Tmic
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Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2014-08-29 06:35:27 UTC
Update Date2014-12-24 20:26:47 UTC
Accession NumberT3D4367
Identification
Common NameL-Serine
ClassSmall Molecule
DescriptionSerine is a nonessential amino acid derived from glycine. Like all the amino acid building blocks of protein and peptides, serine can become essential under certain conditions, and is thus important in maintaining health and preventing disease. Low-average concentration of serine compared to other amino acids is found in muscle. Serine is highly concentrated in all cell membranes. L-Serine may be derived from four possible sources: dietary intake; biosynthesis from the glycolytic intermediate 3-phosphoglycerate; from glycine ; and by protein and phospholipid degradation. Little data is available on the relative contributions of each of these four sources of l-serine to serine homoeostasis. It is very likely that the predominant source of l-serine will be very different in different tissues and during different stages of human development. In the biosynthetic pathway, the glycolytic intermediate 3-phosphoglycerate is converted into phosphohydroxypyruvate, in a reaction catalyzed by 3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (3- PGDH; EC 1.1.1.95). Phosphohydroxypyruvate is metabolized to phosphoserine by phosphohydroxypyruvate aminotransferase (EC 2.6.1.52) and, finally, phosphoserine is converted into l-serine by phosphoserine phosphatase (PSP; EC 3.1.3.3). In liver tissue, the serine biosynthetic pathway is regulated in response to dietary and hormonal changes. Of the three synthetic enzymes, the properties of 3-PGDH and PSP are the best documented. Hormonal factors such as glucagon and corticosteroids also influence 3-PGDH and PSP activities in interactions dependent upon the diet. L-serine plays a central role in cellular proliferation. L-Serine is the predominant source of one-carbon groups for the de novo synthesis of purine nucleotides and deoxythymidine monophosphate. It has long been recognized that, in cell cultures, L-serine is a conditional essential amino acid, because it cannot be synthesized in sufficient quantities to meet the cellular demands for its utilization. In recent years, L-serine and the products of its metabolism have been recognized not only to be essential for cell proliferation, but also to be necessary for specific functions in the central nervous system. The findings of altered levels of serine and glycine in patients with psychiatric disorders and the severe neurological abnormalities in patients with defects of L-serine synthesis underscore the importance of L-serine in brain development and function. (1).
Compound Type
  • Amine
  • Animal Toxin
  • Dietary Supplement
  • Drug
  • Food Toxin
  • Household Toxin
  • Metabolite
  • Micronutrient
  • Natural Compound
  • Non-Essential Amino Acid
  • Nutraceutical
  • Organic Compound
  • Supplement
Chemical Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Synonym
(-)-Serine
(2S)-2-amino-3-Hydroxypropanoic acid
(S)-(-)-Serine
(S)-(−)-serine
(S)-2-amino-3-hydroxy-Propanoate
(S)-2-amino-3-hydroxy-Propanoic acid
(S)-2-Amino-3-hydroxypropanoate
(S)-2-Amino-3-hydroxypropanoic acid
(S)-a-Amino-b-hydroxypropionate
(S)-a-Amino-b-hydroxypropionic acid
(S)-alpha-Amino-beta-hydroxypropionate
(S)-alpha-Amino-beta-hydroxypropionic acid
(S)-b-Amino-3-hydroxypropionate
(S)-b-Amino-3-hydroxypropionic acid
(S)-beta-Amino-3-hydroxypropionate
(S)-beta-Amino-3-hydroxypropionic acid
(S)-Serine
2-Amino-3-hydroxypropanoate
2-Amino-3-hydroxypropanoic acid
3-Hydroxy-L-Alanine
b-Hydroxy-L-alanine
beta-Hydroxy-L-alanine
beta-Hydroxyalanine
L-(-)-Serine
L-(−)-serine
L-2-Amino-3-hydroxypropionic acid
L-3-Hydroxy-2-aminopropionate
L-3-Hydroxy-2-aminopropionic acid
L-3-Hydroxy-alanine
L-Ser
L-Serin
S
Ser
Serine
Chemical FormulaC3H7NO3
Average Molecular Mass105.093 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass105.043 g/mol
CAS Registry Number56-45-1
IUPAC Name(2S)-2-amino-3-hydroxypropanoic acid
Traditional NameL-serine
SMILES[H][C@](N)(CO)C(O)=O
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/C3H7NO3/c4-2(1-5)3(6)7/h2,5H,1,4H2,(H,6,7)/t2-/m0/s1
InChI KeyInChIKey=MTCFGRXMJLQNBG-REOHCLBHSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as serine and derivatives. Serine and derivatives are compounds containing serine or a derivative thereof resulting from reaction of serine at the amino group or the carboxy group, or from the replacement of any hydrogen of glycine by a heteroatom.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic acids and derivatives
ClassCarboxylic acids and derivatives
Sub ClassAmino acids, peptides, and analogues
Direct ParentSerine and derivatives
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Serine or derivatives
  • Alpha-amino acid
  • L-alpha-amino acid
  • Beta-hydroxy acid
  • Hydroxy acid
  • Amino acid
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Alcohol
  • Primary amine
  • Primary alcohol
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Primary aliphatic amine
  • Organic oxide
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Amine
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
OriginEndogenous
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane
  • Mitochondria
  • Peroxisome
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue Locations
  • All Tissues
  • Prostate
Pathways
NameSMPDB LinkKEGG Link
Ammonia RecyclingSMP00009 map00910
Glycine and Serine MetabolismSMP00004 map00260
Homocysteine DegradationSMP00455 Not Available
Methionine MetabolismSMP00033 map00270
Sphingolipid MetabolismSMP00034 map00600
Hartnup DisorderSMP00189 Not Available
ApplicationsNot Available
Biological Roles
Chemical RolesNot Available
Physical Properties
StateSolid
AppearanceWhite powder.
Experimental Properties
PropertyValue
Melting Point228 dec°C
Boiling PointNot Available
Solubility4.25E+005 mg/L (at 25°C)
LogP-3.07
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility480 g/LALOGPS
logP-3.4ALOGPS
logP-3.9ChemAxon
logS0.66ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)2.03ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)8.93ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count3ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area83.55 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count2ChemAxon
Refractivity22.04 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability9.39 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (3 TMS)splash10-0udi-0940000000-59d5e0f76fd204be8110View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (3 TMS)splash10-0udi-0980000000-ab49fc3ee88db87d1a16View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (2 TMS)splash10-0159-0900000000-8e169037bcbe1dcd5de8View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (3 TMS)splash10-0uxr-0970000000-67271ed235e35c662db5View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (3 TMS)splash10-00di-9540000000-1297bf302358bcf0f1c0View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (3 TMS)splash10-0uxr-1790000000-caaa37778f5a4686f5f0View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-0159-0900000000-ae4f860052c41e9ba734View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-0uxr-0590000000-ce32a8bfb64d16590b52View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0udi-0940000000-59d5e0f76fd204be8110View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0udi-0980000000-ab49fc3ee88db87d1a16View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0159-0900000000-8e169037bcbe1dcd5de8View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0uxr-0970000000-67271ed235e35c662db5View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-QQ (Non-derivatized)splash10-00dr-7966000000-7b5b37fd4ac885548172View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-00di-9540000000-1297bf302358bcf0f1c0View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-0uxr-1790000000-caaa37778f5a4686f5f0View in MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-06sl-9000000000-033631650075b940e0e2View in MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (2 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0fkl-9420000000-ed7a327e1f071802a4ddView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-03di-9100000000-38f84912ebfc7b4e8339View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-03dl-9000000000-89e57995d3ca765a20e8View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-01ox-9100000000-f3baf93032cc9f09cf2dView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0zfr-0900000000-b6085e53e881cdaa1824View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-000i-9000000000-2e16e9d6f9b3c2688f8aView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0a4i-9000000000-9857daa028fb3016a7e2View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0006-0009200000-0617acd25c69bf24ad1fView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0a4i-0900000000-823dfcf6229956372e31View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0a4i-9000000000-eec63565f8a9fe4bd336View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-000i-9000000000-008412efd202c202d56aView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0002-0930000000-932aedc4efb5e1dd5e7bView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-0w29-0951000000-cd0895e475dd50e4934dView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-00di-9000000000-15294ba22b153cf5ab5bView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-014i-9000000000-48c370acff657443f0e6View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-0udi-0190000000-1bad10ba7388ce0c2249View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-0ue9-0792100000-9f2bfe40e4c01044d209View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-00di-9000000000-dfa7aca58cc28303ebc7View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-0udi-0900000000-282f31d8021649afdbe8View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-0udi-0290000000-eeee98e6b0514b08cd63View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Negativesplash10-0udi-1900000000-ed66566e27a94ee99f13View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Negativesplash10-00di-9100000000-b9f6b4b6ee7c88a9c569View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Negativesplash10-00di-9000000000-929aea63ace0e20c6d43View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Negativesplash10-00di-9000000000-ba9cd5b3e37ded5d3764View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Positivesplash10-0a4i-6900000000-5622633ab0a27d2e5360View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Positivesplash10-03di-9000000000-3e25ca80e2e62be19ac5View in MoNA
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-0200-9000000000-dc5e2afcfab602641180View in MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
2D NMR[1H,1H] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureNot Available
Mechanism of ToxicityL-Serine plays a role in cell growth and development (cellular proliferation). The conversion of L-serine to glycine by serine hydroxymethyltransferase results in the formation of the one-carbon units necessary for the synthesis of the purine bases, adenine and guanine. These bases when linked to the phosphate ester of pentose sugars are essential components of DNA and RNA and the end products of energy producing metabolic pathways, ATP and GTP. In addition, L-serine conversion to glycine via this same enzyme provides the one-carbon units necessary for production of the pyrimidine nucleotide, deoxythymidine monophosphate, also an essential component of DNA.
MetabolismNot Available
Toxicity ValuesNot Available
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)No indication of carcinogenicity to humans (not listed by IARC).
Uses/SourcesUsed as a natural moisturizing agent in some cosmetics and skin care products.
Minimum Risk LevelNot Available
Health EffectsNot Available
SymptomsNot Available
TreatmentNot Available
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDDB00133
HMDB IDHMDB00187
PubChem Compound ID5951
ChEMBL IDCHEMBL11298
ChemSpider ID5736
KEGG IDC00065
UniProt IDNot Available
OMIM ID
ChEBI ID17115
BioCyc IDSER
CTD IDNot Available
Stitch IDNot Available
PDB IDSER
ACToR IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkSerine
References
Synthesis Reference

Kenichi Ishiwata, Nobuyoshi Makiguichi, Hideki Kawashima, Tadashi Suzuki, Masami Imadegawa, “Method of producing L-serine.” U.S. Patent US4782021, issued August, 1973.

MSDSLink
General References
  1. de Koning TJ, Snell K, Duran M, Berger R, Poll-The BT, Surtees R: L-serine in disease and development. Biochem J. 2003 May 1;371(Pt 3):653-61. [12534373 ]
  2. Furuya S, Watanabe M: Novel neuroglial and glioglial relationships mediated by L-serine metabolism. Arch Histol Cytol. 2003 May;66(2):109-21. [12846552 ]
  3. Peng CT, Wu KH, Lan SJ, Tsai JJ, Tsai FJ, Tsai CH: Amino acid concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia undergoing chemotherapy. Eur J Cancer. 2005 May;41(8):1158-63. Epub 2005 Apr 14. [15911239 ]
  4. Kaumeyer JF, Polazzi JO, Kotick MP: The mRNA for a proteinase inhibitor related to the HI-30 domain of inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor also encodes alpha-1-microglobulin (protein HC). Nucleic Acids Res. 1986 Oct 24;14(20):7839-50. [2430261 ]
  5. Haas W, Grabe K, Geis C, Pach T, Stoll K, Fuchs M, Haberl B, Loy C: Recognition and invasion of human skin by Schistosoma mansoni cercariae: the key-role of L-arginine. Parasitology. 2002 Feb;124(Pt 2):153-67. [11860033 ]
  6. Cynober LA: Plasma amino acid levels with a note on membrane transport: characteristics, regulation, and metabolic significance. Nutrition. 2002 Sep;18(9):761-6. [12297216 ]
  7. Rainesalo S, Keranen T, Palmio J, Peltola J, Oja SS, Saransaari P: Plasma and cerebrospinal fluid amino acids in epileptic patients. Neurochem Res. 2004 Jan;29(1):319-24. [14992292 ]
  8. Hashimoto K, Engberg G, Shimizu E, Nordin C, Lindstrom LH, Iyo M: Reduced D-serine to total serine ratio in the cerebrospinal fluid of drug naive schizophrenic patients. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2005 Jun;29(5):767-9. [15939521 ]
  9. Castedo M, Ferri KF, Blanco J, Roumier T, Larochette N, Barretina J, Amendola A, Nardacci R, Metivier D, Este JA, Piacentini M, Kroemer G: Human immunodeficiency virus 1 envelope glycoprotein complex-induced apoptosis involves mammalian target of rapamycin/FKBP12-rapamycin-associated protein-mediated p53 phosphorylation. J Exp Med. 2001 Oct 15;194(8):1097-110. [11602639 ]
  10. Liu T, Zhu E, Wang L, Okada T, Yamaguchi A, Okada N: Abnormal expression of Rb pathway-related proteins in salivary gland acinic cell carcinoma. Hum Pathol. 2005 Sep;36(9):962-70. [16153458 ]
  11. Franchi-Gazzola R, Gazzola GC, Dall'Asta V, Guidotti GG: The transport of alanine, serine, and cysteine in cultured human fibroblasts. J Biol Chem. 1982 Aug 25;257(16):9582-7. [6809740 ]
  12. Fontaine M, Porchet N, Largilliere C, Marrakchi S, Lhermitte M, Aubert JP, Degand P: Biochemical contribution to diagnosis and study of a new case of D-glyceric acidemia/aciduria. Clin Chem. 1989 Oct;35(10):2148-51. [2551543 ]
  13. Yamamoto T, Nishizaki I, Nukada T, Kamegaya E, Furuya S, Hirabayashi Y, Ikeda K, Hata H, Kobayashi H, Sora I, Yamamoto H: Functional identification of ASCT1 neutral amino acid transporter as the predominant system for the uptake of L-serine in rat neurons in primary culture. Neurosci Res. 2004 May;49(1):101-11. [15099708 ]
  14. Mackie S, Aitken A: Novel brain 14-3-3 interacting proteins involved in neurodegenerative disease. FEBS J. 2005 Aug;272(16):4202-10. [16098201 ]
  15. Kobza K, Camporeale G, Rueckert B, Kueh A, Griffin JB, Sarath G, Zempleni J: K4, K9 and K18 in human histone H3 are targets for biotinylation by biotinidase. FEBS J. 2005 Aug;272(16):4249-59. [16098205 ]
  16. Whittemore AS, Cirillo PM, Feldman D, Cohn BA: Prostate specific antigen levels in young adulthood predict prostate cancer risk: results from a cohort of Black and White Americans. J Urol. 2005 Sep;174(3):872-6; discussion 876. [16093978 ]
  17. Schulz I, Zeitschel U, Rudolph T, Ruiz-Carrillo D, Rahfeld JU, Gerhartz B, Bigl V, Demuth HU, Rossner S: Subcellular localization suggests novel functions for prolyl endopeptidase in protein secretion. J Neurochem. 2005 Aug;94(4):970-9. [16092940 ]
  18. Nicholson JK, O'Flynn MP, Sadler PJ, Macleod AF, Juul SM, Sonksen PH: Proton-nuclear-magnetic-resonance studies of serum, plasma and urine from fasting normal and diabetic subjects. Biochem J. 1984 Jan 15;217(2):365-75. [6696735 ]
  19. Engelborghs S, Marescau B, De Deyn PP: Amino acids and biogenic amines in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with Parkinson's disease. Neurochem Res. 2003 Aug;28(8):1145-50. [12834252 ]
  20. Hagenfeldt L, Bjerkenstedt L, Edman G, Sedvall G, Wiesel FA: Amino acids in plasma and CSF and monoamine metabolites in CSF: interrelationship in healthy subjects. J Neurochem. 1984 Mar;42(3):833-7. [6198473 ]
  21. Sreekumar A, Poisson LM, Rajendiran TM, Khan AP, Cao Q, Yu J, Laxman B, Mehra R, Lonigro RJ, Li Y, Nyati MK, Ahsan A, Kalyana-Sundaram S, Han B, Cao X, Byun J, Omenn GS, Ghosh D, Pennathur S, Alexander DC, Berger A, Shuster JR, Wei JT, Varambally S, Beecher C, Chinnaiyan AM: Metabolomic profiles delineate potential role for sarcosine in prostate cancer progression. Nature. 2009 Feb 12;457(7231):910-4. doi: 10.1038/nature07762. [19212411 ]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated GenesNot Available
Down-Regulated GenesNot Available

Targets

General Function:
Pyridoxal phosphate binding
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
SDS
Uniprot ID:
P20132
Molecular Weight:
34625.105 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
  3. Velayudhan J, Jones MA, Barrow PA, Kelly DJ: L-serine catabolism via an oxygen-labile L-serine dehydratase is essential for colonization of the avian gut by Campylobacter jejuni. Infect Immun. 2004 Jan;72(1):260-8. [14688104 ]
  4. Snell K, Walker DG: Regulation of hepatic L-serine dehydratase and L-serine-pyruvate aminotransferase in the developing neonatal rat. Biochem J. 1974 Dec;144(3):519-31. [4377655 ]
  5. Wong HC, Lessie TG: Hydroxy amino acid metabolism in Pseudomonas cepacia: role of L-serine deaminase in dissimilation of serine, glycine, and threonine. J Bacteriol. 1979 Oct;140(1):240-5. [500557 ]
General Function:
Serine-trna ligase activity
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the attachment of serine to tRNA(Ser). Is also probably able to aminoacylate tRNA(Sec) with serine, to form the misacylated tRNA L-seryl-tRNA(Sec), which will be further converted into selenocysteinyl-tRNA(Sec).
Gene Name:
SARS
Uniprot ID:
P49591
Molecular Weight:
58776.785 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
  3. Zhang Y, Cui J, Zhang R, Wang Y, Hong M: A novel fibrinolytic serine protease from the polychaete Nereis (Neanthes) virens (Sars): purification and characterization. Biochimie. 2007 Jan;89(1):93-103. Epub 2006 Aug 22. [16950556 ]
  4. Follis KE, York J, Nunberg JH: Serine-scanning mutagenesis studies of the C-terminal heptad repeats in the SARS coronavirus S glycoprotein highlight the important role of the short helical region. Virology. 2005 Oct 10;341(1):122-9. [16081124 ]
  5. McClendon CL, Vaidehi N, Kam VW, Zhang D, Goddard WA 3rd: Fidelity of seryl-tRNA synthetase to binding of natural amino acids from HierDock first principles computations. Protein Eng Des Sel. 2006 May;19(5):195-203. Epub 2006 Mar 3. [16517553 ]
General Function:
Transaminase activity
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
AGXT
Uniprot ID:
P21549
Molecular Weight:
43009.535 Da
References
  1. Ikushiro H, Islam MM, Tojo H, Hayashi H: Molecular characterization of membrane-associated soluble serine palmitoyltransferases from Sphingobacterium multivorum and Bdellovibrio stolpii. J Bacteriol. 2007 Aug;189(15):5749-61. Epub 2007 Jun 8. [17557831 ]
  2. Cowart LA, Hannun YA: Selective substrate supply in the regulation of yeast de novo sphingolipid synthesis. J Biol Chem. 2007 Apr 20;282(16):12330-40. Epub 2007 Feb 23. [17322298 ]
  3. Son JH, Yoo HH, Kim DH: Activation of de novo synthetic pathway of ceramides is responsible for the initiation of hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis in HL-60 cells. J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2007 Aug;70(15-16):1310-8. [17654249 ]
  4. Yard BA, Carter LG, Johnson KA, Overton IM, Dorward M, Liu H, McMahon SA, Oke M, Puech D, Barton GJ, Naismith JH, Campopiano DJ: The structure of serine palmitoyltransferase; gateway to sphingolipid biosynthesis. J Mol Biol. 2007 Jul 27;370(5):870-86. Epub 2007 May 10. [17559874 ]
General Function:
Ubiquitin protein ligase binding
Specific Function:
Hydro-lyase catalyzing the first step of the transsulfuration pathway, where the hydroxyl group of L-serine is displaced by L-homocysteine in a beta-replacement reaction to form L-cystathionine, the precursor of L-cysteine. This catabolic route allows the elimination of L-methionine and the toxic metabolite L-homocysteine (PubMed:23981774, PubMed:20506325, PubMed:23974653). Also involved in the production of hydrogen sulfide, a gasotransmitter with signaling and cytoprotective effects on neurons (By similarity).
Gene Name:
CBS
Uniprot ID:
P35520
Molecular Weight:
60586.05 Da
References
  1. Sen S, Banerjee R: A pathogenic linked mutation in the catalytic core of human cystathionine beta-synthase disrupts allosteric regulation and allows kinetic characterization of a full-length dimer. Biochemistry. 2007 Apr 3;46(13):4110-6. Epub 2007 Mar 13. [17352495 ]
  2. Qu K, Lee SW, Bian JS, Low CM, Wong PT: Hydrogen sulfide: neurochemistry and neurobiology. Neurochem Int. 2008 Jan;52(1-2):155-65. Epub 2007 Jun 8. [17629356 ]
General Function:
Threonine racemase activity
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the synthesis of D-serine from L-serine. D-serine is a key coagonist with glutamate at NMDA receptors. Has dehydratase activity towards both L-serine and D-serine.
Gene Name:
SRR
Uniprot ID:
Q9GZT4
Molecular Weight:
36565.905 Da
References
  1. Fujitani Y, Horiuchi T, Ito K, Sugimoto M: Serine racemases from barley, Hordeum vulgare L., and other plant species represent a distinct eukaryotic group: gene cloning and recombinant protein characterization. Phytochemistry. 2007 Jun;68(11):1530-6. Epub 2007 May 17. [17499824 ]
  2. Ying-Luan Z, Zhao YL, Mori H: [Role of D-serine in the mammalian brain]. Brain Nerve. 2007 Jul;59(7):725-30. [17663143 ]
General Function:
L-proline transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Neutral amino acid/proton symporter. Has a pH-dependent electrogenic transport activity for small amino acids such as glycine, alanine and proline. Besides small apolar L-amino acids, it also recognize their D-enantiomers and selected amino acid derivatives such as gamma-aminobutyric acid (By similarity).
Gene Name:
SLC36A1
Uniprot ID:
Q7Z2H8
Molecular Weight:
53075.045 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
Inhibitory35000 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50357212
References
  1. Thondorf I, Voigt V, Schafer S, Gebauer S, Zebisch K, Laug L, Brandsch M: Three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship analyses of substrates of the human proton-coupled amino acid transporter 1 (hPAT1). Bioorg Med Chem. 2011 Nov 1;19(21):6409-18. doi: 10.1016/j.bmc.2011.08.058. Epub 2011 Sep 5. [21955456 ]
General Function:
Serine c-palmitoyltransferase activity
Specific Function:
Serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT). The heterodimer formed with SPTLC2 or SPTLC3 constitutes the catalytic core. The composition of the serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT) complex determines the substrate preference. The SPTLC1-SPTLC2-SPTSSA complex shows a strong preference for C16-CoA substrate, while the SPTLC1-SPTLC3-SPTSSA isozyme uses both C14-CoA and C16-CoA as substrates, with a slight preference for C14-CoA. The SPTLC1-SPTLC2-SPTSSB complex shows a strong preference for C18-CoA substrate, while the SPTLC1-SPTLC3-SPTSSB isozyme displays an ability to use a broader range of acyl-CoAs, without apparent preference.
Gene Name:
SPTLC1
Uniprot ID:
O15269
Molecular Weight:
52743.41 Da
References
  1. Yard BA, Carter LG, Johnson KA, Overton IM, Dorward M, Liu H, McMahon SA, Oke M, Puech D, Barton GJ, Naismith JH, Campopiano DJ: The structure of serine palmitoyltransferase; gateway to sphingolipid biosynthesis. J Mol Biol. 2007 Jul 27;370(5):870-86. Epub 2007 May 10. [17559874 ]
General Function:
Serine c-palmitoyltransferase activity
Specific Function:
Serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT). The heterodimer formed with LCB1/SPTLC1 constitutes the catalytic core. The composition of the serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT) complex determines the substrate preference. The SPTLC1-SPTLC2-SPTSSA complex shows a strong preference for C16-CoA substrate, while the SPTLC1-SPTLC2-SPTSSB complex displays a preference for C18-CoA substrate.
Gene Name:
SPTLC2
Uniprot ID:
O15270
Molecular Weight:
62923.765 Da
References
  1. Yard BA, Carter LG, Johnson KA, Overton IM, Dorward M, Liu H, McMahon SA, Oke M, Puech D, Barton GJ, Naismith JH, Campopiano DJ: The structure of serine palmitoyltransferase; gateway to sphingolipid biosynthesis. J Mol Biol. 2007 Jul 27;370(5):870-86. Epub 2007 May 10. [17559874 ]