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Record Information
Creation Date2014-08-29 04:48:30 UTC
Update Date2014-12-24 20:26:35 UTC
Accession NumberT3D3979
Common NamePropylparaben
ClassSmall Molecule
DescriptionPropylparaben is an antimicrobial agent, preservative, flavouring agent. Propylparaben belongs to the family of Hydroxybenzoic Acid Derivatives. These are compounds containing an hydroxybenzoic acid (or a derivative), which is a benzene ring bearing a carboxylic acid.
Compound Type
  • Ester
  • Ether
  • Flavouring Agent
  • Food Toxin
  • Household Toxin
  • Industrial/Workplace Toxin
  • Metabolite
  • Organic Compound
  • Preservative
  • Synthetic Compound
Chemical Structure
4-Hydroxybenzoic acid propyl ester
4-Hydroxybenzoic acid propylester
4-Hydroxybenzoic acid, propyl ester
Aseptoform p
Benzoic acid, 4-hydroxy-, propyl ester
Benzoic acid, p-hydroxy-, propyl ester
Betacide p
Betacine p
Chemacide PK
Chemocide PK
Chemoside PK
Lexgard p
N-Propyl 4-hydroxybenzoate
N-Propyl p-hydroxybenzoate
Nipagin p
P-Hydroxybenzoic acid N-propyl ester
P-Hydroxybenzoic acid propyl ester
P-Hydroxybenzoic acid, propyl ester
P-Hydroxybenzoic propyl ester
P-Hydroxypropyl benzoate
Propyl 4-hydroxybenzoate
Propyl aseptoform
Propyl butex
Propyl chemosept
Propyl chemsept
Propyl p-hydroxybenzoate
Propyl paraben
Propyl parahydroxybenzoate
Propyl parasept
Propylparaben, USAN
Protaben p
Solbrol P
Tegosept p
Chemical FormulaC10H12O3
Average Molecular Mass180.201 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass180.079 g/mol
CAS Registry Number94-13-3
IUPAC Namepropyl 4-hydroxybenzoate
Traditional Namepropylparaben
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/C10H12O3/c1-2-7-13-10(12)8-3-5-9(11)6-4-8/h3-6,11H,2,7H2,1H3
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as p-hydroxybenzoic acid alkyl esters. These are aromatic compounds containing a benzoic acid, which is esterified with an alkyl group and para-substituted with a hydroxyl group.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassBenzenoids
ClassBenzene and substituted derivatives
Sub ClassBenzoic acids and derivatives
Direct Parentp-Hydroxybenzoic acid alkyl esters
Alternative Parents
  • P-hydroxybenzoic acid alkyl ester
  • Benzoyl
  • 1-hydroxy-2-unsubstituted benzenoid
  • Phenol
  • Carboxylic acid ester
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Aromatic homomonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
Cellular Locations
  • Membrane
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationsNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
Biological Roles
Chemical RolesNot Available
Physical Properties
AppearanceWhite powder.
Experimental Properties
Melting Point96 - 97°C
Boiling PointNot Available
Solubility0.5 mg/mL at 25°C
Predicted Properties
Water Solubility0.96 g/LALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)8.5ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-6.1ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area46.53 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count4ChemAxon
Refractivity49.34 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability19.35 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyDeposition DateView
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-00dr-2900000000-5ad831b2650fc930116c2017-09-12View Spectrum
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-00dr-2900000000-5ad831b2650fc930116c2018-05-18View Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-00di-4900000000-ea56320d2db779d7b4ba2017-09-01View Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0006-3910000000-6627fe49566ac19f26462017-10-06View Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, PositiveNot Available2021-10-12View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativesplash10-004i-0900000000-a528bf6bd610eaa4d56d2017-09-14View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - 35V, Negativesplash10-004i-0900000000-a528bf6bd610eaa4d56d2021-09-20View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-0079-0900000000-f8b4d22e11212406a6692021-09-20View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-000i-0900000000-c2e531f56db73c6d33e82021-09-20View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - 30V, Positivesplash10-00di-0900000000-3687d6281f4f012f14a82021-09-20View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-00di-0900000000-cc364f1a508151d37b722021-09-20View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-004i-0900000000-04f2ce573f4ba08b5bc82021-09-20View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0006-9000000000-32ccfdbd83a4d2db7d8b2021-09-20View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-004i-9000000000-57094c48887cb16375a42021-09-20View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-000i-2900000000-f3c11565fcd12f9e860b2021-09-20View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - 30V, Positivesplash10-004r-0900000000-f3bacac2e75bf5f75e202021-09-20View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - 45V, Positivesplash10-000l-4900000000-a177f5dd4882f3644ebc2021-09-20View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-002b-9400000000-9bab2a6dfc09b743ab7e2021-09-20View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-000i-0900000000-33c4bb8f3aa111e3c3aa2021-09-20View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-004i-2900000000-cae53eb5d810f1eb49c72021-09-20View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-0006-9200000000-0217e404cbb1450be5b22021-09-20View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - 30V, Negativesplash10-0079-0900000000-75d92497c0382dfbecd52021-09-20View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - 90V, Negativesplash10-052f-9200000000-9b90e1d540d5b83dcbc22021-09-20View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - 90V, Positivesplash10-052f-9200000000-fd8218d9ad65ba82afca2021-09-20View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-001i-2900000000-4ca188f06fa4b53e32482016-08-03View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-006x-9600000000-5d01c0904ab22d191c712016-08-03View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0006-9300000000-13a8f8a6fa20b2a61dd82016-08-03View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-004i-1900000000-c039bed96e2f85d3b72c2016-08-03View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-000l-3900000000-476bdcb3573067826dc12016-08-03View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0006-9400000000-7a7313c9b1e989f7c4dc2016-08-03View Spectrum
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-00dr-4900000000-1b9740067a9969c2e70d2014-09-20View Spectrum
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 90 MHz, CDCl3, experimental)Not Available2014-09-20View Spectrum
1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 25.16 MHz, CDCl3, experimental)Not Available2014-09-23View Spectrum
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureNot Available
Mechanism of ToxicityNot Available
MetabolismNot Available
Toxicity ValuesNot Available
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)No indication of carcinogenicity to humans (not listed by IARC).
Uses/SourcesNot Available
Minimum Risk LevelNot Available
Health EffectsNot Available
SymptomsNot Available
TreatmentNot Available
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDNot Available
PubChem Compound ID7175
ChemSpider ID6907
KEGG IDNot Available
UniProt IDNot Available
ChEBI ID32063
BioCyc IDNot Available
CTD IDNot Available
Stitch IDNot Available
PDB IDNot Available
ACToR IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkNot Available
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
General References
  1. Jadach M, Blazewicz A, Fijalek Z: Determination of local anesthetics in illegal products using HPLC method with amperometric detection. Acta Pol Pharm. 2012 May-Jun;69(3):397-403. [22594253 ]
  2. Chen ZF, Ying GG, Lai HJ, Chen F, Su HC, Liu YS, Peng FQ, Zhao JL: Determination of biocides in different environmental matrices by use of ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2012 Dec;404(10):3175-88. doi: 10.1007/s00216-012-6444-2. Epub 2012 Oct 10. [23052884 ]
  3. Albero B, Perez RA, Sanchez-Brunete C, Tadeo JL: Occurrence and analysis of parabens in municipal sewage sludge from wastewater treatment plants in Madrid (Spain). J Hazard Mater. 2012 Nov 15;239-240:48-55. doi: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2012.05.017. Epub 2012 May 11. [22640822 ]
  4. Harvey PW, Everett DJ: Parabens detection in different zones of the human breast: consideration of source and implications of findings. J Appl Toxicol. 2012 May;32(5):305-9. doi: 10.1002/jat.2743. Epub 2012 Mar 7. [22408000 ]
  5. Perez-Lozano P, Garcia-Montoya E, Orriols A, Minarro M, Tico JR, Sune-Negre JM: A new validated method for the simultaneous determination of benzocaine, propylparaben and benzyl alcohol in a bioadhesive gel by HPLC. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2005 Oct 4;39(5):920-7. Epub 2005 Jul 20. [16039086 ]
  6. Yu K, Li B, Zhang T: Direct rapid analysis of multiple PPCPs in municipal wastewater using ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry without SPE pre-concentration. Anal Chim Acta. 2012 Aug 13;738:59-68. doi: 10.1016/j.aca.2012.05.057. Epub 2012 Jun 9. [22790701 ]
  7. Hu P, Chen X, Whitener RJ, Boder ET, Jones JO, Porollo A, Chen J, Zhao L: Effects of parabens on adipocyte differentiation. Toxicol Sci. 2013 Jan;131(1):56-70. doi: 10.1093/toxsci/kfs262. Epub 2012 Sep 5. [22956630 ]
  8. Gurtler JB, Jin TZ: Propylparaben sensitizes heat-resistant Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Oranienburg to thermal inactivation in liquid egg albumen. J Food Prot. 2012 Mar;75(3):443-8. doi: 10.4315/0362-028X.JFP-11-158. [22410216 ]
  9. Dvores MP, Marom G, Magdassi S: Formation of organic nanoparticles by electrospinning of volatile microemulsions. Langmuir. 2012 May 1;28(17):6978-84. doi: 10.1021/la204741f. Epub 2012 Apr 19. [22452574 ]
  10. Talevi A, Bellera CL, Castro EA, Bruno-Blanch LE: A successful virtual screening application: prediction of anticonvulsant activity in MES test of widely used pharmaceutical and food preservatives methylparaben and propylparaben. J Comput Aided Mol Des. 2007 Sep;21(9):527-38. Epub 2007 Oct 25. [17960329 ]
  11. Lee T, Lok C, Vazquez M, Moist L, Maya I, Mokrzycki M: Minimizing hemodialysis catheter dysfunction: an ounce of prevention. Int J Nephrol. 2012;2012:170857. doi: 10.1155/2012/170857. Epub 2012 Feb 19. [22518310 ]
  12. Yannai, Shmuel. (2004) Dictionary of food compounds with CD-ROM: Additives, flavors, and ingredients. Boca Raton: Chapman & Hall/CRC.
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated GenesNot Available
Down-Regulated GenesNot Available


General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Nuclear hormone receptor. The steroid hormones and their receptors are involved in the regulation of eukaryotic gene expression and affect cellular proliferation and differentiation in target tissues. Ligand-dependent nuclear transactivation involves either direct homodimer binding to a palindromic estrogen response element (ERE) sequence or association with other DNA-binding transcription factors, such as AP-1/c-Jun, c-Fos, ATF-2, Sp1 and Sp3, to mediate ERE-independent signaling. Ligand binding induces a conformational change allowing subsequent or combinatorial association with multiprotein coactivator complexes through LXXLL motifs of their respective components. Mutual transrepression occurs between the estrogen receptor (ER) and NF-kappa-B in a cell-type specific manner. Decreases NF-kappa-B DNA-binding activity and inhibits NF-kappa-B-mediated transcription from the IL6 promoter and displace RELA/p65 and associated coregulators from the promoter. Recruited to the NF-kappa-B response element of the CCL2 and IL8 promoters and can displace CREBBP. Present with NF-kappa-B components RELA/p65 and NFKB1/p50 on ERE sequences. Can also act synergistically with NF-kappa-B to activate transcription involving respective recruitment adjacent response elements; the function involves CREBBP. Can activate the transcriptional activity of TFF1. Also mediates membrane-initiated estrogen signaling involving various kinase cascades. Isoform 3 is involved in activation of NOS3 and endothelial nitric oxide production. Isoforms lacking one or several functional domains are thought to modulate transcriptional activity by competitive ligand or DNA binding and/or heterodimerization with the full length receptor. Essential for MTA1-mediated transcriptional regulation of BRCA1 and BCAS3. Isoform 3 can bind to ERE and inhibit isoform 1.
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular Weight:
66215.45 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC504.20 uMACEA_T47D_80hr_PositiveACEA Biosciences
AC509.43 uMATG_ERE_CISAttagene
AC504.68 uMNVS_NR_hERNovascreen
  1. Watanabe Y, Kojima H, Takeuchi S, Uramaru N, Ohta S, Kitamura S: Comparative study on transcriptional activity of 17 parabens mediated by estrogen receptor alpha and beta and androgen receptor. Food Chem Toxicol. 2013 Jul;57:227-34. doi: 10.1016/j.fct.2013.03.036. Epub 2013 Apr 6. [23567241 ]
  2. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Nuclear hormone receptor. Binds estrogens with an affinity similar to that of ESR1, and activates expression of reporter genes containing estrogen response elements (ERE) in an estrogen-dependent manner (PubMed:20074560). Isoform beta-cx lacks ligand binding ability and has no or only very low ere binding activity resulting in the loss of ligand-dependent transactivation ability. DNA-binding by ESR1 and ESR2 is rapidly lost at 37 degrees Celsius in the absence of ligand while in the presence of 17 beta-estradiol and 4-hydroxy-tamoxifen loss in DNA-binding at elevated temperature is more gradual.
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular Weight:
59215.765 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC506.97 uMOT_ER_ERbERb_0480Odyssey Thera
AC508.02 uMOT_ER_ERbERb_1440Odyssey Thera
  1. Watanabe Y, Kojima H, Takeuchi S, Uramaru N, Ohta S, Kitamura S: Comparative study on transcriptional activity of 17 parabens mediated by estrogen receptor alpha and beta and androgen receptor. Food Chem Toxicol. 2013 Jul;57:227-34. doi: 10.1016/j.fct.2013.03.036. Epub 2013 Apr 6. [23567241 ]
  2. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Nuclear receptor that binds peroxisome proliferators such as hypolipidemic drugs and fatty acids. Once activated by a ligand, the nuclear receptor binds to DNA specific PPAR response elements (PPRE) and modulates the transcription of its target genes, such as acyl-CoA oxidase. It therefore controls the peroxisomal beta-oxidation pathway of fatty acids. Key regulator of adipocyte differentiation and glucose homeostasis. ARF6 acts as a key regulator of the tissue-specific adipocyte P2 (aP2) enhancer. Acts as a critical regulator of gut homeostasis by suppressing NF-kappa-B-mediated proinflammatory responses. Plays a role in the regulation of cardiovascular circadian rhythms by regulating the transcription of ARNTL/BMAL1 in the blood vessels (By similarity).
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular Weight:
57619.58 Da
  1. Pereira-Fernandes A, Demaegdt H, Vandermeiren K, Hectors TL, Jorens PG, Blust R, Vanparys C: Evaluation of a screening system for obesogenic compounds: screening of endocrine disrupting compounds and evaluation of the PPAR dependency of the effect. PLoS One. 2013 Oct 14;8(10):e77481. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0077481. eCollection 2013. [24155963 ]