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Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2014-08-29 05:47:06 UTC
Update Date2014-12-24 20:26:40 UTC
Accession NumberT3D4152
Identification
Common NameIndoleacetic acid
ClassSmall Molecule
DescriptionIndoleacetic acid is a uremic toxin. Uremic toxins can be subdivided into three major groups based upon their chemical and physical characteristics: 1) small, water-soluble, non-protein-bound compounds, such as urea; 2) small, lipid-soluble and/or protein-bound compounds, such as the phenols and 3) larger so-called middle-molecules, such as beta2-microglobulin. Chronic exposure of uremic toxins can lead to a number of conditions including renal damage, chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular disease. Indoleacetic acid (IAA) is a breakdown product of tryptophan metabolism and is often produced by the action of bacteria in the mammalian gut. Some endogenous production of IAA in mammalian tissues also occurs. It may be produced by the decarboxylation of tryptamine or the oxidative deamination of tryptophan. IAA frequently occurs at low levels in urine and has been found in elevated levels in the urine of patients with phenylketonuria ( Using material extracted from human urine, it was discovered by Kogl in 1933 that Indoleacetic acid is also an important plant hormone Specifically IAA is a member of the group of phytohormones called auxins. IAA is generally considered to be the most important native auxin. Plant cells synthesize IAA from tryptophan. IAA and some derivatives can be oxidised by horseradish peroxidase (HRP) to cytotoxic species. IAA is only toxic after oxidative decarboxylation; the effect of IAA/HRP is thought to be due in part to the formation of methylene-oxindole, which may conjugate with DNA bases and protein thiols. IAA/HRP could be used as the basis for targeted cancer therapy involving antibody-, polymer-, or gene-directed approaches, a potential new role for plant auxins in cancer therapy. (1, 2).
Compound Type
  • Food Toxin
  • Industrial/Workplace Toxin
  • Lachrymator
  • Metabolite
  • Natural Compound
  • Organic Compound
  • Uremic Toxin
Chemical Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Synonym
(1H-Indol-3-yl)-acetate
(1H-Indol-3-yl)-acetic acid
1H-Indol-3-ylacetate
1H-Indol-3-ylacetic acid
1H-Indole-3-acetate
1H-Indole-3-acetic acid
2-(1H-Indol-3-yl)acetate
2-(1H-Indol-3-yl)acetic acid
2-(3-Indolyl)acetate
2-(3-Indolyl)acetic acid
3-(Carboxymethyl)indole
3-IAA
3-Indole-Acetic acid
3-Indoleacetate
3-Indoleacetic acid
3-Indolylacetate
3-Indolylacetic acid
alpha-Indol-3-yl-acetic acid
b-Indoleacetate
b-Indoleacetic acid
b-Indolylacetate
b-Indolylacetic acid
beta-Indole-3-acetic acid
beta-Indoleacetate
beta-Indoleacetic acid
beta-Indolylacetate
beta-Indolylacetic acid
Heteroauxin
Indol-3-ylacetate
Indol-3-ylacetic acid
Indole-3-acetate
Indole-3-acetic acid
Indoleacetate
Indolyl-3-acetate
Indolyl-3-acetic acid
Indolylacetate
Indolylacetic acid
Kyselina 3-indolyloctova
Rhizopin
Rhizopon A
Skatole carboxylate
Skatole carboxylic acid
Chemical FormulaC10H9NO2
Average Molecular Mass175.184 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass175.063 g/mol
CAS Registry Number87-51-4
IUPAC Name2-(1H-indol-3-yl)acetic acid
Traditional Nameβ-indole-3-acetic acid
SMILESOC(=O)CC1=CNC2=CC=CC=C12
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/C10H9NO2/c12-10(13)5-7-6-11-9-4-2-1-3-8(7)9/h1-4,6,11H,5H2,(H,12,13)
InChI KeyInChIKey=SEOVTRFCIGRIMH-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as indole-3-acetic acid derivatives. Indole-3-acetic acid derivatives are compounds containing an acetic acid (or a derivative) linked to the C3 carbon atom of an indole.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganoheterocyclic compounds
ClassIndoles and derivatives
Sub ClassIndolyl carboxylic acids and derivatives
Direct ParentIndole-3-acetic acid derivatives
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Indole-3-acetic acid derivative
  • 3-alkylindole
  • Indole
  • Substituted pyrrole
  • Benzenoid
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • Pyrrole
  • Azacycle
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Carbonyl group
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organic oxide
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
OriginEndogenous
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Mitochondria
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue Locations
  • Brain
  • Central Nervous System
  • Fibroblasts
  • Hippocampus
  • Hypothalamus
  • Kidney
  • Liver
  • Platelet
  • Spinal Cord
  • Striatum
Pathways
NameSMPDB LinkKEGG Link
Tryptophan MetabolismSMP00063 map00380
Hartnup DisorderSMP00189 Not Available
ApplicationsNot Available
Biological Roles
Chemical RolesNot Available
Physical Properties
StateSolid
AppearanceWhite powder.
Experimental Properties
PropertyValue
Melting Point168.5°C
Boiling PointNot Available
Solubility1.5 mg/mL
LogP1.41
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility1.38 g/LALOGPS
logP1.87ALOGPS
logP1.71ChemAxon
logS-2.1ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)4.66ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area53.09 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count2ChemAxon
Refractivity48.45 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability17.74 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (2 TMS)splash10-0udi-0391000000-7581f14fe5be5b2b2954JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (2 TMS)splash10-0udi-0691000000-de9ac4f748d50db109eaJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (2 TMS)splash10-0udi-0591000000-9687f83d1372abe23c3cJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (2 TMS)splash10-0udi-1793100000-7c78003038436ec5a902JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (1 TMS)splash10-00ai-7910000000-4aa7b8244f32048c76bcJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (2 TMS)splash10-0fk9-9250000000-a5f931fc3292056dba65JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 TMS)splash10-001i-1920000000-f0ecee61454a589493afJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (2 TMS)splash10-0udi-1692000000-ce863a1ca2a657cb41d5JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-003r-0900000000-1edcb4977a52155bc130JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0udi-0391000000-7581f14fe5be5b2b2954JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0udi-0691000000-de9ac4f748d50db109eaJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0udi-0591000000-9687f83d1372abe23c3cJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0udi-1793100000-7c78003038436ec5a902JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-00ai-7910000000-4aa7b8244f32048c76bcJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0fk9-9250000000-a5f931fc3292056dba65JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-001i-1920000000-f0ecee61454a589493afJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-0udi-1692000000-ce863a1ca2a657cb41d5JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0udi-0691000000-f6073f8f35a6930b5aacJSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0059-1900000000-ab74ec83b16ac0b97d12JSpectraViewer
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-001i-7920000000-8dab2ad22251c9fbd21cJSpectraViewer
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Negativesplash10-00e9-0900000000-187b48f2258823cbc6a2JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Negativesplash10-001i-0900000000-30b7a73fa446d0e3c8d3JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Negativesplash10-004i-0900000000-bbe0fb5a48f89ea6e383JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Negativesplash10-004i-0900000000-97850f400d80de278334JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, Negativesplash10-004i-0900000000-600545759ef108827b9eJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , Negativesplash10-001i-0900000000-b735e95cb23091491c2eJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-00e9-0900000000-187b48f2258823cbc6a2JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-001i-0900000000-7dd685d97c3fa897c28fJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-004i-0900000000-5e0acffe0e3e18677dbeJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-004i-0900000000-97850f400d80de278334JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-004i-0900000000-600545759ef108827b9eJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , negativesplash10-001i-0900000000-b735e95cb23091491c2eJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-004i-0900000000-f6dbb01a35af3042d126JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-004i-0900000000-2ae231b7d0e2cd50aed8JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-004i-6900000000-9eae14faa16b8f8259daJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - EI-B (HITACHI M-80) , Positivesplash10-003r-0900000000-1edcb4977a52155bc130JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Positivesplash10-0kxr-5900000000-ba2eed29832f9ee48921JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Positivesplash10-004l-5900000000-a0b30710f83e53b6f3dbJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Positivesplash10-001i-9500000000-146ac0a20f9d53e76291JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Positivesplash10-053r-9600000000-d9258b3c6b5c6f748f6eJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, Positivesplash10-004i-9300000000-b59628beb41b424daf4aJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (UPLC Waters, Quattro Ultima Pt Micromass) , Positive (Annotated)splash10-004i-0900000000-755373c9248cfb6425fcJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , Positivesplash10-004i-0900000000-2b3df7a1dd85faea6705JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) 30V, Positivesplash10-003r-0900000000-9522ab089ab89b64f96aJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-qTof , Positivesplash10-001i-0900000000-45eab4ddd1395448f757JSpectraViewer | MoNA
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-001i-1900000000-3ffc47eb6c977956ad93JSpectraViewer | MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
2D NMR[1H,1H] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureEndogenous, Ingestion, Dermal (contact)
Mechanism of ToxicityUremic toxins such as indole-3-acetic acid are actively transported into the kidneys via organic ion transporters (especially OAT3). Increased levels of uremic toxins can stimulate the production of reactive oxygen species. This seems to be mediated by the direct binding or inhibition by uremic toxins of the enzyme NADPH oxidase (especially NOX4 which is abundant in the kidneys and heart) (4). Reactive oxygen species can induce several different DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) which are involved in the silencing of a protein known as KLOTHO. KLOTHO has been identified as having important roles in anti-aging, mineral metabolism, and vitamin D metabolism. A number of studies have indicated that KLOTHO mRNA and protein levels are reduced during acute or chronic kidney diseases in response to high local levels of reactive oxygen species (5)
MetabolismIndoleacetic acid (IAA) is a breakdown product of tryptophan metabolism and is often produced by the action of bacteria in the mammalian gut. Some endogenous production of IAA in mammalian tissues also occurs. It may be produced by the decarboxylation of tryptamine or the oxidative deamination of tryptophan.
Toxicity ValuesNot Available
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)No indication of carcinogenicity to humans (not listed by IARC).
Uses/SourcesNaturally produced by the body (endogenous). Also a plant growth hormone (auxin).
Minimum Risk LevelNot Available
Health EffectsIndoleacetic acid is listed in its MSDS as potentially mutagenic to mammalian somatic cells. It is also identified as a potential skin, eye, and respiratory irritant, and users are warned not to ingest it. Acute exposure to Indoleacetic acid can lead to some mild skin and eye irritation. Chronic exposure to uremic toxins can lead to a number of conditions including renal damage, chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular disease. Chronically high levels of Indoleacetic acid are associated with the inborn error of metabolism known as Hartnup disease.
SymptomsAs a uremic toxin, this compound can cause uremic syndrome. Uremic syndrome may affect any part of the body and can cause nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, and weight loss. It can also cause changes in mental status, such as confusion, reduced awareness, agitation, psychosis, seizures, and coma. Abnormal bleeding, such as bleeding spontaneously or profusely from a very minor injury can also occur. Heart problems, such as an irregular heartbeat, inflammation in the sac that surrounds the heart (pericarditis), and increased pressure on the heart can be seen in patients with uremic syndrome. Shortness of breath from fluid buildup in the space between the lungs and the chest wall (pleural effusion) can also be present.
TreatmentChronic Exposure: Kidney dialysis is usually needed to relieve the symptoms of uremic syndrome until normal kidney function can be restored. Acute Exposure: EYES: irrigate opened eyes for several minutes under running water. INGESTION: do not induce vomiting. Rinse mouth with water (never give anything by mouth to an unconscious person). Seek immediate medical advice.
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDDB07950
HMDB IDHMDB00197
PubChem Compound ID802
ChEMBL IDCHEMBL82411
ChemSpider ID780
KEGG IDC00954
UniProt IDNot Available
OMIM ID
ChEBI ID16411
BioCyc IDNot Available
CTD IDNot Available
Stitch IDNot Available
PDB IDIAC
ACToR IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkIndoleacetic acid
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
MSDSLink
General References
  1. WEISSBACH H, KING W, SJOERDSMA A, UDENFRIEND S: Formation of indole-3-acetic acid and tryptamine in animals: a method for estimation of indole-3-acetic acid in tissues. J Biol Chem. 1959 Jan;234(1):81-6. [13610897 ]
  2. Folkes LK, Wardman P: Oxidative activation of indole-3-acetic acids to cytotoxic species- a potential new role for plant auxins in cancer therapy. Biochem Pharmacol. 2001 Jan 15;61(2):129-36. [11163327 ]
  3. Duranton F, Cohen G, De Smet R, Rodriguez M, Jankowski J, Vanholder R, Argiles A: Normal and pathologic concentrations of uremic toxins. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2012 Jul;23(7):1258-70. doi: 10.1681/ASN.2011121175. Epub 2012 May 24. [22626821 ]
  4. Schulz AM, Terne C, Jankowski V, Cohen G, Schaefer M, Boehringer F, Tepel M, Kunkel D, Zidek W, Jankowski J: Modulation of NADPH oxidase activity by known uraemic retention solutes. Eur J Clin Invest. 2014 Aug;44(8):802-11. doi: 10.1111/eci.12297. [25041433 ]
  5. Young GH, Wu VC: KLOTHO methylation is linked to uremic toxins and chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int. 2012 Apr;81(7):611-2. doi: 10.1038/ki.2011.461. [22419041 ]
  6. Carpenter LL, Anderson GM, Siniscalchi JM, Chappell PB, Price LH: Acute changes in cerebrospinal fluid 5-HIAA following oral paroxetine challenge in healthy humans. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2003 Feb;28(2):339-47. [12589387 ]
  7. Owens MJ, Nemeroff CB: Role of serotonin in the pathophysiology of depression: focus on the serotonin transporter. Clin Chem. 1994 Feb;40(2):288-95. [7508830 ]
  8. Tu JB, Wong CY: Serotonin metabolism in normal and abnormal infants during the perinatal period. Biol Neonate. 1976;29(3-4):187-93. [133735 ]
  9. Blennow K, Wallin A, Gottfries CG, Mansson JE, Svennerholm L: Concentration gradients for monoamine metabolites in lumbar cerebrospinal fluid. J Neural Transm Park Dis Dement Sect. 1993;5(1):5-15. [7679905 ]
  10. Guneral F, Bachmann C: Age-related reference values for urinary organic acids in a healthy Turkish pediatric population. Clin Chem. 1994 Jun;40(6):862-6. [8087979 ]
  11. Morgan WW, Grant RW: Increased rate of disappearance of serum probenecid in barbital dependent rats. Eur J Pharmacol. 1976 Dec;40(2):349-57. [1033074 ]
  12. Jellinger K, Riederer P: Brain monoamines in metabolic (endotoxic) coma. A preliminary biochemical study in human postmortem material. J Neural Transm. 1977;41(4):275-86. [925688 ]
  13. Sarrias MJ, Cabre P, Martinez E, Artigas F: Relationship between serotoninergic measures in blood and cerebrospinal fluid simultaneously obtained in humans. J Neurochem. 1990 Mar;54(3):783-6. [1689378 ]
  14. Kema IP, Meijer WG, Meiborg G, Ooms B, Willemse PH, de Vries EG: Profiling of tryptophan-related plasma indoles in patients with carcinoid tumors by automated, on-line, solid-phase extraction and HPLC with fluorescence detection. Clin Chem. 2001 Oct;47(10):1811-20. [11568091 ]
  15. Bai F, Jones DC, Lau SS, Monks TJ: Serotonergic neurotoxicity of 3,4-(+/-)-methylenedioxyamphetamine and 3,4-(+/-)-methylendioxymethamphetamine (ecstasy) is potentiated by inhibition of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase. Chem Res Toxicol. 2001 Jul;14(7):863-70. [11453733 ]
  16. Ridges AP, Bishop FM, Lawton K, Goldberg IJ: Amine metabolism, thyroid function and response to clomipramine and maprotiline medication in depression. Postgrad Med J. 1980;56 Suppl 1:37-41. [6156444 ]
  17. Raghuram TC, Krishnaswamy K: Serotonin metabolism is pellagra. Arch Neurol. 1975 Oct;32(10):708-10. [1180737 ]
  18. Carling RS, Degg TJ, Allen KR, Bax ND, Barth JH: Evaluation of whole blood serotonin and plasma and urine 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid in diagnosis of carcinoid disease. Ann Clin Biochem. 2002 Nov;39(Pt 6):577-82. [12564839 ]
  19. Taniguchi K, Okatani Y, Sagara Y: Serotonin metabolism in the fetus in preeclampsia. Asia Oceania J Obstet Gynaecol. 1994 Mar;20(1):77-86. [7513511 ]
  20. Russo S, Boon JC, Kema IP, Willemse PH, den Boer JA, Korf J, de Vries EG: Patients with carcinoid syndrome exhibit symptoms of aggressive impulse dysregulation. Psychosom Med. 2004 May-Jun;66(3):422-5. [15184706 ]
  21. Igari T, Shimamura T: Serotonin metabolism and its enzymic activities in joint diseases. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1979 Mar-Apr;(139):232-49. [455840 ]
  22. Bearcroft CP, Perrett D, Farthing MJ: Postprandial plasma 5-hydroxytryptamine in diarrhoea predominant irritable bowel syndrome: a pilot study. Gut. 1998 Jan;42(1):42-6. [9505884 ]
  23. Ilkhanizadeh B, Owji AA, Tavangar SM, Vasei M, Tabei SM: Spot urine 5-hydroxy indole acetic acid and acute appendicitis. Hepatogastroenterology. 2001 May-Jun;48(39):609-13. [11462886 ]
  24. Igari T, Tsuchizawa M, Shimamura T: Alteration of tryptophan metabolism in the synovial fluid of patients with rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis. Tohoku J Exp Med. 1987 Oct;153(2):79-86. [3500530 ]
  25. Apak S, Kazez A, Ozel SK, Ustundag B, Akpolat N, Kizirgil A: Spot urine 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid levels in the early diagnosis of acute appendicitis. J Pediatr Surg. 2005 Sep;40(9):1436-9. [16150345 ]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated GenesNot Available
Down-Regulated GenesNot Available

Targets

General Function:
Phospholipase a2 activity
Specific Function:
PA2 catalyzes the calcium-dependent hydrolysis of the 2-acyl groups in 3-sn-phosphoglycerides. Has a preference for arachidonic-containing phospholipids.
Gene Name:
PLA2G2E
Uniprot ID:
Q9NZK7
Molecular Weight:
15988.525 Da
References
  1. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [10592235 ]
  2. Schulz AM, Terne C, Jankowski V, Cohen G, Schaefer M, Boehringer F, Tepel M, Kunkel D, Zidek W, Jankowski J: Modulation of NADPH oxidase activity by known uraemic retention solutes. Eur J Clin Invest. 2014 Aug;44(8):802-11. doi: 10.1111/eci.12297. [25041433 ]
  3. Young GH, Wu VC: KLOTHO methylation is linked to uremic toxins and chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int. 2012 Apr;81(7):611-2. doi: 10.1038/ki.2011.461. [22419041 ]
General Function:
Transaminase activity
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the irreversible transamination of the L-tryptophan metabolite L-kynurenine to form kynurenic acid (KA). Metabolizes the cysteine conjugates of certain halogenated alkenes and alkanes to form reactive metabolites. Catalyzes the beta-elimination of S-conjugates and Se-conjugates of L-(seleno)cysteine, resulting in the cleavage of the C-S or C-Se bond.
Gene Name:
CCBL1
Uniprot ID:
Q16773
Molecular Weight:
47874.765 Da
References
  1. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [10592235 ]
  2. Schulz AM, Terne C, Jankowski V, Cohen G, Schaefer M, Boehringer F, Tepel M, Kunkel D, Zidek W, Jankowski J: Modulation of NADPH oxidase activity by known uraemic retention solutes. Eur J Clin Invest. 2014 Aug;44(8):802-11. doi: 10.1111/eci.12297. [25041433 ]
  3. Young GH, Wu VC: KLOTHO methylation is linked to uremic toxins and chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int. 2012 Apr;81(7):611-2. doi: 10.1038/ki.2011.461. [22419041 ]
General Function:
Ubiquitin-protein transferase activity
Specific Function:
Essential component of the SCF (SKP1-CUL1-F-box protein) ubiquitin ligase complex, which mediates the ubiquitination of proteins involved in cell cycle progression, signal transduction and transcription. In the SCF complex, serves as an adapter that links the F-box protein to CUL1. The functional specificity of the SCF complex depends on the F-box protein as substrate recognition component. SCF(BTRC) and SCF(FBXW11) direct ubiquitination of CTNNB1 and participate in Wnt signaling. SCF(FBXW11) directs ubiquitination of phosphorylated NFKBIA. SCF(BTRC) directs ubiquitination of NFKBIB, NFKBIE, ATF4, SMAD3, SMAD4, CDC25A, FBXO5, CEP68 and probably NFKB2 (PubMed:25704143). SCF(SKP2) directs ubiquitination of phosphorylated CDKN1B/p27kip and is involved in regulation of G1/S transition. SCF(SKP2) directs ubiquitination of ORC1, CDT1, RBL2, ELF4, CDKN1A, RAG2, FOXO1A, and probably MYC and TAL1. SCF(FBXW7) directs ubiquitination of cyclin E, NOTCH1 released notch intracellular domain (NICD), and probably PSEN1. SCF(FBXW2) directs ubiquitination of GCM1. SCF(FBXO32) directs ubiquitination of MYOD1. SCF(FBXO7) directs ubiquitination of BIRC2 and DLGAP5. SCF(FBXO33) directs ubiquitination of YBX1. SCF(FBXO11) directs ubiquitination of BCL6 and DTL but does not seem to direct ubiquitination of TP53. SCF(BTRC) mediates the ubiquitination of NFKBIA at 'Lys-21' and 'Lys-22'; the degradation frees the associated NFKB1-RELA dimer to translocate into the nucleus and to activate transcription. SCF(CCNF) directs ubiquitination of CCP110. SCF(FBXL3) and SCF(FBXL21) direct ubiquitination of CRY1 and CRY2. SCF(FBXO9) directs ubiquitination of TTI1 and TELO2. SCF(FBXO10) directs ubiquitination of BCL2.
Gene Name:
SKP1
Uniprot ID:
P63208
Molecular Weight:
18657.86 Da
References
  1. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [10592235 ]
  2. Schulz AM, Terne C, Jankowski V, Cohen G, Schaefer M, Boehringer F, Tepel M, Kunkel D, Zidek W, Jankowski J: Modulation of NADPH oxidase activity by known uraemic retention solutes. Eur J Clin Invest. 2014 Aug;44(8):802-11. doi: 10.1111/eci.12297. [25041433 ]
  3. Young GH, Wu VC: KLOTHO methylation is linked to uremic toxins and chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int. 2012 Apr;81(7):611-2. doi: 10.1038/ki.2011.461. [22419041 ]
General Function:
Vitamin d binding
Specific Function:
May have weak glycosidase activity towards glucuronylated steroids. However, it lacks essential active site Glu residues at positions 239 and 872, suggesting it may be inactive as a glycosidase in vivo. May be involved in the regulation of calcium and phosphorus homeostasis by inhibiting the synthesis of active vitamin D (By similarity). Essential factor for the specific interaction between FGF23 and FGFR1 (By similarity).The Klotho peptide generated by cleavage of the membrane-bound isoform may be an anti-aging circulating hormone which would extend life span by inhibiting insulin/IGF1 signaling.
Gene Name:
KL
Uniprot ID:
Q9UEF7
Molecular Weight:
116179.815 Da
References
  1. Schulz AM, Terne C, Jankowski V, Cohen G, Schaefer M, Boehringer F, Tepel M, Kunkel D, Zidek W, Jankowski J: Modulation of NADPH oxidase activity by known uraemic retention solutes. Eur J Clin Invest. 2014 Aug;44(8):802-11. doi: 10.1111/eci.12297. [25041433 ]
  2. Young GH, Wu VC: KLOTHO methylation is linked to uremic toxins and chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int. 2012 Apr;81(7):611-2. doi: 10.1038/ki.2011.461. [22419041 ]
General Function:
Superoxide-generating nadph oxidase activity
Specific Function:
Constitutive NADPH oxidase which generates superoxide intracellularly upon formation of a complex with CYBA/p22phox. Regulates signaling cascades probably through phosphatases inhibition. May function as an oxygen sensor regulating the KCNK3/TASK-1 potassium channel and HIF1A activity. May regulate insulin signaling cascade. May play a role in apoptosis, bone resorption and lipolysaccharide-mediated activation of NFKB. May produce superoxide in the nucleus and play a role in regulating gene expression upon cell stimulation. Isoform 3 is not functional. Isoform 5 and isoform 6 display reduced activity.Isoform 4: Involved in redox signaling in vascular cells. Constitutively and NADPH-dependently generates reactive oxygen species (ROS). Modulates the nuclear activation of ERK1/2 and the ELK1 transcription factor, and is capable of inducing nuclear DNA damage. Displays an increased activity relative to isoform 1.
Gene Name:
NOX4
Uniprot ID:
Q9NPH5
Molecular Weight:
66930.995 Da
References
  1. Schulz AM, Terne C, Jankowski V, Cohen G, Schaefer M, Boehringer F, Tepel M, Kunkel D, Zidek W, Jankowski J: Modulation of NADPH oxidase activity by known uraemic retention solutes. Eur J Clin Invest. 2014 Aug;44(8):802-11. doi: 10.1111/eci.12297. [25041433 ]
  2. Young GH, Wu VC: KLOTHO methylation is linked to uremic toxins and chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int. 2012 Apr;81(7):611-2. doi: 10.1038/ki.2011.461. [22419041 ]
General Function:
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Plays an important role in the excretion/detoxification of endogenous and exogenous organic anions, especially from the brain and kidney. Involved in the transport basolateral of steviol, fexofenadine. Transports benzylpenicillin (PCG), estrone-3-sulfate (E1S), cimetidine (CMD), 2,4-dichloro-phenoxyacetate (2,4-D), p-amino-hippurate (PAH), acyclovir (ACV) and ochratoxin (OTA).
Gene Name:
SLC22A8
Uniprot ID:
Q8TCC7
Molecular Weight:
59855.585 Da
References
  1. Schulz AM, Terne C, Jankowski V, Cohen G, Schaefer M, Boehringer F, Tepel M, Kunkel D, Zidek W, Jankowski J: Modulation of NADPH oxidase activity by known uraemic retention solutes. Eur J Clin Invest. 2014 Aug;44(8):802-11. doi: 10.1111/eci.12297. [25041433 ]
  2. Young GH, Wu VC: KLOTHO methylation is linked to uremic toxins and chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int. 2012 Apr;81(7):611-2. doi: 10.1038/ki.2011.461. [22419041 ]
General Function:
Temperature-gated cation channel activity
Specific Function:
Receptor-activated non-selective cation channel involved in detection of pain and possibly also in cold perception and inner ear function (PubMed:25389312, PubMed:25855297). Has a central role in the pain response to endogenous inflammatory mediators and to a diverse array of volatile irritants, such as mustard oil, cinnamaldehyde, garlic and acrolein, an irritant from tears gas and vehicule exhaust fumes (PubMed:25389312, PubMed:20547126). Is also activated by menthol (in vitro)(PubMed:25389312). Acts also as a ionotropic cannabinoid receptor by being activated by delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the psychoactive component of marijuana (PubMed:25389312). May be a component for the mechanosensitive transduction channel of hair cells in inner ear, thereby participating in the perception of sounds. Probably operated by a phosphatidylinositol second messenger system (By similarity).
Gene Name:
TRPA1
Uniprot ID:
O75762
Molecular Weight:
127499.88 Da
References
  1. Nilius B, Prenen J, Owsianik G: Irritating channels: the case of TRPA1. J Physiol. 2011 Apr 1;589(Pt 7):1543-9. doi: 10.1113/jphysiol.2010.200717. Epub 2010 Nov 15. [21078588 ]