Tmic
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Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2014-08-29 05:46:40 UTC
Update Date2014-12-24 20:26:40 UTC
Accession NumberT3D4148
Identification
Common NameDimethylamine
ClassSmall Molecule
DescriptionDimethylamine is a uremic toxin. Uremic toxins can be subdivided into three major groups based upon their chemical and physical characteristics: 1) small, water-soluble, non-protein-bound compounds, such as urea; 2) small, lipid-soluble and/or protein-bound compounds, such as the phenols and 3) larger so-called middle-molecules, such as beta2-microglobulin. Chronic exposure of uremic toxins can lead to a number of conditions including renal damage, chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular disease. Dimethylamine (DMA) is an organic secondary amine. It is a colorless, liquefied and flammable gas with an ammonia and fish-like odor. Dimethylamine is abundantly present in human urine. Main sources of urinary DMA have been reported to include trimethylamine N-oxide, a common food component, and asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), an endogenous inhibitor of nitric oxide (NO) synthesis. ADMA is excreted in the urine in part unmetabolized and in part after hydrolysis to DMA by dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase (DDAH). Statistically significant increases in urinary DMA have been found in individuals after the consumption of fish and seafoods. The highest values were obtained for individuals that consumed coley, squid and whiting with cod, haddock, sardine, skate and swordfish As a pure chemical substance Dimethylamine is used as dehairing agent in tanning, in dyes, in rubber accelerators, in soaps and cleaning compounds and as an agricultural fungicide. In the body, DMA also undergoes nitrosation under weak acid conditions to give dimethlynitrosamine.
Compound Type
  • Dye
  • Food Toxin
  • Fungicide
  • Household Toxin
  • Metabolite
  • Natural Compound
  • Organic Compound
  • Pesticide
  • Uremic Toxin
Chemical Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Synonym
Dimethylamine anhydrous
Dimethylamine anhydrous (dot)
Dimethylamine aqueous solution
Dimethylamine hydrobromide
Dimethylamine solution
N,N-Dimethylamine
N-Methyl-Methanamine
N-Methylmethanamine
Chemical FormulaC2H7N
Average Molecular Mass45.084 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass45.058 g/mol
CAS Registry Number124-40-3
IUPAC Namedimethylamine
Traditional Namedimethylamine
SMILESCNC
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/C2H7N/c1-3-2/h3H,1-2H3
InChI KeyInChIKey=ROSDSFDQCJNGOL-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as dialkylamines. These are organic compounds containing a dialkylamine group, characterized by two alkyl groups bonded to the amino nitrogen.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic nitrogen compounds
ClassOrganonitrogen compounds
Sub ClassAmines
Direct ParentDialkylamines
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Secondary aliphatic amine
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
OriginEndogenous
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue Locations
  • Fibroblasts
  • Neuron
PathwaysNot Available
ApplicationsNot Available
Biological Roles
Chemical RolesNot Available
Physical Properties
StateLiquid
AppearanceNot Available
Experimental Properties
PropertyValue
Melting Point-92.2°C
Boiling PointNot Available
Solubility1630 mg/mL at 40°C
LogP-0.38
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility516 g/LALOGPS
logP-0.53ALOGPS
logP-0.19ChemAxon
logS1.06ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Basic)10.52ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area12.03 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity14.69 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability5.75 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-0006-9000000000-cfb8e10b3b28eba99793View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-0006-9000000000-cfb8e10b3b28eba99793View in MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0002-9000000000-398c710ba4ea34342a91View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - EI-B (HITACHI M-80B) , Positivesplash10-0006-9000000000-8b085007dc085a460422View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Positivesplash10-0002-9000000000-103f1d373ec0d015b807View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Positivesplash10-0002-9000000000-df28f146170e28bfcb5eView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Positivesplash10-0002-9000000000-cd82fdde4d83a74d83f1View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Positivesplash10-00wc-9100000000-aeb1521c62f5010e11aaView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, Positivesplash10-017i-9101000000-c269a0887eed5daf0e28View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positivesplash10-0002-9000000000-103f1d373ec0d015b807View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positivesplash10-0002-9000000000-df28f146170e28bfcb5eView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positivesplash10-0002-9000000000-17646ed4f7c44ba14045View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positivesplash10-00wc-9100000000-aeb1521c62f5010e11aaView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positivesplash10-017i-9101000000-c269a0887eed5daf0e28View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-0006-9000000000-32c57cc32d61a2feae23View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-0006-9000000000-36fe99d2cc96e560f509View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0006-9000000000-8914e111239eacc36328View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-0002-9000000000-933c4b104db02265ac4aView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-0002-9000000000-e85cf853d2e7110d18c1View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-014j-9000000000-2032c41c4ca525ff4e1cView in MoNA
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-0006-9000000000-8ae4e0d1cb5c91c730c0View in MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureEndogenous, Ingestion, Dermal (contact)
Mechanism of ToxicityUremic toxins such as dimethylamine are actively transported into the kidneys via organic ion transporters (especially OAT3). Increased levels of uremic toxins can stimulate the production of reactive oxygen species. This seems to be mediated by the direct binding or inhibition by uremic toxins of the enzyme NADPH oxidase (especially NOX4 which is abundant in the kidneys and heart) (3). Reactive oxygen species can induce several different DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) which are involved in the silencing of a protein known as KLOTHO. KLOTHO has been identified as having important roles in anti-aging, mineral metabolism, and vitamin D metabolism. A number of studies have indicated that KLOTHO mRNA and protein levels are reduced during acute or chronic kidney diseases in response to high local levels of reactive oxygen species (4)
MetabolismUremic toxins tend to accumulate in the blood either through dietary excess or through poor filtration by the kidneys. Most uremic toxins are metabolic waste products and are normally excreted in the urine or feces.
Toxicity ValuesNot Available
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)No indication of carcinogenicity to humans (not listed by IARC).
Uses/SourcesNaturally produced by the body (endogenous).
Minimum Risk LevelNot Available
Health EffectsChronic exposure to uremic toxins can lead to a number of conditions including renal damage, chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular disease.
SymptomsAs a uremic toxin, this compound can cause uremic syndrome. Uremic syndrome may affect any part of the body and can cause nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, and weight loss. It can also cause changes in mental status, such as confusion, reduced awareness, agitation, psychosis, seizures, and coma. Abnormal bleeding, such as bleeding spontaneously or profusely from a very minor injury can also occur. Heart problems, such as an irregular heartbeat, inflammation in the sac that surrounds the heart (pericarditis), and increased pressure on the heart can be seen in patients with uremic syndrome. Shortness of breath from fluid buildup in the space between the lungs and the chest wall (pleural effusion) can also be present.
TreatmentKidney dialysis is usually needed to relieve the symptoms of uremic syndrome until normal kidney function can be restored.
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDNot Available
HMDB IDHMDB00087
PubChem Compound ID674
ChEMBL IDCHEMBL120433
ChemSpider ID654
KEGG IDC00543
UniProt IDNot Available
OMIM ID
ChEBI ID17170
BioCyc IDDIMETHYLAMINE
CTD IDNot Available
Stitch IDNot Available
PDB IDDMN
ACToR IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkDimethylamine
References
Synthesis ReferenceZones, Stacey I.; Burton, Allen W. Production of methylamine and dimethylamine using STI zeolite catalysts. U.S. Pat. Appl. Publ. (2007), 6pp.
MSDSLink
General References
  1. Mitchell SC, Zhang AQ, Smith RL: Dimethylamine and diet. Food Chem Toxicol. 2008 May;46(5):1734-8. doi: 10.1016/j.fct.2008.01.010. Epub 2008 Jan 15. [18282650 ]
  2. Duranton F, Cohen G, De Smet R, Rodriguez M, Jankowski J, Vanholder R, Argiles A: Normal and pathologic concentrations of uremic toxins. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2012 Jul;23(7):1258-70. doi: 10.1681/ASN.2011121175. Epub 2012 May 24. [22626821 ]
  3. Schulz AM, Terne C, Jankowski V, Cohen G, Schaefer M, Boehringer F, Tepel M, Kunkel D, Zidek W, Jankowski J: Modulation of NADPH oxidase activity by known uraemic retention solutes. Eur J Clin Invest. 2014 Aug;44(8):802-11. doi: 10.1111/eci.12297. [25041433 ]
  4. Young GH, Wu VC: KLOTHO methylation is linked to uremic toxins and chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int. 2012 Apr;81(7):611-2. doi: 10.1038/ki.2011.461. [22419041 ]
  5. Silwood CJ, Lynch E, Claxson AW, Grootveld MC: 1H and (13)C NMR spectroscopic analysis of human saliva. J Dent Res. 2002 Jun;81(6):422-7. [12097436 ]
  6. Zeisel SH, daCosta KA, Youssef M, Hensey S: Conversion of dietary choline to trimethylamine and dimethylamine in rats: dose-response relationship. J Nutr. 1989 May;119(5):800-4. [2723829 ]
  7. Lee L, Archer MC, Bruce WR: Absence of volatile nitrosamines in human feces. Cancer Res. 1981 Oct;41(10):3992-4. [7285009 ]
  8. Sharif NA, Crider JY, Davis TL: AL-3138 antagonizes FP prostanoid receptor-mediated inositol phosphates generation: comparison with some purported FP antagonists. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2000 Dec;52(12):1529-39. [11197083 ]
  9. Hughes R, Dart J, Kilvington S: Activity of the amidoamine myristamidopropyl dimethylamine against keratitis pathogens. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2003 Jun;51(6):1415-8. Epub 2003 Apr 25. [12716783 ]
  10. Le Moyec L, Racine S, Le Toumelin P, Adnet F, Larue V, Cohen Y, Leroux Y, Cupa M, Hantz E: Aminoglycoside and glycopeptide renal toxicity in intensive care patients studied by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy of urine. Crit Care Med. 2002 Jun;30(6):1242-5. [12072675 ]
  11. Lee SH, Kim SO, Chung BC: Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric determination of urinary oxoacids using O-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzyl)oxime-trimethylsilyl ester derivatization and cation-exchange chromatography. J Chromatogr B Biomed Sci Appl. 1998 Nov 20;719(1-2):1-7. [9869358 ]
  12. Mulder C, Wahlund LO, Blomberg M, de Jong S, van Kamp GJ, Scheltens P, Teerlink T: Alzheimer's disease is not associated with altered concentrations of the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor asymmetric dimethylarginine in cerebrospinal fluid. J Neural Transm. 2002 Sep;109(9):1203-8. [12203047 ]
  13. Sweatman BC, Farrant RD, Holmes E, Ghauri FY, Nicholson JK, Lindon JC: 600 MHz 1H-NMR spectroscopy of human cerebrospinal fluid: effects of sample manipulation and assignment of resonances. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 1993 Aug;11(8):651-64. [8257730 ]
  14. Messana I, Forni F, Ferrari F, Rossi C, Giardina B, Zuppi C: Proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectral profiles of urine in type II diabetic patients. Clin Chem. 1998 Jul;44(7):1529-34. [9665433 ]
  15. Nicholson JK, Foxall PJ, Spraul M, Farrant RD, Lindon JC: 750 MHz 1H and 1H-13C NMR spectroscopy of human blood plasma. Anal Chem. 1995 Mar 1;67(5):793-811. [7762816 ]
  16. Lichtenberger LM, Gardner JW, Barreto JC, Morriss FH Jr: Evidence for a role of volatile amines in the development of neonatal hypergastrinemia. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 1991 Nov;13(4):342-6. [1779307 ]
  17. Zhang AQ, Mitchell SC, Smith RL: Dimethylamine in human urine. Clin Chim Acta. 1995 Jan 16;233(1-2):81-8. [7758205 ]
  18. Choi SY, Chung MJ, Sung NJ: Volatile N-nitrosamine inhibition after intake Korean green tea and Maesil (Prunus mume SIEB. et ZACC.) extracts with an amine-rich diet in subjects ingesting nitrate. Food Chem Toxicol. 2002 Jul;40(7):949-57. [12065217 ]
  19. Kilvington S, Hughes R, Byas J, Dart J: Activities of therapeutic agents and myristamidopropyl dimethylamine against Acanthamoeba isolates. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2002 Jun;46(6):2007-9. [12019127 ]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated GenesNot Available
Down-Regulated GenesNot Available

Targets

General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Nuclear hormone receptor. The steroid hormones and their receptors are involved in the regulation of eukaryotic gene expression and affect cellular proliferation and differentiation in target tissues. Ligand-dependent nuclear transactivation involves either direct homodimer binding to a palindromic estrogen response element (ERE) sequence or association with other DNA-binding transcription factors, such as AP-1/c-Jun, c-Fos, ATF-2, Sp1 and Sp3, to mediate ERE-independent signaling. Ligand binding induces a conformational change allowing subsequent or combinatorial association with multiprotein coactivator complexes through LXXLL motifs of their respective components. Mutual transrepression occurs between the estrogen receptor (ER) and NF-kappa-B in a cell-type specific manner. Decreases NF-kappa-B DNA-binding activity and inhibits NF-kappa-B-mediated transcription from the IL6 promoter and displace RELA/p65 and associated coregulators from the promoter. Recruited to the NF-kappa-B response element of the CCL2 and IL8 promoters and can displace CREBBP. Present with NF-kappa-B components RELA/p65 and NFKB1/p50 on ERE sequences. Can also act synergistically with NF-kappa-B to activate transcription involving respective recruitment adjacent response elements; the function involves CREBBP. Can activate the transcriptional activity of TFF1. Also mediates membrane-initiated estrogen signaling involving various kinase cascades. Isoform 3 is involved in activation of NOS3 and endothelial nitric oxide production. Isoforms lacking one or several functional domains are thought to modulate transcriptional activity by competitive ligand or DNA binding and/or heterodimerization with the full length receptor. Essential for MTA1-mediated transcriptional regulation of BRCA1 and BCAS3. Isoform 3 can bind to ERE and inhibit isoform 1.
Gene Name:
ESR1
Uniprot ID:
P03372
Molecular Weight:
66215.45 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC500.10 uMACEA_T47D_80hr_PositiveACEA Biosciences
References
  1. Schulz AM, Terne C, Jankowski V, Cohen G, Schaefer M, Boehringer F, Tepel M, Kunkel D, Zidek W, Jankowski J: Modulation of NADPH oxidase activity by known uraemic retention solutes. Eur J Clin Invest. 2014 Aug;44(8):802-11. doi: 10.1111/eci.12297. [25041433 ]
  2. Young GH, Wu VC: KLOTHO methylation is linked to uremic toxins and chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int. 2012 Apr;81(7):611-2. doi: 10.1038/ki.2011.461. [22419041 ]
  3. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Histamine receptor activity
Specific Function:
The H3 subclass of histamine receptors could mediate the histamine signals in CNS and peripheral nervous system. Signals through the inhibition of adenylate cyclase and displays high constitutive activity (spontaneous activity in the absence of agonist). Agonist stimulation of isoform 3 neither modified adenylate cyclase activity nor induced intracellular calcium mobilization.
Gene Name:
HRH3
Uniprot ID:
Q9Y5N1
Molecular Weight:
48670.81 Da
References
  1. Black LA, Nersesian DL, Sharma P, Ku YY, Bennani YL, Marsh KC, Miller TR, Esbenshade TA, Hancock AA, Cowart M: 4-[6-(2-Aminoethyl)naphthalen-2-yl]benzonitriles are potent histamine H3 receptor antagonists with high CNS penetration. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2007 Mar 1;17(5):1443-6. Epub 2006 Dec 1. [17169555 ]
  2. Schulz AM, Terne C, Jankowski V, Cohen G, Schaefer M, Boehringer F, Tepel M, Kunkel D, Zidek W, Jankowski J: Modulation of NADPH oxidase activity by known uraemic retention solutes. Eur J Clin Invest. 2014 Aug;44(8):802-11. doi: 10.1111/eci.12297. [25041433 ]
  3. Young GH, Wu VC: KLOTHO methylation is linked to uremic toxins and chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int. 2012 Apr;81(7):611-2. doi: 10.1038/ki.2011.461. [22419041 ]
General Function:
Vitamin d binding
Specific Function:
May have weak glycosidase activity towards glucuronylated steroids. However, it lacks essential active site Glu residues at positions 239 and 872, suggesting it may be inactive as a glycosidase in vivo. May be involved in the regulation of calcium and phosphorus homeostasis by inhibiting the synthesis of active vitamin D (By similarity). Essential factor for the specific interaction between FGF23 and FGFR1 (By similarity).The Klotho peptide generated by cleavage of the membrane-bound isoform may be an anti-aging circulating hormone which would extend life span by inhibiting insulin/IGF1 signaling.
Gene Name:
KL
Uniprot ID:
Q9UEF7
Molecular Weight:
116179.815 Da
References
  1. Schulz AM, Terne C, Jankowski V, Cohen G, Schaefer M, Boehringer F, Tepel M, Kunkel D, Zidek W, Jankowski J: Modulation of NADPH oxidase activity by known uraemic retention solutes. Eur J Clin Invest. 2014 Aug;44(8):802-11. doi: 10.1111/eci.12297. [25041433 ]
  2. Young GH, Wu VC: KLOTHO methylation is linked to uremic toxins and chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int. 2012 Apr;81(7):611-2. doi: 10.1038/ki.2011.461. [22419041 ]
  3. Klotho [Link]
General Function:
Superoxide-generating nadph oxidase activity
Specific Function:
Constitutive NADPH oxidase which generates superoxide intracellularly upon formation of a complex with CYBA/p22phox. Regulates signaling cascades probably through phosphatases inhibition. May function as an oxygen sensor regulating the KCNK3/TASK-1 potassium channel and HIF1A activity. May regulate insulin signaling cascade. May play a role in apoptosis, bone resorption and lipolysaccharide-mediated activation of NFKB. May produce superoxide in the nucleus and play a role in regulating gene expression upon cell stimulation. Isoform 3 is not functional. Isoform 5 and isoform 6 display reduced activity.Isoform 4: Involved in redox signaling in vascular cells. Constitutively and NADPH-dependently generates reactive oxygen species (ROS). Modulates the nuclear activation of ERK1/2 and the ELK1 transcription factor, and is capable of inducing nuclear DNA damage. Displays an increased activity relative to isoform 1.
Gene Name:
NOX4
Uniprot ID:
Q9NPH5
Molecular Weight:
66930.995 Da
References
  1. Schulz AM, Terne C, Jankowski V, Cohen G, Schaefer M, Boehringer F, Tepel M, Kunkel D, Zidek W, Jankowski J: Modulation of NADPH oxidase activity by known uraemic retention solutes. Eur J Clin Invest. 2014 Aug;44(8):802-11. doi: 10.1111/eci.12297. [25041433 ]
  2. Young GH, Wu VC: KLOTHO methylation is linked to uremic toxins and chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int. 2012 Apr;81(7):611-2. doi: 10.1038/ki.2011.461. [22419041 ]
  3. Klotho [Link]
General Function:
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Plays an important role in the excretion/detoxification of endogenous and exogenous organic anions, especially from the brain and kidney. Involved in the transport basolateral of steviol, fexofenadine. Transports benzylpenicillin (PCG), estrone-3-sulfate (E1S), cimetidine (CMD), 2,4-dichloro-phenoxyacetate (2,4-D), p-amino-hippurate (PAH), acyclovir (ACV) and ochratoxin (OTA).
Gene Name:
SLC22A8
Uniprot ID:
Q8TCC7
Molecular Weight:
59855.585 Da
References
  1. Schulz AM, Terne C, Jankowski V, Cohen G, Schaefer M, Boehringer F, Tepel M, Kunkel D, Zidek W, Jankowski J: Modulation of NADPH oxidase activity by known uraemic retention solutes. Eur J Clin Invest. 2014 Aug;44(8):802-11. doi: 10.1111/eci.12297. [25041433 ]
  2. Young GH, Wu VC: KLOTHO methylation is linked to uremic toxins and chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int. 2012 Apr;81(7):611-2. doi: 10.1038/ki.2011.461. [22419041 ]