Tmic
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Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2014-08-29 06:03:38 UTC
Update Date2018-03-21 17:46:11 UTC
Accession NumberT3D4250
Identification
Common NameGamma-Aminobutyric acid
ClassSmall Molecule
Descriptiongamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is an inhibitory neurotransmitter found in the nervous systems of widely divergent species, including humans. It is the chief inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate central nervous system. In vertebrates, GABA acts at inhibitory synapses in the brain. It acts by binding to specific transmembrane receptors in the plasma membrane of both pre- and postsynaptic neurons. This binding causes the opening of ion channels to allow either the flow of negatively-charged chloride ions into the cell or positively-charged potassium ions out of the cell. This will typically result in a negative change in the transmembrane potential, usually causing hyperpolarization. Three general classes of GABA receptor are known (PMID: 10561820). These include GABA-A and GABA-C ionotropic receptors, which are ion channels themselves, and GABA-B metabotropic receptors, which are G protein-coupled receptors that open ion channels via intermediaries known as G proteins (PMID: 10561820). Activation of the GABA-B receptor by GABA causes neuronal membrane hyperpolarization and a resultant inhibition of neurotransmitter release. In addition to binding sites for GABA, the GABA-A receptor has binding sites for benzodiazepines, barbiturates, and neurosteroids. GABA-A receptors are coupled to chloride ion channels. Therefore, activation of the GABA-A receptor induces increased inward chloride ion flux, resulting in membrane hyperpolarization and neuronal inhibition (PMID: 10561820). After release into the synapse, free GABA that does not bind to either the GABA-A or GABA-B receptor complexes can be taken up by neurons and glial cells. Four different GABA membrane transporter proteins (GAT-1, GAT-2, GAT-3, and BGT-1), which differ in their distribution in the CNS, are believed to mediate the uptake of synaptic GABA into neurons and glial cells. The GABA-A receptor subtype regulates neuronal excitability and rapid changes in fear arousal, such as anxiety, panic, and the acute stress response (PMID: 10561820). Drugs that stimulate GABA-A receptors, such as the benzodiazepines and barbiturates, have anxiolytic and anti-seizure effects via GABA-A-mediated reduction of neuronal excitability, which effectively raises the seizure threshold. GABA-A antagonists produce convulsions in animals and there is decreased GABA-A receptor binding in a positron emission tomography (PET) study of patients with panic disorder. Neurons that produce GABA as their output are called GABAergic neurons and have chiefly inhibitory action at receptors in the vertebrate. Medium spiny neurons (MSNs) are a typical example of inhibitory CNS GABAergic cells. GABA has been shown to have excitatory roles in the vertebrate, most notably in the developing cortex. Organisms synthesize GABA from glutamate using the enzyme L-glutamic acid decarboxylase and pyridoxal phosphate as a cofactor (PMID: 12467378). It is worth noting that this involves converting the principal excitatory neurotransmitter (glutamate) into the principal inhibitory one (GABA). Drugs that act as agonists of GABA receptors (known as GABA analogs or GABAergic drugs) or increase the available amount of GABA typically have relaxing, anti-anxiety, and anticonvulsive effects. GABA is found to be deficient in cerebrospinal fluid and the brain in many studies of experimental and human epilepsy. Benzodiazepines (such as Valium) are useful in status epilepticus because they act on GABA receptors. GABA increases in the brain after administration of many seizure medications. Hence, GABA is clearly an antiepileptic nutrient. Inhibitors of GAM metabolism can also produce convulsions. Spasticity and involuntary movement syndromes, such as Parkinson's, Friedreich's ataxia, tardive dyskinesia, and Huntington's chorea, are all marked by low GABA when amino acid levels are studied. Trials of 2 to 3 g of GABA given orally have been effective in various epilepsy and spasticity syndromes. Agents that elevate GABA are also useful in lowering hypertension. Three grams orally have been effective in controlling blood pressure. GABA is decreased in various encephalopathies. GABA can reduce appetite and is decreased in hypoglycemics. GABA reduces blood sugar in diabetics. Chronic brain syndromes can also be marked by deficiencies of GABA. Vitamin B6, manganese, taurine, and lysine can increase both GABA synthesis and effects, while aspartic acid and glutamic acid probably inhibit GABA effects. Low plasma GABA has been reported in some depressed patients and may be a useful trait marker for mood disorders. GABA has an important role in embryonic development, especially facial development, as substantiated by the association of a cleft palate in transgenic mice deficient in GAD67 (glutamate decarboxylase). A recent Japanese population study reported linkage in patients with a nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without a cleft palate and specific GAD67 haplotypes (PMID: 23842532). Unusually high levels of GABA (especially in the brain) can be toxic and GABA can function as both a neurotoxin and a metabotoxin. A neurotoxin is a compound that damages the brain and/or nerve tissue. A metabotoxin is an endogenously produced metabolite that causes adverse health effects at chronically high levels. Chronically high levels of GABA are associated with at least five inborn errors of metabolism, including D-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria, 4-hydroxybutyric aciduria/succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency, GABA-transaminase deficiency, homocarnosinosis, and hyper beta-alaninemia. Nearly all of these conditions are associated with seizures, hypotonia, intellectual deficits, macrocephaly, encephalopathy, and other serious neurological or neuromuscular problems. Increased levels of GABA seem to alter the function of the GABA-B receptor, which may play a role in the tonic-clonic seizures that are often seen in patients with the above disorders.
Compound Type
  • Amine
  • Animal Toxin
  • Food Toxin
  • Metabolite
  • Natural Compound
  • Organic Compound
Chemical Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Synonym
3-Carboxypropylamine
4-Aminobutanoate
4-Aminobutanoic acid
4-Aminobutyrate
4-Aminobutyric acid
Aminalon
g-Aminobutyrate
g-Aminobutyric acid
GABA
Gaballon
Gamarex
gamma Aminobutyrate
gamma Aminobutyric acid
gamma-Aminobutyrate
gamma-Aminobutyric acid
Gammalon
Gammalone
Gammar
Gammasol
Mielogen
Mielomade
Omega-Aminobutyrate
Omega-Aminobutyric acid
Piperidate
Piperidic acid
Piperidinate
Piperidinic acid
w-Aminobutyrate
w-Aminobutyric acid
γ-Aminobutyrate
γ-Aminobutyric acid
Chemical FormulaC4H9NO2
Average Molecular Mass103.120 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass103.063 g/mol
CAS Registry Number56-12-2
IUPAC Name4-aminobutanoic acid
Traditional Namegamma(amino)-butyric acid
SMILESNCCCC(O)=O
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/C4H9NO2/c5-3-1-2-4(6)7/h1-3,5H2,(H,6,7)
InChI KeyInChIKey=BTCSSZJGUNDROE-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as gamma amino acids and derivatives. These are amino acids having a (-NH2) group attached to the gamma carbon atom.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic acids and derivatives
ClassCarboxylic acids and derivatives
Sub ClassAmino acids, peptides, and analogues
Direct ParentGamma amino acids and derivatives
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Gamma amino acid or derivatives
  • Amino fatty acid
  • Straight chain fatty acid
  • Fatty acid
  • Fatty acyl
  • Amino acid
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Organic oxide
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Primary amine
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Primary aliphatic amine
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Amine
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
OriginEndogenous
Cellular Locations
  • Extracellular
  • Lysosome
  • Membrane
  • Mitochondria
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue Locations
  • Adrenal Cortex
  • Brain
  • Epidermis
  • Fibroblasts
  • Hippocampus
  • Kidney
  • Muscle
  • Nerve Cells
  • Neuron
  • Spleen
  • Testes
Pathways
NameSMPDB LinkKEGG Link
Glutamate MetabolismSMP00072 map00250
2-Hydroxyglutric Aciduria (D And L Form)SMP00136 Not Available
4-Hydroxybutyric Aciduria/Succinic Semialdehyde Dehydrogenase DeficiencySMP00243 Not Available
GABA-Transaminase DeficiencySMP00351 Not Available
HomocarnosinosisSMP00385 Not Available
Succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiencySMP00567 Not Available
ApplicationsNot Available
Biological Roles
Chemical RolesNot Available
Physical Properties
StateSolid
AppearanceWhite powder.
Experimental Properties
PropertyValue
Melting Point203°C
Boiling PointNot Available
Solubility1300.0 mg/mL
LogP-3.17
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility365 g/LALOGPS
logP-3ALOGPS
logP-2.9ChemAxon
logS0.55ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)4.53ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)10.22ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area63.32 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count3ChemAxon
Refractivity25.46 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability10.62 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (3 TMS)splash10-00dj-1900000000-f831f79dfcaeffa8b177View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (3 TMS)splash10-00di-1900000000-2de9d92a2cfc7bc655f4View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (3 TMS)splash10-00di-1900000000-73bbf2ee0803f058dbedView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (3 TMS)splash10-00di-1901000000-85d4bd98af8534428b5aView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (3 TMS)splash10-00di-0900000000-6be23968e972a414be51View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (Non-derivatized)splash10-00di-1900000000-9a224763afd8ca892addView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (3 TMS)splash10-00di-9800000000-d8906d09ca1872a6391cView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (2 TMS)splash10-0udi-1900000000-54db7e21790401045519View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (3 TMS)splash10-00di-1901000000-b047af158215c2b5b8e8View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-001i-9000000000-21ea76dfb0da62031f1dView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-00di-0901000000-5d60b0a446fd8122f613View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-00dj-1900000000-f831f79dfcaeffa8b177View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-00di-1900000000-2de9d92a2cfc7bc655f4View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-00di-1900000000-73bbf2ee0803f058dbedView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-00di-1901000000-85d4bd98af8534428b5aView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-00di-0900000000-6be23968e972a414be51View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-00di-1900000000-9a224763afd8ca892addView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-00di-9800000000-d8906d09ca1872a6391cView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-0udi-1900000000-54db7e21790401045519View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-00di-1901000000-b047af158215c2b5b8e8View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-00dj-1900000000-1219470a0be188da64e6View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0udi-0900000000-f7117dfaf9d856c95919View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0006-1900000000-e35585a985d8128d044eView in MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-001i-9000000000-d5f55a414ff1e8c65d9dView in MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0fk9-9700000000-4b2809309587240dd479View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0uxr-8900000000-ce0d8f44422836cd9965View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0005-9000000000-8ce5afb97d7c08821da3View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0005-9100000000-32c433b2c916697690f8View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0udi-0900000000-5831aaabdf53f3132ae5View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0a4i-9000000000-9babfd4a6937ecba7318View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0a4i-9000000000-e1c0c1485d846e9b123bView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0udi-0900000000-647d55ecf98850e7a875View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0udi-0900000000-7c107641a38922c88fcaView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-000i-9000000000-86718b349efad6334e3aView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-000i-9000000000-a1e84e55e4b6c6628d5dView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0006-0009000000-29c22bf0ed844d09c0afView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Negativesplash10-0udi-0900000000-1d00adad47e42c60c340View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Negativesplash10-0udi-1900000000-47b195fb74720cc99464View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Negativesplash10-001i-9000000000-a14a52dc59bf9988bb44View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Positivesplash10-0udi-5900000000-20c55b2809389d5ad83bView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Positivesplash10-000i-9000000000-eca4c5aefca98751a11eView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Positivesplash10-014j-9000000000-f0783316e09291749409View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Positivesplash10-0005-9000000000-81837eb9c0b926cb0e81View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, Positivesplash10-0005-9000000000-8b48126992d7fa242636View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , Positivesplash10-000i-9000000000-7d4636efbc4e5d75872eView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-000i-9100000000-655f9d93a35bfa537583View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-00ku-9000000000-4a334d5e272576f62403View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0006-9000000000-4a13b03446b3370ccd43View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-000i-9100000000-655f9d93a35bfa537583View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-00ku-9000000000-4a334d5e272576f62403View in MoNA
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-001i-9000000000-dbf4f9e19a35f953a189View in MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureNot Available
Mechanism of ToxicityNot Available
MetabolismNot Available
Toxicity ValuesNot Available
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)No indication of carcinogenicity to humans (not listed by IARC).
Uses/SourcesThis is an endogenously produced metabolite found in the human body. It is used in metabolic reactions, catabolic reactions or waste generation.
Minimum Risk LevelNot Available
Health EffectsChronically high levels of GABA are associated with at least 5 inborn errors of metabolism including: D-2-Hydroxyglutaric Aciduria, 4-Hydroxybutyric Aciduria/Succinic Semialdehyde Dehydrogenase Deficiency, GABA-Transaminase Deficiency, Homocarnosinosis and Succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency.
SymptomsNot Available
TreatmentNot Available
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDDB02530
HMDB IDHMDB00112
PubChem Compound ID119
ChEMBL IDCHEMBL96
ChemSpider ID116
KEGG IDC00334
UniProt IDNot Available
OMIM ID
ChEBI ID16865
BioCyc ID4-AMINO-BUTYRATE
CTD IDNot Available
Stitch IDNot Available
PDB IDABU
ACToR IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkGABA
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
MSDST3D4250.pdf
General References
  1. Silwood CJ, Lynch E, Claxson AW, Grootveld MC: 1H and (13)C NMR spectroscopic analysis of human saliva. J Dent Res. 2002 Jun;81(6):422-7. [12097436 ]
  2. Zarnowska ED, Pearce RA, Saad AA, Perouansky M: The gamma-subunit governs the susceptibility of recombinant gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptors to block by the nonimmobilizer 1,2-dichlorohexafluorocyclobutane (F6, 2N). Anesth Analg. 2005 Aug;101(2):401-6, table of contents. [16037152 ]
  3. Levy LM, Levy-Reis I, Fujii M, Dalakas MC: Brain gamma-aminobutyric acid changes in stiff-person syndrome. Arch Neurol. 2005 Jun;62(6):970-4. [15956168 ]
  4. Hasler G, Neumeister A, van der Veen JW, Tumonis T, Bain EE, Shen J, Drevets WC, Charney DS: Normal prefrontal gamma-aminobutyric acid levels in remitted depressed subjects determined by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Biol Psychiatry. 2005 Dec 15;58(12):969-73. Epub 2005 Jul 25. [16043137 ]
  5. Denda M, Inoue K, Inomata S, Denda S: gamma-Aminobutyric acid (A) receptor agonists accelerate cutaneous barrier recovery and prevent epidermal hyperplasia induced by barrier disruption. J Invest Dermatol. 2002 Nov;119(5):1041-7. [12445190 ]
  6. Wiens SC, Trudeau VL: Thyroid hormone and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) interactions in neuroendocrine systems. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol. 2006 Jul;144(3):332-44. Epub 2006 Mar 9. [16527506 ]
  7. Choi C, Coupland NJ, Hanstock CC, Ogilvie CJ, Higgins AC, Gheorghiu D, Allen PS: Brain gamma-aminobutyric acid measurement by proton double-quantum filtering with selective J rewinding. Magn Reson Med. 2005 Aug;54(2):272-9. [16032672 ]
  8. Metzeler K, Agoston A, Gratzl M: An Intrinsic gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic system in the adrenal cortex: findings from human and rat adrenal glands and the NCI-H295R cell line. Endocrinology. 2004 May;145(5):2402-11. Epub 2004 Jan 15. [14726441 ]
  9. Naini AB, Vontzalidou E, Cote LJ: Isocratic HPLC assay with electrochemical detection of free gamma-aminobutyric acid in cerebrospinal fluid. Clin Chem. 1993 Feb;39(2):247-50. [8432013 ]
  10. Levy LM, Henkin RI: Brain gamma-aminobutyric acid levels are decreased in patients with phantageusia and phantosmia demonstrated by magnetic resonance spectroscopy. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 2004 Nov-Dec;28(6):721-7. [15538143 ]
  11. Rating D, Siemes H, Loscher W: Low CSF GABA concentration in children with febrile convulsions, untreated epilepsy, and meningitis. J Neurol. 1983;230(4):217-25. [6198481 ]
  12. Spanaki MV, Siegel H, Kopylev L, Fazilat S, Dean A, Liow K, Ben-Menachem E, Gaillard WD, Theodore WH: The effect of vigabatrin (gamma-vinyl GABA) on cerebral blood flow and metabolism. Neurology. 1999 Oct 22;53(7):1518-22. [10534261 ]
  13. Campollo O, MacGillivray BB, McIntyre N: [Association of plasma ammonia and GABA levels and the degree of hepatic encephalopathy]. Rev Invest Clin. 1992 Oct-Dec;44(4):483-90. [1485027 ]
  14. Nicholson-Guthrie CS, Guthrie GD, Sutton GP, Baenziger JC: Urine GABA levels in ovarian cancer patients: elevated GABA in malignancy. Cancer Lett. 2001 Jan 10;162(1):27-30. [11121859 ]
  15. Nisijima K, Ishiguro T: Cerebrospinal fluid levels of monoamine metabolites and gamma-aminobutyric acid in neuroleptic malignant syndrome. J Psychiatr Res. 1995 May-Jun;29(3):233-44. [7473299 ]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated GenesNot Available
Down-Regulated GenesNot Available

Targets

General Function:
Glycine amidinotransferase activity
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the biosynthesis of guanidinoacetate, the immediate precursor of creatine. Creatine plays a vital role in energy metabolism in muscle tissues. May play a role in embryonic and central nervous system development. May be involved in the response to heart failure by elevating local creatine synthesis.
Gene Name:
GATM
Uniprot ID:
P50440
Molecular Weight:
48455.01 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
General Function:
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
Component of the heteropentameric receptor for GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain. Functions also as histamine receptor and mediates cellular responses to histamine. Functions as receptor for diazepines and various anesthetics, such as pentobarbital; these are bound at a separate allosteric effector binding site. Functions as ligand-gated chloride channel (By similarity).
Gene Name:
GABRA1
Uniprot ID:
P14867
Molecular Weight:
51801.395 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
Inhibitory0.02137 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 24183
Inhibitory0.05754 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 24183
Inhibitory0.07762 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 24183
References
  1. Ebert B, Thompson SA, Saounatsou K, McKernan R, Krogsgaard-Larsen P, Wafford KA: Differences in agonist/antagonist binding affinity and receptor transduction using recombinant human gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptors. Mol Pharmacol. 1997 Dec;52(6):1150-6. [9396785 ]
General Function:
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRA3
Uniprot ID:
P34903
Molecular Weight:
55164.055 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
Inhibitory0.05011 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 24183
References
  1. Ebert B, Thompson SA, Saounatsou K, McKernan R, Krogsgaard-Larsen P, Wafford KA: Differences in agonist/antagonist binding affinity and receptor transduction using recombinant human gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptors. Mol Pharmacol. 1997 Dec;52(6):1150-6. [9396785 ]
General Function:
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRA6
Uniprot ID:
Q16445
Molecular Weight:
51023.69 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
Inhibitory0.07762 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 24183
References
  1. Ebert B, Thompson SA, Saounatsou K, McKernan R, Krogsgaard-Larsen P, Wafford KA: Differences in agonist/antagonist binding affinity and receptor transduction using recombinant human gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptors. Mol Pharmacol. 1997 Dec;52(6):1150-6. [9396785 ]
General Function:
Gaba-a receptor activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRR3
Uniprot ID:
A8MPY1
Molecular Weight:
54271.1 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
Inhibitory0.58 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 24183
References
  1. Chang Y, Covey DF, Weiss DS: Correlation of the apparent affinities and efficacies of gamma-aminobutyric acid(C) receptor agonists. Mol Pharmacol. 2000 Dec;58(6):1375-80. [11093776 ]
General Function:
G-protein coupled gaba receptor activity
Specific Function:
Component of a heterodimeric G-protein coupled receptor for GABA, formed by GABBR1 and GABBR2. Within the heterodimeric GABA receptor, only GABBR1 seems to bind agonists, while GABBR2 mediates coupling to G proteins. Ligand binding causes a conformation change that triggers signaling via guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) and modulates the activity of down-stream effectors, such as adenylate cyclase. Signaling inhibits adenylate cyclase, stimulates phospholipase A2, activates potassium channels, inactivates voltage-dependent calcium-channels and modulates inositol phospholipid hydrolysis. Plays a critical role in the fine-tuning of inhibitory synaptic transmission. Pre-synaptic GABA receptor inhibits neurotransmitter release by down-regulating high-voltage activated calcium channels, whereas postsynaptic GABA receptor decreases neuronal excitability by activating a prominent inwardly rectifying potassium (Kir) conductance that underlies the late inhibitory postsynaptic potentials. Not only implicated in synaptic inhibition but also in hippocampal long-term potentiation, slow wave sleep, muscle relaxation and antinociception.
Gene Name:
GABBR2
Uniprot ID:
O75899
Molecular Weight:
105820.52 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
IC500.025 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 24183
References
  1. Froestl W, Mickel SJ, Hall RG, von Sprecher G, Strub D, Baumann PA, Brugger F, Gentsch C, Jaekel J, Olpe HR, et al.: Phosphinic acid analogues of GABA. 1. New potent and selective GABAB agonists. J Med Chem. 1995 Aug 18;38(17):3297-312. [7650684 ]
General Function:
L-proline transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Neutral amino acid/proton symporter. Has a pH-dependent electrogenic transport activity for small amino acids such as glycine, alanine and proline. Besides small apolar L-amino acids, it also recognize their D-enantiomers and selected amino acid derivatives such as gamma-aminobutyric acid (By similarity).
Gene Name:
SLC36A1
Uniprot ID:
Q7Z2H8
Molecular Weight:
53075.045 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
Inhibitory4000 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 24183
References
  1. Thondorf I, Voigt V, Schafer S, Gebauer S, Zebisch K, Laug L, Brandsch M: Three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship analyses of substrates of the human proton-coupled amino acid transporter 1 (hPAT1). Bioorg Med Chem. 2011 Nov 1;19(21):6409-18. doi: 10.1016/j.bmc.2011.08.058. Epub 2011 Sep 5. [21955456 ]
General Function:
Neurotransmitter:sodium symporter activity
Specific Function:
Terminates the action of GABA by its high affinity sodium-dependent reuptake into presynaptic terminals.
Gene Name:
SLC6A1
Uniprot ID:
P30531
Molecular Weight:
67073.0 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
IC505 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 24183
References
  1. Dhar TG, Borden LA, Tyagarajan S, Smith KE, Branchek TA, Weinshank RL, Gluchowski C: Design, synthesis and evaluation of substituted triarylnipecotic acid derivatives as GABA uptake inhibitors: identification of a ligand with moderate affinity and selectivity for the cloned human GABA transporter GAT-3. J Med Chem. 1994 Jul 22;37(15):2334-42. [8057281 ]
General Function:
Neurotransmitter:sodium symporter activity
Specific Function:
Terminates the action of GABA by its high affinity sodium-dependent reuptake into presynaptic terminals.
Gene Name:
SLC6A11
Uniprot ID:
P48066
Molecular Weight:
70605.145 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
IC507 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 24183
References
  1. Dhar TG, Borden LA, Tyagarajan S, Smith KE, Branchek TA, Weinshank RL, Gluchowski C: Design, synthesis and evaluation of substituted triarylnipecotic acid derivatives as GABA uptake inhibitors: identification of a ligand with moderate affinity and selectivity for the cloned human GABA transporter GAT-3. J Med Chem. 1994 Jul 22;37(15):2334-42. [8057281 ]
General Function:
Neurotransmitter:sodium symporter activity
Specific Function:
Transports betaine and GABA. May have a role in regulation of GABAergic transmission in the brain through the reuptake of GABA into presynaptic terminals, as well as in osmotic regulation.
Gene Name:
SLC6A12
Uniprot ID:
P48065
Molecular Weight:
69367.655 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
IC5036 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 24183
References
  1. Dhar TG, Borden LA, Tyagarajan S, Smith KE, Branchek TA, Weinshank RL, Gluchowski C: Design, synthesis and evaluation of substituted triarylnipecotic acid derivatives as GABA uptake inhibitors: identification of a ligand with moderate affinity and selectivity for the cloned human GABA transporter GAT-3. J Med Chem. 1994 Jul 22;37(15):2334-42. [8057281 ]