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Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2014-08-29 06:30:45 UTC
Update Date2018-03-21 17:46:19 UTC
Accession NumberT3D4346
Identification
Common NameBeta-Alanine
ClassSmall Molecule
Descriptionbeta-Alanine is the only naturally occurring beta-amino acid - an amino acid in which the amino group is at the beta-position from the carboxylate group. It is formed in vivo by the degradation of dihydrouracil and carnosine. It is a component of the naturally occurring peptides carnosine and anserine and also of pantothenic acid (vitamin B-5), which itself is a component of coenzyme A. Under normal conditions, beta-alanine is metabolized into acetic acid. beta-Alanine can undergo a transanimation reaction with pyruvate to form malonate-semialdehyde and L-alanine. The malonate semialdehyde can then be converted into malonate via malonate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase. Malonate is then converted into malonyl-CoA and enter fatty acid biosynthesis. Since neuronal uptake and neuronal receptor sensitivity to beta-alanine have been demonstrated, beta-alanine may act as a false transmitter replacing gamma-aminobutyric acid. When present in sufficiently high levels, beta-alanine can act as a neurotoxin, a mitochondrial toxin, and a metabotoxin. A neurotoxin is a compound that damages the brain or nerve tissue. A mitochondrial toxin is a compound that damages mitochondria and reduces cellular respiration as well as oxidative phosphorylation. A metabotoxin is an endogenously produced metabolite that causes adverse health effects at chronically high levels. Chronically high levels of beta-alanine are associated with at least three inborn errors of metabolism, including GABA-transaminase deficiency, hyper-beta-alaninemia, and methylmalonate semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency. beta-Alanine is a central nervous system (CNS) depressant and is an inhibitor of GABA transaminase. The associated inhibition of GABA transaminase and displacement of GABA from CNS binding sites can also lead to GABAuria (high levels of GABA in the urine) and convulsions. In addition to its neurotoxicity, beta-alanine reduces cellular levels of taurine, which are required for normal respiratory chain function. Cellular taurine depletion is known to reduce respiratory function and elevate mitochondrial superoxide generation, which damages mitochondria and increases oxidative stress (PMID: 27023909). Individuals suffering from mitochondrial defects or mitochondrial toxicity typically develop neurotoxicity, hypotonia, respiratory distress, and cardiac failure. beta-Alanine is a biomarker for the consumption of meat, especially red meat.
Compound Type
  • Amine
  • Animal Toxin
  • Food Toxin
  • Metabolite
  • Natural Compound
  • Organic Compound
Chemical Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Synonym
2-Carboxyethylamine
3-Amino-Propanoate
3-Amino-Propanoic acid
3-Aminopropanoate
3-Aminopropanoic acid
3-Aminopropionate
3-Aminopropionic acid
Abufene
B-Alanine
b-Alanine
b-Aminopropanoate
b-Aminopropanoic acid
b-Aminopropionate
b-Aminopropionic acid
beta Alanine
beta-Alanine
beta-Aminopropanoate
beta-Aminopropanoic acid
beta-Aminopropionate
beta-Aminopropionic acid
Omega-Aminopropionate
Omega-Aminopropionic acid
β-Alanine
Chemical FormulaC3H7NO2
Average Molecular Mass89.093 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass89.048 g/mol
CAS Registry Number107-95-9
IUPAC Name3-aminopropanoic acid
Traditional Nameβ alanine
SMILESNCCC(O)=O
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/C3H7NO2/c4-2-1-3(5)6/h1-2,4H2,(H,5,6)
InChI KeyInChIKey=UCMIRNVEIXFBKS-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as beta amino acids and derivatives. These are amino acids having a (-NH2) group attached to the beta carbon atom.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic acids and derivatives
ClassCarboxylic acids and derivatives
Sub ClassAmino acids, peptides, and analogues
Direct ParentBeta amino acids and derivatives
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Beta amino acid or derivatives
  • Amino acid
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Amine
  • Organic oxide
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Primary amine
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Primary aliphatic amine
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
OriginEndogenous
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane
  • Mitochondria
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue Locations
  • Kidney
  • Muscle
  • Pancreas
  • Placenta
  • Prostate
Pathways
NameSMPDB LinkKEGG Link
Aspartate MetabolismSMP00067 map00250
Beta-Alanine MetabolismSMP00007 map00410
Propanoate MetabolismSMP00016 map00640
Pyrimidine MetabolismSMP00046 map00240
GABA-Transaminase DeficiencySMP00351 Not Available
Methylmalonate Semialdehyde Dehydrogenase DeficiencySMP00384 Not Available
ApplicationsNot Available
Biological Roles
Chemical Roles
Physical Properties
StateSolid
AppearanceWhite powder.
Experimental Properties
PropertyValue
Melting Point200°C
Boiling PointNot Available
Solubility545.0 mg/mL
LogP-3.05
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility494.0 mg/mLALOGPS
logP-3.3ALOGPS
logP-3.2ChemAxon
logS0.74ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)4.08ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)10.31ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area63.32 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count2ChemAxon
Refractivity20.7 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability8.62 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (3 TMS)splash10-007k-1920000000-9389ee061bd6e9ae3b22View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (3 TMS)splash10-0fdt-2930000000-5799fddb7fac04d22372View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (3 TMS)splash10-006t-1940000000-49f1b7c80f35cbcf102eView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies)splash10-006t-2920000000-c701f2e5652fa4f35e50View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (3 TMS)splash10-00di-8930000000-c4f8138d4cb7f1ea851aView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 TMS)splash10-014i-2900000000-c54f1d5878600393dca7View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (2 TMS)splash10-0udi-1900000000-2f55a09bba074034dee7View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (3 TMS)splash10-00ds-2940000000-4192453eaba2cbecf800View in MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSsplash10-001i-9000000000-ad7f96b2c6a1f5183794View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-Bsplash10-006t-1960000000-665868f9adaa275dbdb3View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOFsplash10-007k-1920000000-9389ee061bd6e9ae3b22View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOFsplash10-0fdt-2930000000-5799fddb7fac04d22372View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOFsplash10-006t-1940000000-49f1b7c80f35cbcf102eView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOFsplash10-006t-2920000000-c701f2e5652fa4f35e50View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOFsplash10-00di-8930000000-c4f8138d4cb7f1ea851aView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSsplash10-00ds-2940000000-4192453eaba2cbecf800View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSsplash10-014i-2900000000-c54f1d5878600393dca7View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSsplash10-0udi-1900000000-2f55a09bba074034dee7View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOFsplash10-0udi-0900000000-efc0822e26bcf842e232View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOFsplash10-0072-2920000000-284cff207c712b6698d6View in MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 TMS)splash10-0fk9-9700000000-d73baf312b8af27575b3View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-00dl-9000000000-c30cc77c93e4ec09265aView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-000j-9000000000-540a52fcec629c0a0647View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-000b-9000000000-531b17f8e16896225186View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Negativesplash10-000i-9000000000-61740a52186a51b8543cView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Negativesplash10-000i-9000000000-1bdf967935160468d550View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Negativesplash10-000i-9000000000-0ba5264cfc5ec108718bView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Positivesplash10-0006-9000000000-c6a2c78d322328400127View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Positivesplash10-00di-9000000000-d5f47100c42e7777802eView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Positivesplash10-001i-9000000000-e8f43be75c153e5be3ccView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Positivesplash10-1004-9000100000-ccb09493216d97165c8dView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, Positivesplash10-00l7-9230000000-644b1dbe52c5f07e285aView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , Positivesplash10-0006-9000000000-ff4a990aa1fb1b7cc33dView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-000i-9000000000-61740a52186a51b8543cView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-00di-9000000000-3ac278f3f0cfc3d50ebfView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-05fr-9000000000-6d6e140cf4317b214296View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-05dl-9000000000-ead5967d7f21631b6fc6View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-000i-9000000000-91312dd333b1413fa045View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-007c-9000000000-caef7f2a75815a584747View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0fdo-9000000000-5642be49ea98b530ff09View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-00di-9000000000-3ac278f3f0cfc3d50ebfView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-05fr-9000000000-6d6e140cf4317b214296View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-05dl-9000000000-ead5967d7f21631b6fc6View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-000i-9000000000-91312dd333b1413fa045View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-007c-9000000000-caef7f2a75815a584747View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0fdo-9000000000-5642be49ea98b530ff09View in MoNA
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-001i-9000000000-be815b0a56f225da04d8View in MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot Available
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot Available
2D NMR[1H,1H] 2D NMR SpectrumNot Available
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot Available
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureNot Available
Mechanism of ToxicityNot Available
MetabolismNot Available
Toxicity ValuesNot Available
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)No indication of carcinogenicity to humans (not listed by IARC).
Uses/SourcesThis is an endogenously produced metabolite found in the human body. It is used in metabolic reactions, catabolic reactions or waste generation.
Minimum Risk LevelNot Available
Health EffectsChronically high levels of beta-alanine are associated with at least 2 inborn errors of metabolism including: GABA-Transaminase Deficiency and Methylmalonate Semialdehyde Dehydrogenase Deficiency.
SymptomsNot Available
TreatmentNot Available
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDDB03107
HMDB IDHMDB00056
PubChem Compound ID239
ChEMBL IDCHEMBL297569
ChemSpider ID234
KEGG IDC00099
UniProt IDNot Available
OMIM ID
ChEBI ID16958
BioCyc IDB-ALANINE
CTD IDNot Available
Stitch IDNot Available
PDB IDBAL
ACToR IDNot Available
Wikipedia Linkbeta-Alanine
References
Synthesis Reference

Erwin Grill, Ernst-Ludwig Winnacker, Meinhart H. Zenk, “Cysteine-rich peptides having gamma-glutamic acid and beta-alanine units, a process for their preparation and their use.” U.S. Patent US4883861, issued March, 1978.

MSDSLink
General References
  1. Van Kuilenburg AB, Stroomer AE, Van Lenthe H, Abeling NG, Van Gennip AH: New insights in dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase deficiency: a pivotal role for beta-aminoisobutyric acid? Biochem J. 2004 Apr 1;379(Pt 1):119-24. [14705962 ]
  2. Malet-Martino MC, Bernadou J, Martino R, Armand JP: 19F NMR spectrometry evidence for bile acid conjugates of alpha-fluoro-beta-alanine as the main biliary metabolites of antineoplastic fluoropyrimidines in humans. Drug Metab Dispos. 1988 Jan-Feb;16(1):78-84. [2894959 ]
  3. Klebanov GI, Teselkin YuO, Babenkova IV, Lyubitsky OB, Rebrova OYu, Boldyrev AA, Vladimirov YuA: Effect of carnosine and its components on free-radical reactions. Membr Cell Biol. 1998;12(1):89-99. [9829262 ]
  4. Aznar J, Gilabert J, Estelles A, Fernandez MA, Villa P, Aznar JA: Evaluation of the soluble fibrin monomer complexes and other coagulation parameters in obstetric patients. Thromb Res. 1982 Sep 15;27(6):691-701. [7179210 ]
  5. Champion EE, Mann SJ, Glazier JD, Jones CJ, Rawlings JM, Sibley CP, Greenwood SL: System beta and system A amino acid transporters in the feline endotheliochorial placenta. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2004 Dec;287(6):R1369-79. Epub 2004 Jul 29. [15284084 ]
  6. Kuo KC, Cole TF, Gehrke CW, Waalkes TP, Borek E: Dual-column cation-exchange chromatographic method for beta-aminoisobutyric acid and beta-alanine in biological samples. Clin Chem. 1978 Aug;24(8):1373-80. [679461 ]
  7. van Kuilenburg AB, Meinsma R, Beke E, Assmann B, Ribes A, Lorente I, Busch R, Mayatepek E, Abeling NG, van Cruchten A, Stroomer AE, van Lenthe H, Zoetekouw L, Kulik W, Hoffmann GF, Voit T, Wevers RA, Rutsch F, van Gennip AH: beta-Ureidopropionase deficiency: an inborn error of pyrimidine degradation associated with neurological abnormalities. Hum Mol Genet. 2004 Nov 15;13(22):2793-801. Epub 2004 Sep 22. [15385443 ]
  8. Heggie GD, Sommadossi JP, Cross DS, Huster WJ, Diasio RB: Clinical pharmacokinetics of 5-fluorouracil and its metabolites in plasma, urine, and bile. Cancer Res. 1987 Apr 15;47(8):2203-6. [3829006 ]
  9. Gibson KM, Schor DS, Gupta M, Guerand WS, Senephansiri H, Burlingame TG, Bartels H, Hogema BM, Bottiglieri T, Froestl W, Snead OC, Grompe M, Jakobs C: Focal neurometabolic alterations in mice deficient for succinate semialdehyde dehydrogenase. J Neurochem. 2002 Apr;81(1):71-9. [12067239 ]
  10. Holm B, Nilsen DW, Kierulf P, Godal HC: Purification and characterization of 3 fibrinogens with different molecular weights obtained from normal human plasma. Thromb Res. 1985 Jan 1;37(1):165-76. [3983897 ]
  11. Chen Y, Getchell TV, Sparks DL, Getchell ML: Cellular localization of carnosinase in the human nasal mucosa. Acta Otolaryngol. 1994 Mar;114(2):193-8. [8203202 ]
  12. Milasta S, Pediani J, Appelbe S, Trim S, Wyatt M, Cox P, Fidock M, Milligan G: Interactions between the Mas-related receptors MrgD and MrgE alter signalling and trafficking of MrgD. Mol Pharmacol. 2006 Feb;69(2):479-91. Epub 2005 Nov 9. [16282220 ]
  13. Harris RC, Tallon MJ, Dunnett M, Boobis L, Coakley J, Kim HJ, Fallowfield JL, Hill CA, Sale C, Wise JA: The absorption of orally supplied beta-alanine and its effect on muscle carnosine synthesis in human vastus lateralis. Amino Acids. 2006 May;30(3):279-89. Epub 2006 Mar 24. [16554972 ]
  14. Hibbard JU, Pridjian G, Whitington PF, Moawad AH: Taurine transport in the in vitro perfused human placenta. Pediatr Res. 1990 Jan;27(1):80-4. [2296474 ]
  15. Karmanskii IM: [Effect of pepsin on low density serum lipoproteins]. Vopr Med Khim. 1977 Jul-Aug;23(4):530-4. [200005 ]
  16. Johnson MR, Barnes S, Sweeny DJ, Diasio RB: 2-Fluoro-beta-alanine, a previously unrecognized substrate for bile acid coenzyme A:amino acid:N-acyltransferase from human liver. Biochem Pharmacol. 1990 Sep 15;40(6):1241-6. [2119585 ]
  17. Sreekumar A, Poisson LM, Rajendiran TM, Khan AP, Cao Q, Yu J, Laxman B, Mehra R, Lonigro RJ, Li Y, Nyati MK, Ahsan A, Kalyana-Sundaram S, Han B, Cao X, Byun J, Omenn GS, Ghosh D, Pennathur S, Alexander DC, Berger A, Shuster JR, Wei JT, Varambally S, Beecher C, Chinnaiyan AM: Metabolomic profiles delineate potential role for sarcosine in prostate cancer progression. Nature. 2009 Feb 12;457(7231):910-4. doi: 10.1038/nature07762. [19212411 ]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated GenesNot Available
Down-Regulated GenesNot Available

Targets

General Function:
L-proline transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Neutral amino acid/proton symporter. Has a pH-dependent electrogenic transport activity for small amino acids such as glycine, alanine and proline. Besides small apolar L-amino acids, it also recognize their D-enantiomers and selected amino acid derivatives such as gamma-aminobutyric acid (By similarity).
Gene Name:
SLC36A1
Uniprot ID:
Q7Z2H8
Molecular Weight:
53075.045 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
Inhibitory2400 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50000102
References
  1. Thondorf I, Voigt V, Schafer S, Gebauer S, Zebisch K, Laug L, Brandsch M: Three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship analyses of substrates of the human proton-coupled amino acid transporter 1 (hPAT1). Bioorg Med Chem. 2011 Nov 1;19(21):6409-18. doi: 10.1016/j.bmc.2011.08.058. Epub 2011 Sep 5. [21955456 ]
General Function:
Neurotransmitter:sodium symporter activity
Specific Function:
Sodium-dependent GABA and taurine transporter. In presynaptic terminals, regulates GABA signaling termination through GABA uptake. May also be involved in beta-alanine transport.
Gene Name:
SLC6A13
Uniprot ID:
Q9NSD5
Molecular Weight:
68008.205 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
IC50209 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50000102
References
  1. Nakada K, Yoshikawa M, Ide S, Suemasa A, Kawamura S, Kobayashi T, Masuda E, Ito Y, Hayakawa W, Katayama T, Yamada S, Arisawa M, Minami M, Shuto S: Cyclopropane-based conformational restriction of GABA by a stereochemical diversity-oriented strategy: identification of an efficient lead for potent inhibitors of GABA transports. Bioorg Med Chem. 2013 Sep 1;21(17):4938-50. doi: 10.1016/j.bmc.2013.06.063. Epub 2013 Jul 8. [23886812 ]
General Function:
Neurotransmitter:sodium symporter activity
Specific Function:
Terminates the action of GABA by its high affinity sodium-dependent reuptake into presynaptic terminals.
Gene Name:
SLC6A11
Uniprot ID:
P48066
Molecular Weight:
70605.145 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
IC5041.2 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50000102
References
  1. Nakada K, Yoshikawa M, Ide S, Suemasa A, Kawamura S, Kobayashi T, Masuda E, Ito Y, Hayakawa W, Katayama T, Yamada S, Arisawa M, Minami M, Shuto S: Cyclopropane-based conformational restriction of GABA by a stereochemical diversity-oriented strategy: identification of an efficient lead for potent inhibitors of GABA transports. Bioorg Med Chem. 2013 Sep 1;21(17):4938-50. doi: 10.1016/j.bmc.2013.06.063. Epub 2013 Jul 8. [23886812 ]