Tmic
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Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2014-08-29 06:34:10 UTC
Update Date2018-03-21 17:46:19 UTC
Accession NumberT3D4360
Identification
Common NameGlycerol
ClassSmall Molecule
DescriptionGlycerol or glycerin is a colourless, odourless, viscous liquid that is sweet-tasting and mostly non-toxic. It is widely used in the food industry as a sweetener and humectant and in pharmaceutical formulations. Glycerol is an important component of triglycerides (i.e. fats and oils) and of phospholipids. Glycerol is a three-carbon substance that forms the backbone of fatty acids in fats. When the body uses stored fat as a source of energy, glycerol and fatty acids are released into the bloodstream. The glycerol component can be converted into glucose by the liver and provides energy for cellular metabolism. Normally, glycerol shows very little acute toxicity and very high oral doses or acute exposures can be tolerated. On the other hand, chronically high levels of glycerol in the blood are associated with glycerol kinase deficiency (GKD). GKD causes the condition known as hyperglycerolemia, an accumulation of glycerol in the blood and urine. There are three clinically distinct forms of GKD: infantile, juvenile, and adult. The infantile form is the most severe and is associated with vomiting, lethargy, severe developmental delay, and adrenal insufficiency. The mechanisms of glycerol toxicity in infants are not known, but it appears to shift metabolism towards chronic acidosis. Acidosis typically occurs when arterial pH falls below 7.35. In infants with acidosis, the initial symptoms include poor feeding, vomiting, loss of appetite, weak muscle tone (hypotonia), and lack of energy (lethargy). These can progress to heart, liver, and kidney abnormalities, seizures, coma, and possibly death. These are also the characteristic symptoms of untreated GKD. Many affected children with organic acidemias experience intellectual disability or delayed development. Patients with the adult form of GKD generally have no symptoms and are often detected fortuitously.
Compound Type
  • Animal Toxin
  • Food Toxin
  • Household Toxin
  • Metabolite
  • Natural Compound
  • Organic Compound
Chemical Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Synonym
1,2,3-Trihydroxypropane
Bulbold
Cristal
E 422
Emery 916
Glyceol Opthalgan
Glycerin
Glycerine
Glyceritol
Glycyl alcohol
Glyrol
Glysanin
IFP
Incorporation factor
Mackstat H 66
Osmoglyn
Pricerine 9091
Propanetriol
RG-S
Trihydroxypropane
Tryhydroxypropane
Chemical FormulaC3H8O3
Average Molecular Mass92.094 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass92.047 g/mol
CAS Registry Number56-81-5
IUPAC Namepropane-1,2,3-triol
Traditional Nameglycerol
SMILESOCC(O)CO
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/C3H8O3/c4-1-3(6)2-5/h3-6H,1-2H2
InChI KeyInChIKey=PEDCQBHIVMGVHV-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as sugar alcohols. These are hydrogenated forms of carbohydrate in which the carbonyl group (aldehyde or ketone, reducing sugar) has been reduced to a primary or secondary hydroxyl group.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic oxygen compounds
ClassOrganooxygen compounds
Sub ClassCarbohydrates and carbohydrate conjugates
Direct ParentSugar alcohols
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Sugar alcohol
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Polyol
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Primary alcohol
  • Alcohol
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
OriginEndogenous
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Mitochondria
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue Locations
  • Adipose Tissue
  • Bladder
  • Brain
  • Kidney
  • Liver
  • Muscle
  • Myelin
  • Nerve Cells
  • Neuron
  • Pancreas
  • Placenta
  • Prostate
  • Skeletal Muscle
  • Skin
  • Spleen
  • Stratum Corneum
  • Testes
  • Thyroid Gland
Pathways
NameSMPDB LinkKEGG Link
Galactose MetabolismSMP00043 map00052
Glycerolipid MetabolismSMP00039 map00561
Glycerol Kinase DeficiencySMP00187 Not Available
Applications
Biological Roles
Chemical Roles
Physical Properties
StateLiquid
AppearanceNot Available
Experimental Properties
PropertyValue
Melting Point20°C
Boiling PointNot Available
Solubility1000.0 mg/mL
LogP-1.76
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility1170 g/LALOGPS
logP-1.9ALOGPS
logP-1.8ChemAxon
logS1.1ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)13.61ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-3ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count3ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area60.69 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count2ChemAxon
Refractivity20.52 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability8.93 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (3 TMS)splash10-0fr2-0910000000-6497c0870b71585c6322View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (3 TMS)splash10-0ktb-0920000000-93408d69acffad6f48afView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (3 TMS)splash10-05mk-0940000000-778ba583836705f8fdf4View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (Non-derivatized)splash10-00kb-0920000000-2e4b358941c660851f0aView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (3 TMS)splash10-00dj-6920000000-6828d7b00cb31e84fac1View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (3 TMS)splash10-0le9-0940000000-e0b9bada9be26d720326View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-01ox-9000000000-3fe0c184a891364773a8View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-0fr2-0930000000-470b6694b25fde40d80fView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0fr2-0910000000-6497c0870b71585c6322View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0ktb-0920000000-93408d69acffad6f48afView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-05mk-0940000000-778ba583836705f8fdf4View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-00kb-0920000000-2e4b358941c660851f0aView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-00dj-6920000000-6828d7b00cb31e84fac1View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-0le9-0940000000-e0b9bada9be26d720326View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-00kb-0920000000-085a71f40d38f2729036View in MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-01qc-9000000000-80cdb8c006ea00f55a64View in MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (3 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0q4u-9280000000-1487e8921bcecbde6458View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0a4i-9000000000-d7c139dc01453f61eb99View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0a4l-9000000000-7d7844b4813b038012daView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0udi-9100000000-16029dbe79f139ab904aView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - EI-B (HITACHI M-80) , Positivesplash10-01ox-9000000000-3fe0c184a891364773a8View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-0006-9000000000-a638e26fe3c3f48563c2View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-004l-9000000000-d3fd9e9abd911eb0f88eView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0a6r-9000000000-ca218dca3a5d86196d81View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-0006-9000000000-b40367f5ca8d11288fbeView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-0006-9000000000-ba29a0647084e32d8704View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0abc-9000000000-4cd85379d414c16f95c0View in MoNA
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-01ox-9000000000-3706109441e6d3017895View in MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
2D NMR[1H,1H] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureNot Available
Mechanism of ToxicityNot Available
MetabolismNot Available
Toxicity ValuesNot Available
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)No indication of carcinogenicity to humans (not listed by IARC).
Uses/SourcesThis is an endogenously produced metabolite found in the human body. It is used in metabolic reactions, catabolic reactions or waste generation.
Minimum Risk LevelNot Available
Health EffectsChronically high levels of glycerol are associated with Glycerol Kinase Deficiency.
SymptomsNot Available
TreatmentNot Available
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDDB04077
HMDB IDHMDB00131
PubChem Compound ID753
ChEMBL IDCHEMBL692
ChemSpider ID733
KEGG IDC00116
UniProt IDNot Available
OMIM ID
ChEBI ID17522
BioCyc IDGLYCEROL
CTD IDNot Available
Stitch IDNot Available
PDB IDGOL
ACToR IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkGlycerol
References
Synthesis Reference

Tatsuro Tsuneno, Masaaki Takaku, “Process for preparing boric esters of glycerol fatty acid esters.” U.S. Patent US4515725, issued March, 1968.

MSDSLink
General References
  1. Olbermann M, Grunert A, Bassler KH: [Biokinetic characterization of human glycerin utilization]. Infusionsther Klin Ernahr. 1977 Apr;4(2):68-70. [558160 ]
  2. Titov VN, Lisitsyn DM, Ameliushkina VA, Lupanov VP, Staroverov II, Osipov SG, Kukharchuk VV: [Double bonds of fatty acids, alcohols glycerol, cholesterol and nonpolar serum lipids. Diagnostic value of hypercholesterolemia]. Klin Lab Diagn. 2002 May;(5):3-8. [12085703 ]
  3. Konig K, Rickels E, Heissler HE, Zumkeller M, Samii M: Artificial elevation of brain tissue glycerol by administration of a glycerol-containing agent. Case report. J Neurosurg. 2001 Apr;94(4):621-3. [11302662 ]
  4. Fluhr JW, Mao-Qiang M, Brown BE, Wertz PW, Crumrine D, Sundberg JP, Feingold KR, Elias PM: Glycerol regulates stratum corneum hydration in sebaceous gland deficient (asebia) mice. J Invest Dermatol. 2003 May;120(5):728-37. [12713573 ]
  5. Boulat O, Gradwohl M, Matos V, Guignard JP, Bachmann C: Organic acids in the second morning urine in a healthy Swiss paediatric population. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2003 Dec;41(12):1642-58. [14708889 ]
  6. Sjostrand M, Gudbjornsdottir S, Holmang A, Strindberg L, Ekberg K, Lonnroth P: Measurements of interstitial muscle glycerol in normal and insulin-resistant subjects. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2002 May;87(5):2206-11. [11994365 ]
  7. Sjarif DR, Hellerud C, van Amstel JK, Kleijer WJ, Sperl W, Lacombe D, Sass JO, Beemer FA, Duran M, Poll-The BT: Glycerol kinase deficiency: residual activity explained by reduced transcription and enzyme conformation. Eur J Hum Genet. 2004 Jun;12(6):424-32. [15026783 ]
  8. De Haene H, Taes Y, Christophe A, Delanghe J: Comparison of triglyceride concentration with lipemic index in disorders of triglyceride and glycerol metabolism. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2006;44(2):220-2. [16475911 ]
  9. Eriksson A, Lindstedt S, Ransnas L, von Wendt L: Deficiency of glycerol kinase (EC 2.7.1.30). Clin Chem. 1983 Apr;29(4):718-22. [6299616 ]
  10. Quisth V, Enoksson S, Blaak E, Hagstrom-Toft E, Arner P, Bolinder J: Major differences in noradrenaline action on lipolysis and blood flow rates in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue in vivo. Diabetologia. 2005 May;48(5):946-53. Epub 2005 Mar 19. [15778861 ]
  11. Pecora P, Suraci C, Antonelli M, De Maria S, Marrocco W: Blood glycerol meaning in obese patients. Boll Soc Ital Biol Sper. 1981 Dec 15;57(23):2389-93. [7337752 ]
  12. Berger C, Sakowitz OW, Kiening KL, Schwab S: Neurochemical monitoring of glycerol therapy in patients with ischemic brain edema. Stroke. 2005 Feb;36(2):e4-6. Epub 2004 Dec 23. [15618446 ]
  13. Bulow J, Gjeraa K, Enevoldsen LH, Simonsen L: Lipid mobilization from human abdominal, subcutaneous adipose tissue is independent of sex during steady-state exercise. Clin Physiol Funct Imaging. 2006 Jul;26(4):205-11. [16836692 ]
  14. Yaqoob M, Nabi A: Flow injection chemiluminescent assays for glycerol and triglycerides using a co-immobilized enzyme reactor. Luminescence. 2003 Mar-Apr;18(2):67-71. [12687625 ]
  15. Coppack SW, Chinkes DL, Miles JM, Patterson BW, Klein S: A multicompartmental model of in vivo adipose tissue glycerol kinetics and capillary permeability in lean and obese humans. Diabetes. 2005 Jul;54(7):1934-41. [15983192 ]
  16. Sweatman BC, Farrant RD, Holmes E, Ghauri FY, Nicholson JK, Lindon JC: 600 MHz 1H-NMR spectroscopy of human cerebrospinal fluid: effects of sample manipulation and assignment of resonances. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 1993 Aug;11(8):651-64. [8257730 ]
  17. Ross SE, Erickson RL, Gerin I, DeRose PM, Bajnok L, Longo KA, Misek DE, Kuick R, Hanash SM, Atkins KB, Andresen SM, Nebb HI, Madsen L, Kristiansen K, MacDougald OA: Microarray analyses during adipogenesis: understanding the effects of Wnt signaling on adipogenesis and the roles of liver X receptor alpha in adipocyte metabolism. Mol Cell Biol. 2002 Aug;22(16):5989-99. [12138207 ]
  18. Foster KJ, Alberti KG, Hinks L, Lloyd B, Postle A, Smythe P, Turnell DC, Walton R: Blood intermediary metabolite and insulin concentrations after an overnight fast: reference ranges for adults, and interrelations. Clin Chem. 1978 Sep;24(9):1568-72. [688619 ]
  19. de Araujo Burgos MG, Bion FM, Campos F: [Lactation and alcohol: clinical and nutritional effects]. Arch Latinoam Nutr. 2004 Mar;54(1):25-35. [15332353 ]
  20. Ekberg NR, Wisniewski N, Brismar K, Ungerstedt U: Measurement of glucose and metabolites in subcutaneous adipose tissue during hyperglycemia with microdialysis at various perfusion flow rates. Clin Chim Acta. 2005 Sep;359(1-2):53-64. [15939412 ]
  21. Sreekumar A, Poisson LM, Rajendiran TM, Khan AP, Cao Q, Yu J, Laxman B, Mehra R, Lonigro RJ, Li Y, Nyati MK, Ahsan A, Kalyana-Sundaram S, Han B, Cao X, Byun J, Omenn GS, Ghosh D, Pennathur S, Alexander DC, Berger A, Shuster JR, Wei JT, Varambally S, Beecher C, Chinnaiyan AM: Metabolomic profiles delineate potential role for sarcosine in prostate cancer progression. Nature. 2009 Feb 12;457(7231):910-4. doi: 10.1038/nature07762. [19212411 ]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated GenesNot Available
Down-Regulated GenesNot Available

Targets

General Function:
Receptor signaling protein activity
Specific Function:
GTP-binding protein that functions as an allosteric activator of the cholera toxin catalytic subunit, an ADP-ribosyltransferase. Involved in protein trafficking among different compartments. Modulates vesicle budding and uncoating within the Golgi complex. Deactivation induces the redistribution of the entire Golgi complex to the endoplasmic reticulum, suggesting a crucial role in protein trafficking. In its GTP-bound form, its triggers the association with coat proteins with the Golgi membrane. The hydrolysis of ARF1-bound GTP, which is mediated by ARFGAPs proteins, is required for dissociation of coat proteins from Golgi membranes and vesicles. The GTP-bound form interacts with PICK1 to limit PICK1-mediated inhibition of Arp2/3 complex activity; the function is linked to AMPA receptor (AMPAR) trafficking, regulation of synaptic plasicity of excitatory synapses and spine shrinkage during long-term depression (LTD).
Gene Name:
ARF1
Uniprot ID:
P84077
Molecular Weight:
20696.62 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
  3. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [10592235 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ADH1B
Uniprot ID:
P00325
Molecular Weight:
39854.21 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
  3. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [10592235 ]
General Function:
Protein homodimerization activity
Specific Function:
Removes terminal alpha-N-acetylgalactosamine residues from glycolipids and glycopeptides. Required for the breakdown of glycolipids.
Gene Name:
NAGA
Uniprot ID:
P17050
Molecular Weight:
46564.15 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
  3. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [10592235 ]
General Function:
Sulfate adenylyltransferase (atp) activity
Specific Function:
Bifunctional enzyme with both ATP sulfurylase and APS kinase activity, which mediates two steps in the sulfate activation pathway. The first step is the transfer of a sulfate group to ATP to yield adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate (APS), and the second step is the transfer of a phosphate group from ATP to APS yielding 3'-phosphoadenylylsulfate (PAPS: activated sulfate donor used by sulfotransferase). In mammals, PAPS is the sole source of sulfate; APS appears to be only an intermediate in the sulfate-activation pathway. Also involved in the biosynthesis of sulfated L-selectin ligands in endothelial cells.
Gene Name:
PAPSS1
Uniprot ID:
O43252
Molecular Weight:
70832.725 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
  3. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [10592235 ]
General Function:
Small molecule binding
Specific Function:
This protein is, quantitatively, the main protein synthesized and secreted in the endometrium from mid-luteal phase of the menstrual cycle and during the first semester of pregnancy.
Gene Name:
PAEP
Uniprot ID:
P09466
Molecular Weight:
20624.015 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
  3. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [10592235 ]
General Function:
Phospholipase a2 activity
Specific Function:
PA2 catalyzes the calcium-dependent hydrolysis of the 2-acyl groups in 3-sn-phosphoglycerides. Has a preference for arachidonic-containing phospholipids.
Gene Name:
PLA2G2E
Uniprot ID:
Q9NZK7
Molecular Weight:
15988.525 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
  3. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [10592235 ]
General Function:
Phosphatidylinositol binding
Specific Function:
Intracellular channel that mediates calcium release from the endoplasmic reticulum following stimulation by inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate. Involved in the regulation of epithelial secretion of electrolytes and fluid through the interaction with AHCYL1 (By similarity). Plays a role in ER stress-induced apoptosis. Cytoplasmic calcium released from the ER triggers apoptosis by the activation of CaM kinase II, eventually leading to the activation of downstream apoptosis pathways (By similarity).
Gene Name:
ITPR1
Uniprot ID:
Q14643
Molecular Weight:
313926.375 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
  3. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [10592235 ]
General Function:
Inositol-3-phosphate synthase activity
Specific Function:
Key enzyme in myo-inositol biosynthesis pathway that catalyzes the conversion of glucose 6-phosphate to 1-myo-inositol 1-phosphate in a NAD-dependent manner. Rate-limiting enzyme in the synthesis of all inositol-containing compounds.
Gene Name:
ISYNA1
Uniprot ID:
Q9NPH2
Molecular Weight:
61067.285 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
  3. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [10592235 ]
General Function:
S-nitrosoglutathione binding
Specific Function:
Conjugation of reduced glutathione to a wide number of exogenous and endogenous hydrophobic electrophiles. Regulates negatively CDK5 activity via p25/p35 translocation to prevent neurodegeneration.
Gene Name:
GSTP1
Uniprot ID:
P09211
Molecular Weight:
23355.625 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
General Function:
Protein homodimerization activity
Specific Function:
Bifunctional enzyme which catalyzes both the conversion of PGH2 to PGD2, a prostaglandin involved in smooth muscle contraction/relaxation and a potent inhibitor of platelet aggregation, and the conjugation of glutathione with a wide range of aryl halides and organic isothiocyanates. Also exhibits low glutathione-peroxidase activity towards cumene hydroperoxide.
Gene Name:
HPGDS
Uniprot ID:
O60760
Molecular Weight:
23343.65 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
General Function:
Type iii transforming growth factor beta receptor binding
Specific Function:
Transmembrane serine/threonine kinase forming with the TGF-beta type I serine/threonine kinase receptor, TGFBR1, the non-promiscuous receptor for the TGF-beta cytokines TGFB1, TGFB2 and TGFB3. Transduces the TGFB1, TGFB2 and TGFB3 signal from the cell surface to the cytoplasm and is thus regulating a plethora of physiological and pathological processes including cell cycle arrest in epithelial and hematopoietic cells, control of mesenchymal cell proliferation and differentiation, wound healing, extracellular matrix production, immunosuppression and carcinogenesis. The formation of the receptor complex composed of 2 TGFBR1 and 2 TGFBR2 molecules symmetrically bound to the cytokine dimer results in the phosphorylation and the activation of TGFRB1 by the constitutively active TGFBR2. Activated TGFBR1 phosphorylates SMAD2 which dissociates from the receptor and interacts with SMAD4. The SMAD2-SMAD4 complex is subsequently translocated to the nucleus where it modulates the transcription of the TGF-beta-regulated genes. This constitutes the canonical SMAD-dependent TGF-beta signaling cascade. Also involved in non-canonical, SMAD-independent TGF-beta signaling pathways.
Gene Name:
TGFBR2
Uniprot ID:
P37173
Molecular Weight:
64567.1 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
General Function:
Trna methyltransferase activity
Specific Function:
Specifically methylates cytosine 38 in the anticodon loop of tRNA(Asp).
Gene Name:
TRDMT1
Uniprot ID:
O14717
Molecular Weight:
44596.17 Da