechanism of action of single nitrogen containing toxins--a hypothesis. Drug Chem Toxicol. 1989 Sep-Dec;12(3-4):237-57. [2698801 ]
General Function:
G-protein coupled gaba receptor activity
Specific Function:
Component of a heterodimeric G-protein coupled receptor for GABA, formed by GABBR1 and GABBR2. Within the heterodimeric GABA receptor, only GABBR1 seems to bind agonists, while GABBR2 mediates coupling to G proteins. Ligand binding causes a conformation change that triggers signaling via guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) and modulates the activity of down-stream effectors, such as adenylate cyclase. Signaling inhibits adenylate cyclase, stimulates phospholipase A2, activates potassium channels, inactivates voltage-dependent calcium-channels and modulates inositol phospholipid hydrolysis. Calcium is required for high affinity binding to GABA. Plays a critical role in the fine-tuning of inhibitory synaptic transmission. Pre-synaptic GABA receptor inhibits neurotransmitter release by down-regulating high-voltage activated calcium channels, whereas postsynaptic GABA receptor decreases neuronal excitability by activating a prominent inwardly rectifying potassium (Kir) conductance that underlies the late inhibitory postsynaptic potentials. Not only implicated in synaptic inhibition but also in hippocampal long-term potentiation, slow wave sleep, muscle relaxation and antinociception. Activated by (-)-baclofen, cgp27492 and blocked by phaclofen.Isoform 1E may regulate the formation of functional GABBR1/GABBR2 heterodimers by competing for GABBR2 binding. This could explain the observation that certain small molecule ligands exhibit differential affinity for central versus peripheral sites.
Gene Name:
GABBR1
Uniprot ID:
Q9UBS5
Molecular Weight:
108319.4 Da
References
  1. Selala MI, Daelemans F, Schepens PJ: Fungal tremorgens: the mechanism of action of single nitrogen containing toxins--a hypothesis. Drug Chem Toxicol. 1989 Sep-Dec;12(3-4):237-57. [2698801 ]
General Function:
G-protein coupled gaba receptor activity
Specific Function:
Component of a heterodimeric G-protein coupled receptor for GABA, formed by GABBR1 and GABBR2. Within the heterodimeric GABA receptor, only GABBR1 seems to bind agonists, while GABBR2 mediates coupling to G proteins. Ligand binding causes a conformation change that triggers signaling via guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) and modulates the activity of down-stream effectors, such as adenylate cyclase. Signaling inhibits adenylate cyclase, stimulates phospholipase A2, activates potassium channels, inactivates voltage-dependent calcium-channels and modulates inositol phospholipid hydrolysis. Plays a critical role in the fine-tuning of inhibitory synaptic transmission. Pre-synaptic GABA receptor inhibits neurotransmitter release by down-regulating high-voltage activated calcium channels, whereas postsynaptic GABA receptor decreases neuronal excitability by activating a prominent inwardly rectifying potassium (Kir) conductance that underlies the late inhibitory postsynaptic potentials. Not only implicated in synaptic inhibition but also in hippocampal long-term potentiation, slow wave sleep, muscle relaxation and antinociception.
Gene Name:
GABBR2
Uniprot ID:
O75899
Molecular Weight:
105820.52 Da
References
  1. Selala MI, Daelemans F, Schepens PJ: Fungal tremorgens: the mechanism of action of single nitrogen containing toxins--a hypothesis. Drug Chem Toxicol. 1989 Sep-Dec;12(3-4):237-57. [2698801 ]