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Record Information
Creation Date2014-08-29 04:48:07 UTC
Update Date2014-12-24 20:26:35 UTC
Accession NumberT3D3968
Common Name1-Naphthol
ClassSmall Molecule
Description1-naphthol (1N) is a metabolite of carbaryl and naphthalene that is an intermediate in Metabolism of xenobiotics by cytochrome P450. It is generated by spontaneous reaction from (1R,2S)-Naphthalene epoxide then is it converted to 1,4-Dihydroxynaphthalene. Although 1-Naphthol is not persistent in the body, a single urine sample may adequately predict exposure over several months to chlorpyrifos, which is a broad-spectrum organophosphate insecticide. In adult men, TCPY and 1N were associated with reduced testosterone levels (1, 2).
Compound Type
  • Animal Toxin
  • Household Toxin
  • Insecticide
  • Metabolite
  • Natural Compound
  • Organic Compound
  • Pesticide
Chemical Structure
1-Naphthyl alcohol
alpha-Naphthyl alcohol
Durafur Developer D
Fouramine ERN
Fourrine 99
Fourrine ERN
Furro ER
Nako TRB
Tertral ERN
Ursol ERN
Zoba ERN
Chemical FormulaC10H8O
Average Molecular Mass144.170 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass144.058 g/mol
CAS Registry Number90-15-3
IUPAC Namenaphthalen-1-ol
Traditional Namenaphthol
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/C10H8O/c11-10-7-3-5-8-4-1-2-6-9(8)10/h1-7,11H
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as naphthols and derivatives. These are naphthalene derivatives carrying one or more hydroxyl (-OH) groups at any ring position.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassBenzenoids
Sub ClassNaphthols and derivatives
Direct ParentNaphthols and derivatives
Alternative Parents
  • 1-naphthol
  • 1-hydroxy-4-unsubstituted benzenoid
  • 1-hydroxy-2-unsubstituted benzenoid
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Aromatic homopolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic homopolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
Cellular Locations
  • Membrane
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationsNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
ApplicationsNot Available
Biological Roles
Chemical RolesNot Available
Physical Properties
AppearanceWhite powder.
Experimental Properties
Melting PointNot Available
Boiling PointNot Available
SolubilityNot Available
LogPNot Available
Predicted Properties
Water Solubility0.95 g/LALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)9.6ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-5.6ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area20.23 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity44.49 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability15.45 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-014l-3900000000-61210a72d0e1913d7c72JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-014l-3900000000-61210a72d0e1913d7c72JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-00kf-0900000000-c0995f3a682409c43837JSpectraViewer
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0g4i-9850000000-192f1a8f4045c6c2e6a6JSpectraViewer
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - APCI-ITFT , negativesplash10-0006-0900000000-4e151ced4980c51dbed0JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-014i-0900000000-8fc12807dac2f94e7abaJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - APCI-ITFT , positivesplash10-014i-0900000000-c536d76de8d3df4d5774JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-0002-0900000000-17872f169fc1a3b9a589JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-0002-0900000000-7ff94ab855e29de86608JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0fb9-2900000000-54aee2dee46145420c78JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-0006-0900000000-3cb1d47c2a60e27a99d5JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-0006-0900000000-027fc605a3ec221e62c9JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0006-1900000000-9d25f4653afbb98405fdJSpectraViewer
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-00kf-2900000000-464e7ef19c6bd0e23869JSpectraViewer | MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureNot Available
Mechanism of Toxicity1-Naphthol is a cholinesterase or acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor. A cholinesterase inhibitor (or 'anticholinesterase') suppresses the action of acetylcholinesterase. Because of its essential function, chemicals that interfere with the action of acetylcholinesterase are potent neurotoxins, causing excessive salivation and eye-watering in low doses, followed by muscle spasms and ultimately death. Nerve gases and many substances used in insecticides have been shown to act by binding a serine in the active site of acetylcholine esterase, inhibiting the enzyme completely. Acetylcholine esterase breaks down the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, which is released at nerve and muscle junctions, in order to allow the muscle or organ to relax. The result of acetylcholine esterase inhibition is that acetylcholine builds up and continues to act so that any nerve impulses are continually transmitted and muscle contractions do not stop. Among the most common acetylcholinesterase inhibitors are phosphorus-based compounds, which are designed to bind to the active site of the enzyme. The structural requirements are a phosphorus atom bearing two lipophilic groups, a leaving group (such as a halide or thiocyanate), and a terminal oxygen.
MetabolismParaoxonase (PON1) is a key enzyme in the metabolism of organophosphates. PON1 can inactivate some organophosphates through hydrolysis. PON1 hydrolyzes the active metabolites in several organophosphates insecticides as well as, nerve agents such as soman, sarin, and VX. The presence of PON1 polymorphisms causes there to be different enzyme levels and catalytic efficiency of this esterase, which in turn suggests that different individuals may be more susceptible to the toxic effect of OP exposure.
Toxicity ValuesNot Available
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)No indication of carcinogenicity to humans (not listed by IARC).
Uses/SourcesThis is a natural compound that is used as a pesticide.
Minimum Risk LevelNot Available
Health EffectsAcute exposure to cholinesterase inhibitors can cause a cholinergic crisis characterized by severe nausea/vomiting, salivation, sweating, bradycardia, hypotension, collapse, and convulsions. Increasing muscle weakness is a possibility and may result in death if respiratory muscles are involved. Accumulation of ACh at motor nerves causes overstimulation of nicotinic expression at the neuromuscular junction. When this occurs symptoms such as muscle weakness, fatigue, muscle cramps, fasciculation, and paralysis can be seen. When there is an accumulation of ACh at autonomic ganglia this causes overstimulation of nicotinic expression in the sympathetic system. Symptoms associated with this are hypertension, and hypoglycemia. Overstimulation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the central nervous system, due to accumulation of ACh, results in anxiety, headache, convulsions, ataxia, depression of respiration and circulation, tremor, general weakness, and potentially coma. When there is expression of muscarinic overstimulation due to excess acetylcholine at muscarinic acetylcholine receptors symptoms of visual disturbances, tightness in chest, wheezing due to bronchoconstriction, increased bronchial secretions, increased salivation, lacrimation, sweating, peristalsis, and urination can occur. Certain reproductive effects in fertility, growth, and development for males and females have been linked specifically to organophosphate pesticide exposure. Most of the research on reproductive effects has been conducted on farmers working with pesticides and insecticdes in rural areas. In females menstrual cycle disturbances, longer pregnancies, spontaneous abortions, stillbirths, and some developmental effects in offspring have been linked to organophosphate pesticide exposure. Prenatal exposure has been linked to impaired fetal growth and development. Neurotoxic effects have also been linked to poisoning with OP pesticides causing four neurotoxic effects in humans: cholinergic syndrome, intermediate syndrome, organophosphate-induced delayed polyneuropathy (OPIDP), and chronic organophosphate-induced neuropsychiatric disorder (COPIND). These syndromes result after acute and chronic exposure to OP pesticides.
SymptomsSymptoms of low dose exposure include excessive salivation and eye-watering. Acute dose symptoms include severe nausea/vomiting, salivation, sweating, bradycardia, hypotension, collapse, and convulsions. Increasing muscle weakness is a possibility and may result in death if respiratory muscles are involved. Hypertension, hypoglycemia, anxiety, headache, tremor and ataxia may also result.
TreatmentIf the compound has been ingested, rapid gastric lavage should be performed using 5% sodium bicarbonate. For skin contact, the skin should be washed with soap and water. If the compound has entered the eyes, they should be washed with large quantities of isotonic saline or water. In serious cases, atropine and/or pralidoxime should be administered. Anti-cholinergic drugs work to counteract the effects of excess acetylcholine and reactivate AChE. Atropine can be used as an antidote in conjunction with pralidoxime or other pyridinium oximes (such as trimedoxime or obidoxime), though the use of '-oximes' has been found to be of no benefit, or possibly harmful, in at least two meta-analyses. Atropine is a muscarinic antagonist, and thus blocks the action of acetylcholine peripherally.
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDNot Available
PubChem Compound ID7005
ChemSpider ID6739
UniProt IDNot Available
ChEBI ID10319
BioCyc IDNot Available
CTD IDNot Available
Stitch IDNot Available
ACToR IDNot Available
Wikipedia Link1-naphthol
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
General References
  1. Meeker JD, Ryan L, Barr DB, Hauser R: Exposure to nonpersistent insecticides and male reproductive hormones. Epidemiology. 2006 Jan;17(1):61-8. [16357596 ]
  2. Hauser R, Meeker JD, Park S, Silva MJ, Calafat AM: Temporal variability of urinary phthalate metabolite levels in men of reproductive age. Environ Health Perspect. 2004 Dec;112(17):1734-40. [15579421 ]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated GenesNot Available
Down-Regulated GenesNot Available


General Function:
Oxidoreductase activity, acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen, reduced flavin or flavoprotein as one donor, and incorporation of one atom of oxygen
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Most active in catalyzing 2-hydroxylation. Caffeine is metabolized primarily by cytochrome CYP1A2 in the liver through an initial N3-demethylation. Also acts in the metabolism of aflatoxin B1 and acetaminophen. Participates in the bioactivation of carcinogenic aromatic and heterocyclic amines. Catalizes the N-hydroxylation of heterocyclic amines and the O-deethylation of phenacetin.
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular Weight:
58293.76 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
IC503.2 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 23450
  1. Korhonen LE, Rahnasto M, Mahonen NJ, Wittekindt C, Poso A, Juvonen RO, Raunio H: Predictive three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship of cytochrome P450 1A2 inhibitors. J Med Chem. 2005 Jun 2;48(11):3808-15. [15916432 ]
General Function:
Signal transducer activity
Specific Function:
Stress-activated serine/threonine-protein kinase involved in cytokines production, endocytosis, reorganization of the cytoskeleton, cell migration, cell cycle control, chromatin remodeling, DNA damage response and transcriptional regulation. Following stress, it is phosphorylated and activated by MAP kinase p38-alpha/MAPK14, leading to phosphorylation of substrates. Phosphorylates serine in the peptide sequence, Hyd-X-R-X(2)-S, where Hyd is a large hydrophobic residue. Phosphorylates ALOX5, CDC25B, CDC25C, ELAVL1, HNRNPA0, HSF1, HSP27/HSPB1, KRT18, KRT20, LIMK1, LSP1, PABPC1, PARN, PDE4A, RCSD1, RPS6KA3, TAB3 and TTP/ZFP36. Mediates phosphorylation of HSP27/HSPB1 in response to stress, leading to dissociate HSP27/HSPB1 from large small heat-shock protein (sHsps) oligomers and impair their chaperone activities and ability to protect against oxidative stress effectively. Involved in inflammatory response by regulating tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and IL6 production post-transcriptionally: acts by phosphorylating AU-rich elements (AREs)-binding proteins ELAVL1, HNRNPA0, PABPC1 and TTP/ZFP36, leading to regulate the stability and translation of TNF and IL6 mRNAs. Phosphorylation of TTP/ZFP36, a major post-transcriptional regulator of TNF, promotes its binding to 14-3-3 proteins and reduces its ARE mRNA affinity leading to inhibition of dependent degradation of ARE-containing transcript. Also involved in late G2/M checkpoint following DNA damage through a process of post-transcriptional mRNA stabilization: following DNA damage, relocalizes from nucleus to cytoplasm and phosphorylates HNRNPA0 and PARN, leading to stabilize GADD45A mRNA. Involved in toll-like receptor signaling pathway (TLR) in dendritic cells: required for acute TLR-induced macropinocytosis by phosphorylating and activating RPS6KA3.
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular Weight:
45567.415 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
IC50>100 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 23450
  1. Constantine KL, Mueller L, Metzler WJ, McDonnell PA, Todderud G, Goldfarb V, Fan Y, Newitt JA, Kiefer SE, Gao M, Tortolani D, Vaccaro W, Tokarski J: Multiple and single binding modes of fragment-like kinase inhibitors revealed by molecular modeling, residue type-selective protonation, and nuclear overhauser effects. J Med Chem. 2008 Oct 9;51(19):6225-9. doi: 10.1021/jm800747w. Epub 2008 Sep 5. [18771253 ]
General Function:
Thrombospondin receptor activity
Specific Function:
Thrombin, which cleaves bonds after Arg and Lys, converts fibrinogen to fibrin and activates factors V, VII, VIII, XIII, and, in complex with thrombomodulin, protein C. Functions in blood homeostasis, inflammation and wound healing.
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular Weight:
70036.295 Da
  1. Sun H, Shen OX, Xu XL, Song L, Wang XR: Carbaryl, 1-naphthol and 2-naphthol inhibit the beta-1 thyroid hormone receptor-mediated transcription in vitro. Toxicology. 2008 Jul 30;249(2-3):238-42. doi: 10.1016/j.tox.2008.05.008. Epub 2008 May 23. [18584933 ]
General Function:
Transcription regulatory region dna binding
Specific Function:
Ligand-activated transcriptional activator. Binds to the XRE promoter region of genes it activates. Activates the expression of multiple phase I and II xenobiotic chemical metabolizing enzyme genes (such as the CYP1A1 gene). Mediates biochemical and toxic effects of halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons. Involved in cell-cycle regulation. Likely to play an important role in the development and maturation of many tissues. Regulates the circadian clock by inhibiting the basal and circadian expression of the core circadian component PER1. Inhibits PER1 by repressing the CLOCK-ARNTL/BMAL1 heterodimer mediated transcriptional activation of PER1.
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular Weight:
96146.705 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC500.74 uMATG_Ahr_CISAttagene
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Nuclear receptor that binds and is activated by variety of endogenous and xenobiotic compounds. Transcription factor that activates the transcription of multiple genes involved in the metabolism and secretion of potentially harmful xenobiotics, drugs and endogenous compounds. Activated by the antibiotic rifampicin and various plant metabolites, such as hyperforin, guggulipid, colupulone, and isoflavones. Response to specific ligands is species-specific. Activated by naturally occurring steroids, such as pregnenolone and progesterone. Binds to a response element in the promoters of the CYP3A4 and ABCB1/MDR1 genes.
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular Weight:
49761.245 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC503.70 uMATG_PXRE_CISAttagene
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]